Dr. Noble King
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VII. First Traidic Material
There is a free gift of righteousness
bestowed on all men of the Second Adam (Jesus Christ), who was in reality
the first . St. Paul calls Adam "The Figure of Him that was to come."
(Before Moses was, I am). Before Adam was, I am, could also be said
before, the type must precede the Anti-type, but the Anti-type must precede
the type in the divine purpose. Pope Vol. II, pg. 55. The provision
was there all ready when the need arose. The effects of the gospel
was poured upon and preached to the first offenders. Adam, the first,
became the chief human cornerstone of the second Adam. Pope declares
Paul’s strained language to explain how far this surpasses the fall.
1. The death-dealing first
Adam is set over against the life-giving second Adam. Romans 5:18-19.
All were constituted sinners at the first, and the possibility of righteousness
was placed within their grasps in the second.
2. Included in the free
gift was the return of the Holy Spirit as a helper and arouser, and convictor
as a matter of salvation for as Pope points out (The atonement doesn’t
put away sin as a sovernity as arbitrarily grace, but as a virtue of grace
as pardoning feeling of activating grace.) Pope Vol. II. Pg. 56.
According to Wesley’s view
prevenient grace was given totally to ruined man, so he could decide for
God in total salvation, thus with the new office of the Holy Spirit in
redemption, there was without doubt a restraint out of operation of depravity
from beginning to now.
3. Arminianism accepts both
Federal and Natural headship of Adam. Adam was legally the representative
of the race and the natural Headship of Christ. Wiley vol. 2 p. 133.
4. The nature of the free
gift is seen in:
(1) Preventing man from
sinking below the level of possible redemption. Pope pp. 152. Remember
(2) The reversal of condemnation
and a bestowal of a title to eternal life. Read Wood Perfect Love,
(3) The free gift was the
restoration of the Holy Spirit, to the race as an awakener and convictor.
III. The Doctrine of the
Son — Chapter 20 — Christology. Vol.2 p.143 ff
(Redemption is in the New
Testament declared to have been a purpose of God in Eternity). (This
design having reference only to the Savior’s work, and a part as work of
the Spirit’s work). (Under a decree of redemption, the whole world
has lived and had its being). (A lamb was both foreordained before
and slain from the foundation of the world and the heritage of the Atonement,
like death passed through to all men, the heritage of the race).
1. The incarnation
of Christ was the verification in time of an eternal fact in the Divine
counsel. Thus the self-devotion of the one mediator dates back to
before he became Christ Jesus the man. I Peter 1:19-20; Rev. 13:8;
Titus 3:4; I Tim. 2:3-6.
Christ is thus the central
factor in human history, and the cross the central factor in that decree.
The decree is a mystery slowly revealed in progressive unfoldings in various
ways by gradual prophecy and preparation, both of which assumed the form
of a series of covenants, or covenant economy. Constant fore announcements
were made. Original sin and Original Grace met together in Eden.
Thus the gospel was preached from the very beginning. Genesis 3:15;
2. There was continuous preparation,
which preparation was further evidence of giving of the law, which acted
as a schoolmaster to bring us to Christ (I. Cor. 1:21, Gal. 3:19, 23-25).
3. This gradual development
is an unfolding of an age-old covenant of Grace by blood. (The Grace
of our Lord Jesus Christ) Christ was the covenant and the messenger of
the covenant (Gen. 15:9-18; Heb. 9:15, 16, II Cor. 13:14; Malachi 3:1;
Isa. 49:8; Gen. 3:18, 19, 29).
This covenant has taken
three forms in the history of Revelation.
(1) As entered into with
mankind after the fall.
(2) As ratified with Noah
for the New World.
(3) As confirmed to Abraham
as the representative of all believers from all time. With regard
to its reaffirmation to Abraham, it also introduced a special compact with
his descendants after the flesh.
The Redeemer was promised
the race through Adam.
Gen. 3:15 F. F. To a division
of that race through Seth.
Gen. 4:26; Jn. 10:35.
To a nation of that division through Abraham.
Gen. 12:2 F. F. to Judah
as a tribe of that Nation. Gen. 49:8-10.
To David as House as that
tribe. Psa. 132:10, 11.
To Mary as a person in that
house. Luke 1:31, 35
4. The divine decree was
at last accomplished (Gal. 4:4). The New Covenant is now spoken of
as a finished transaction. Heb. 8:8-10. That covenant was Christ
Himself, very God, and very Man born of a woman as any other child is born,
and begotten of the Holy Ghost with an eternal pre-existence before time;
thus two complete natures meet in one Person. And that person decreed
in eternity to redeem man; thus a man could be saved before Jesus came
in time just the same as they can now be saved, after He has disappeared
(1) The supreme secret
of the ages was then revealed. The mystery of the Gospel was a mystery
no longer (Eph. 6:19; 3:4; 9; Col. 2:2, I Peter 1:12; I Jn. 4:14).
(2) All men are conditionally
chosen from eternity in Him that is redemption that is within the reach
of all, by Grace. (Eph. 1:4). He eternally loved us with a perfect
love, and it is possible for us to love Him with perfected love.
(3) Historical controversies
followed each other. Sometimes the humanity of Jesus Christ was overly
stressed and sometimes His deity was overly stressed.
1. The Primitive Period
- Council of Nicea (325) was chiefly concerned with reality of the two
natures of Christ; the one Person. That creed expresses the beliefs
of the early churches in general. "That Jesus Christ was incarnate
for us (man) and for our salvation."Vol.2 p.156
2. Ebionitism – denied the
reality of the divine nature in Christ maintaining at the time of His baptism,
and that unmeasured fullness of the Spirit was given to Him as it was not
and has not been given any other since, thus consecrating Him for the Messianic
office. This is the general position of present day Modernism.
3. The Docetae - denied
the reality of Christ’s physical body. It seemed to appear but was
not really real as ours. "Ebionitism was the result of Judaism on
Christianity and Docetism is the result of Pagan Philosophy." Pope
II, p 98, Wiley II, p. 156.
4. All such beliefs side
step the two perfect natures in one Person and have failed to shake the
great central truth. In keeping with the general trend of the Trinitarian
creeds (Manual of the Church of the Nazarene 1932, p. 26).
5. Historical controversies,
in the matter of whom salvation is for, followed each other also.
The early church held fast to the universality of the object of the redeeming
purpose. They knew nothing of the restriction in the Divine purpose
(1) Augustine did not follow
his teacher Ambrose in this respect; he laid down the proposition that
a certain number were to be saved with irresistible Grace supplied to that
number and a certain number were to be damned.
(2) Gottschalk was the chief
link between Augustine and Calvin. He lived in the 9th Century.
(3) The Scholastic divines
took opposite sides in the matter. Thomas of Bradwardine, Archbishop
of Canterbury (1349) Wycliff after him. Wycliff prepared the way
for the doctrine called by Calvin’s name. The general tendency of
medieval doctrine was towards the universal redemption of mankind as laid
down by the Council of Trent of which the Greek Catholic Church has not
(4) Calvin carried the error
of Augustine to its logical conclusion. Supra-Lapsarianism holds
that God pre-destined the fall as well as the Salvation of some to the
glory of His grace and the damnation for the glory of His justice.
Infra-Lapsarianism holds that God permitted the fall. This, however,
renounces the absolute sovereignty of God, which cannot consist in a mere
permission to fall. The whole framework of Calvinism falls when absolute
sovereignty of God falls. Some are trying to get away from that ironclad
system by saying that Christ’s death was for all but was extended only
to the elect.
(5) Remonstrants — Arminians
of Holland were the first in modern times to protest against this.
Calvinism forgot that the decree of redemption of those who are actually
redeemed, that redemption in purpose, and had not reference to those that
perish and that if general appeals and … Pope Vol. II, p 100 Lutheranism
and Methodism hold the same position "The death of Christ for the whole
world." Note on back of this page "In the likeness of human flesh" and
sinful flesh are two different things. At no time before or after birth
did Jesus have to be cleansed from sin. Thus the germs of physical death
would not be there." Pope vol. 2, p 118 (Dr. Owens’ notes).
PART III Chapter 21Vol. 2
The Person of Christ
Christ is truly God and perfectly
man. Unconfusedly in two natures and indivisible in one person, the
eternal Christ. The Bible does not give us a term for this union.
The truth teaches Christ in two natures.
VIII. The Deity of Christ
The deity of the eternal
Son. Neither member of the Trinity was before or after the other,
and neither as member is inferior but are equals.
Now we have to do with the
deity of the Son in person of Christ.
1. The Scriptures assert
that Jesus of Nazareth was the Messiah of the Old Testament and the Christ
of the New Testament, and that He pre-existed as the eternal Son of God.
(Jn. 8:58; 3:13; Isa. 9:6). Not only did Christ pre-exist, but He
pre-existed as God, (Jn. 1:1-5) Eternal Logos.
2. Christ was Jehovah of
the Old Testament. (" If in block letters it really means YAWEH. ’Dr. Owens)
Moses said, "The Lord thy God will raise up unto thee a Prophet from the
midst of thee, of thy brethren, like unto me; unto him ye shall hearken
(Deut. 18:15). In Stephen’s last address he declared that that was
fulfilled in Christ (Acts 7:37). The angel of Jehovah "was at once
servant and Lord," Angel and Jehovah (Ex. 23:20, 21). The word Lord
often refers to Jehovah in the Old Testament as it does in the New.
He is both Jehovah and God. (Matt. 18:20; Jn. 20:28, 29).
3. Christ made certain claims,
which were tremendous. He claimed deity in a full sense. Jesus
claimed eternity (Jn. 8:58; 17:5). He empowered them to heal
in His name (Matt. 10:7-8). He exercised and claimed divine prerogatives
(Matt. 9:2-6; Mk. 2:28). He claimed to know the Father as others
did not and could not (Matt. 11:27). He claimed alone unique Sonship
to God (Matt. 10:32, 33). He encouraged and accepted worship of Himself
(Matt. 14:33). He claimed to be the final judge of all men (Matt.
7:21-23; Mark 14: 62;John 5:22).
IX. The Manhood of Christ
The manhood of Christ is
declared in the Scripture to be perfect in the sense of possessing all
that belongs to nature. He is the man Christ Jesus (I. Tim. 2:5;
Jn. 1:14). He is the Son of Man (Gal. 4:4). He was partaker
of flesh and blood and came in the flesh being born of woman in the likeness
of man, in the likeness of sinful flesh (Heb. 12:2; Rom. 8:3). Pope
1. He was conceived by the
Holy Ghost but not by a communication of his essence as in human paternity,
but by a miraculous operation enabling the virgin to perform the function
of maternity and yet remain a virgin (Summers Theology).
2. Thus our Lord was conceived
by the Holy Ghost and was nourished of her substance during her gestation
and was born as other men. His body was real and continued to be
real, even after the resurrection. When He could say, "A spirit hath
not flesh and bones as ye see me have" (Luke 24:39). He possessed
a human soul, the seat of intellect, sensibility, and will (Luke 2:52).
3. Our Lord thus added nothing
to His manhood by carrying it into the Godhead. He was still man.
Upon this fact rests the Savior’s own language of subordination to the
(1) The human nature underwent
a sinless process of normal development. He was thus an ideal racial
man and developed as such. Immortality in Adam was a conditional
gift but in Christ it was absolute. "In Him was life"(Jn. 1:4).
Pope, Vol. II, p. 118 –"He surrendered His right to the immortality of
His holy manhood and of himself laid down His life."
X. The Divine Human Person
Theanthropic (God-Man) has
two distinct natures that are neither confounded nor confused. None
of the attributes of either nature are ascribed to the other nature.
Yet there is but one person and that person — The Eternal Christ — is divine.
Human nature acquired personality on union with the Divine Person.
1. This union of two natures
in one person receives no name in the Scriptures. Theology calls
it the Hypostatical Union. This term is derived from the use of the
word hypostasis to represent the personal substances in the Godhead.
Hence it signifies that only one person is the result of the union of the
two natures. There is but one Christ, "Thou art the Christ."
That Christ has two distinct natures blended into one. That one person
is the subject and the predicate of both natures (Acts 20:28; I. Cor. 2:8)
2. His work was the work
of one mediator between God and man. His perfect human nature made
Him a perfect representative of the human race. And His perfect Divine
nature made Him a perfect representative of the Trinity. Thus God
and man could be and were brought together in that one mediator.
Pope Vol. III. p. 120.
3. The union of two natures
in one person is indissoluble and eternal. Our humanity was carried into
the Godhead by Christ as a permanent fixture (Rom 9:5; col. 2:9; Heb. 13:8;
4. The primary revealed
purpose of the union of the two natures in one was to effect redemption.
"He by the grace of God should taste death for every man" (Heb. 2:9).
By this death He effected three things:
(1) The abolishment of death
(2) The reconciliation of
(3) The propitiation necessary
for both. (Wiley vol. 2 p. 185). One seed was promised, and One Seed
effected the reconciliation. (Gal. 3:16; 3:14, 15).
Chapter 22 THE ESTATES AND
OFFICES OF Christ Vol. 2 p. 187ff
1. Humiliation in regard
Our Lord took on manhood
in its sinless perfection, but under the law of development, with the natural
infirmities to which sin had reduced it. Sin bruised His heel before
He bruised its head. He as a man of sorrow and acquainted with grief
in a lower sense as well as in a higher – (Isa. 53:3). The Scriptures
reveal to us a humiliation in which He took a nature unshielded from human
infirmities "Himself took our infirmities" (Matt. 8:17b; Phil. 2:8).
We must also apply the term
humiliation to our Lord’s person as divine. The divine nature was
also humbled severely, in that its glory was hidden for a season under
the veil of the flesh. He emptied Himself of His glory for a time.
That in itself made that time a time of humiliation. The incarnate
Son was subordinated to the Father in a specific humiliation. From
the first words concerning His mission "I must be in My Father’s will",
down to the last, "My Father is greater than I." This truth rules
all the Redeemer’s relation to His Father (Luke 2:49; John 14:28).
Pope, II, p. 154.
He was under the guidance
of the Holy Spirit during His earthly life rather than under the independent
agency of His divine personality. That particular subordination ceased
when he who received became the giver of the Holy Ghost. Indeed it
may be said to have ceased when the Redeemer laid down His life of Himself
and through the Eternal Spirit offered Himself to God for us (Heb. 9:14;
Thus human nature and the
divine nature were both humiliated, but it was the humiliation of but One
person, the Divine human Person. Pope, II, p. 155.
2. Humiliation with regard
to His redeeming work.
Viewed in relation to His
work, the humiliating state of Christ began with His baptism and ended
with His descent through death into Hades (grave). It may be regarded
as his personal submission to be the representative of a sinful race, and
as His obedience to the Father’s redeeming will. These converge in
His passion and death in which the Redeemer’s humiliation was perfected.
(1) That our Lord humbled
Himself to be the representative to law of sinful man is the first key
to the solution to His entire history on earth. Pope, II, p. 156.
In right of circumcision our Lord’s human nature underwent the covenant
sign of initiation into the Hebrew covenant to put away sin (Luke 1:35).
He thus early placed Himself under the Law, until the Law was abolished
by Him (Gal. 4:4). He was in fact born under the Law. His baptism
and temptation in the wilderness were alike of universal import in this
respect. He appeared there as the bearer away of sin "Behold the Lamb of
God that taketh away the sin of the world" (Jn. 1:29). Not until
He had fulfilled the requirement of all righteousness did He receive the
attestation of heaven that sin had nothing in Him other than being laid
upon Him. Thus His voluntary submission led to His vicarious passion
as the final expiation (II Cor. 5:21; Gal. 4:4-5; 3:13).
The voluntary humiliation
which made Christ a representative of sinners (Phil. 2:8; Isa. 53:3, 4,
(2) Christ was obedient
to the mediatorial will of His Father. He who is Lord of all entered
the world as a servant (Jn. 6:38; 10:18). In His obedience He took
a servant’s place and paid deference to those under whom He placed Himself
(Matt. 19:17; Mark 13:32; Jn. 20:17; 14:28). With regard to His passion
He habitually referred to Himself as Son of man.
(3) The death of Christ
was His perfect humiliation. It was His supreme submission, self-renunciation,
and abasement. It was His passion in general and His crucifixion
in particular. Stalker, The Trial and Death of Jesus.
a. The passion of Our Lord
must be separate in thought at least from His death. He was obedient
unto death, and His soul was exceedingly sorrowful, even unto death.
(Phil. 2:8; Heb. 2:9; Lam 1:12). "Reproach hath broken my heart."
(Psa. 69:20a; Jn. 19:34). The blood and water that flowed from His
riven side after His death proved that true.
b. The crucifixion cannot,
however, be very well separated from His death. (Phil. 2:8). Pope,
Vol. II, p. 160.
(4) Viewing the passion
in relation to the crucifixion of the Lord, we observe the following:
a. The fulfillment of the
determinate council and knowledge of God. (Acts 2:23; II Cor. 5:21;
b. The crucifixion of our
Lord was the fulfillment of prophecy (Gen. 22:6; Jn. 3:14; Isa. 53:5; Psa.
c. Providence took up into
its plan the death on the cross as that which alone could unit the whole
world (Jn. 18:37).
(5) Hence the cross was
to our High Priest merely the awful form which His altar assumed (I. Peter
2:24; Heb. 11:19; 13:10-11; Gal 3:13).
3. The limits of His humiliation.
His humiliation embraces His whole life, from the conception to His burial
or actual death. The incarnation is not in itself necessarily a humiliation,
but being incarnated in the likeness of sinful flesh was. The article
of death for sin in the stead of others was a humiliation, but descending
into the grave was not necessarily a humiliation, that is the act of so
doing. The end of His personal humiliation was reached the moment
He died. Obligations went no further than the dissolution of body
and spirit. That separation was then attested by His entombment.
His body saw no corruption as it was still part of His incarnate person.
"Christ and the Gospel" – Resurrection Pope, Vol. II, 163.
4. Just as we notice in
summation that the humiliation of the divine nature and the human nature
was one in the one Person, so the humiliation of the one person and the
work of that one person are also one humiliation. In a sense, Jesus
Christ as a member of the Godhead throughout could not be humiliated.
It was purposeful condescension. In another sense He could be and
The State of Exaltation:
vol. 2 p.201ff.
"The Redeemer’s estate of
exaltation may be viewed in its historical stages as a process.
· The descent.
· The resurrection.
· The ascension.
· The session.(Sitting
1. The moment He (His Spirit)
left His body His exaltation began. The phrase "Descend into hell"
is not in the New Testament. St. Peter quoted the words of David
"Thou wilt not leave my soul in Hades, neither wilt thou give thine Holy
One to see corruption." The Greek Hades answering to the Hebrew Sheol
signifies merely the unseen state. There is no reference to punishment
being endured in it. It is merely the covered or hidden death.
In Pope, Vol. II, p. 167, he says, "Into this death our Lord entered."
Paul making use of the same Psalm does not distinguish between the two.
He speaks only of the body "Thou wilt not give thine Holy One to see corruption."
Undoubtedly the entombment of our Lord and his passing into the condition
of death are the one meaning of those passages, and they signify that they
were a reality and that so far that His burial belonged to His humbled
estate. When He entered into the realm of departed spirits, it was
as a conqueror over death (Acts 2:30, 31; Psa. 16:10; Acts 13:29, 35; I
Pet. 3:19, 20; Rom. 6:8, 9; Eph. 4:8,9)
2. The second estate in
His exaltation is His resurrection. He broke the power of death by
placing Himself under the power of death and by coming therefrom Himself.
By so doing He vindicated Himself and His claim.
(1) In all our Lord’s predictions
of His resurrection He makes Himself the active agent in the resurrection.
His first allusion to it was among His earliest predictions — "Destroy
this temple and in three days I will raise it up" (Jn. 2:19). And
His last allusion to it was among His latest statements, "I lay down my
life that I might take it again, no man taketh it from me, but I lay it
down of myself. I have power to lay it down and I have power to take
it up again" (Jn. 10:17-18). The mediatorial law of obedience called
for a voluntary surrender of His life and a retaking of it again by His
power, of His own will. He was declared to be the Son of God with
power according to the spirit of holiness (Rom. 1:4). For He rose
again the third day (I. Cor. 15:4).
(2) Like all events in the
history of the Mediator, the resurrection is also ascribed to the Father.
In fact the whole plan of redemption is ascribed to the Father, but Jesus
Christ is the active agent in the whole mediatorial work; so also in the
a. He arose from the dead
by the glory of the Father (Rom 6:4; Eph. 1:20; I Pet. 1:21; Jn. 17:1).
b. His resurrection was
His Father’s testimony to the perfection of His divine human person as
Son. "Thou art My Son, this day have I begotten Thee." What
is meant here is that Thou My Son, this day have I raised thee up (Acts
Christ’s resurrection was
also attested by many infallible proofs (Acts 1:3). It was also a
guarantee of the resurrection of all mankind. All die by the relation
to the first Adam, and all shall be resurrected by relationship to the
Second Adam (I. Cor. 15:20-23).
(3) The third step is His
ascension. It marks the close of His earthly life proper (Acts 1:21; 1:1-2,
a. He withdrew in that special
sense to the bosom of God to send the Comforter (Jn. 16:7).
b. In that special Presence
at the right-hand of God He took up His mediatorial office in a special
manner as prophet, priest, and king.
(4) The fourth and last
stage of His exaltation is the Session. This is closely connected
with the third. In fact just as closely connected as the sufferings
and death on the cross. It refers to Christ’s place at the right
hand of God as an intercessory presence. Mark connects the two (Mark
16:19). Our Lord referred to the Session when He said, "The Lord
said unto my Lord, sit thou on my right hand, till I make thine enemies
thy footstool" (Matt. 22:44). Christ’s presence on the throne
is the beginning of a supreme authority which shall end only when He "Hath
put all enemies under His feet" (I. Cor. 15:22). He is not only the
Head of the church, but the Head over all things to the church (Eph. 1:20-23).
From the Session our Lord will return to the earth a second time, without
sin unto salvation (Heb. 9:28), and the ascension is the pattern of this
return (Acts 1:ll).
The sequel of the ascension
is the Session at the right hand of God in heaven with its attestations
on earth, namely the Pentecostal descent of the Holy Spirit (Jn. 7:39).
Pope, II. P. 182.
Offices of Christ: Vol..
2 p.210 ff.
The three offices of the
Christ Jesus are by virtue of His incarnation as the appointed mediator
between God and man. These offices He began to discharge on earth.
1. Christ as prophet is
the perfect revealer of divine truth to man. During His earthly ministry
He was the LawGiver and preacher of the Gospel, each distinctly and both
in One. Thus He was the Revealer, the Revealed, the LawGiver, and
(1) The Old Testament prophets
spoke and wrote of Him. The anointing oil of the Old Testament was
typical of His anointing with the Holy Spirit. When He came He continued
the theme of the Old Testament prophets, which was Himself.
(2) At the right hand of
God He continues His work, having commissioned those He left behind to
continue His work, namely about Himself and His work. He is still
2. Christ as Priest.
The central and most important office of His mediatorship is Priesthood,
of which the High Priest as representative of the Levitical system is a
type. He as the Offerer, and the Offered and the cross was the form
that the altar upon which He offered Himself took.
3. The Kingly Office.
As King our Lord was sealed, anointed, and crowned in the resurrection.
He was King even in His humiliation and He taught and acted as such, "My
kingdom is not of this world". To His disciples He said, "and I appoint
unto you a kingdom as My Father hath appointed me, that ye may eat and
drink at my table in my kingdom" (Jn. 18:36; Luke 22:29-30). But
it was not until His resurrection that He was clothed with mediatorial
authority according to the set time of the economy of Grace. From
the sepulcher He went to the mountain of Galilee where He clothed Himself
with His final authority and said, "All power is given unto me in Heaven
and in earth (Matt. 28:18).
The Significance of the Divine
Names. Vol. 1 p. 241 -254
Almost all the elements of
Christian Doctrine may be connected with the application, which the Scriptures
give to our Lord. What the names of God are in Theology proper; the
names of Christ are in Christology, they define all we know of His pre-temporal
Being, of His general mediatorial relations, whether as the humbled or
the exalted Christ, of His specific Messianic office and of His relations
to the church in administered Salvation.
1. Names of the super-human
Being who became man.
(1) Names that belong to
Him as divine. He is God absolutely or the Great God, God blessed
forever, He is Jehovah our Lord, the Lord of Glory, the First and the Last,
the Beginning and the End, Shaddai and Adonai (Rom. 9:5; I. Cor. 2:8; Rev.
(2) Names of the second
Person of the Godhead. He is the Son, the Son of God, Only Begotten,
Wisdom, the Angel of Jehovah, the Word of Life, the Word of God, the Word,
the Image of God, again the Effulgence of His Glory, the First Born of
every creature, the Beginning or author of the creation of God. Those
names are based on the original dignity of the Son but are given to Him
in His incarnate relation and each has at least some reference to His own
Divine-human estate (Jn. 1:18; Heb. 1:2; Col. 1:15; Rev. 3:14).
2. Names that express the
union of the Divine and the Human. Those names are few but real.
(1) Emmanuel (God with us)
takes the lead (Isa. 7:14; Matt. 1:23). It is the first in the Gospel
will in reality be the last or endure with the last.
(2) The Son of Man as a
term also stands out. It was habitually used by our Lord. Theology
uses such terms as God-man, the Incarnate, and Divine human Person, Theanthropic
3. Names that express the
official aspect of Christ. These are based on a variety of principles
and require arrangement.
(1) Those names of His Divine
and Eternal nature that connect Him with the creation generally and form
a transition to His redeeming relation (Acts 3:15; Heb. 2:10; 12:2; Acts
5:31). Thus He is the Prince of Life.
(2) Some belong to the time
of prophetic preparation, and are continued in the New Testament (Mal.
3:1; Isa. 9:6; Gen. 49:10 and Gen. 3:15).
(3) The names that denote
the relation of the incarnate Son to His work generally; these occupy the
central place in this classification. (Jesus from Joshua Phil. 2:10;
Our Righteousness Jer. 23:6; I. Jn. 2:1; The Sanctifier Heb. 2:11; The
Mediator Heb 9:15).
4. Names that designate
the specific offices of the Redeemer: As Redeemer (Revealer) He is Prophet,
as Offerer He is High Priest of whom Aaron was a type, as Offerer He was
the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world (Jn. 1:29). John rises
far above all else in calling (Jesus?) the Advocate or Pleader, the Living
Propitiation (I Jn. 2:1-2). In regard to the regal aspect of the
office of the Redeemer, the higher names are King of Kings and Lord of
5. Other names result from
the changes and combinations of the titles of the Redeemer. The most
obvious is Jesus Christ. Both Jesus and Christ are official names
and not personal names. Pope, II, 254.
6. Names that refer to our
Lord’s relation to His people. They too are symbols:
(1) The Rock or Foundation.
(2) The Rock of Ages.
(3) The chief Corner Stone.
(4) The Good Shepherd.
(5) The Vine.
(6) The Head of the Church.
(7) The Friend of Sinners.
(8) The Bridegroom.
(9) The Brother of His disciples.
(10) The Fountain.
(11) The Water.
(12) The Bread.
(13) The Physician.
(14) The Door.
Notes concerning Scriptures
against Eternal Security
I. Arminianism holds with
Bible teachings that man may fall away.
1. Cited cases of those
who have fallen away.
(1) Satan and other fallen
a. Fountainhead of sin Job
4:18. II Pet. 2:48; Jude 1:6, For them there is no hope.
(2) Adam and Eve.
Gen. 1:27, 31; 3:6-10; Eccl. 7:29.
a. Fountainhead of the race:
They fell to the extent that blood had to be shed for their salvation and
their posterity through them.
(3) The Jews were once right
with God and backslid, I. Cor. 10:1-12; Heb. 3:17-19; Jude 1:5. They
often fall into sin and Moses had to sacrifice not to redeem their influence,
but their souls.
(4) Saul – first King of
Israel. I Sam. 10:9-10; 15:23-24; 16:14.
(5) Judas – Fell by transgression.
Ps. 41:9; John 13:18; Matt. 26:24-25; John 17:12; Acts 1:25 (Fell by transgression).
(6) Demas once ranked high
in the Christian church but he forsook all having loved this present world.
Col. 4:14; II Tim. 4:10.
2. Solemn warnings against
apostasy from God with its fearful consequences. Ez. 18:24-26; Matt.
5:13; John 15:2, 6; Rom. 11:19-22; Heb. 10:38; Heb. 6.
3. Solemn injunction in
the Bible for final perseverance. Matt. 24:13; 26:41; John 15:4;
I. Cor. 9:24; 10:12; Col. 1:22-23; Heb. 3:14; 4:1; I Peter 5:8-9; II Peter
One of the greatest Baptist
preachers of his day made the following statement. Cortland Myers
said he had seen too many fall away to believe any more in Eternal Security.
INTRODUCTION TO THE ATONEMENT
Intro. P.217 ff. And vol. 2 P.217 ff.
Three Stages in the Development
of the Atonement
· Primitive Sacrifices
· The Law
· Predictions of
1. Primitive Sacrifices,
(1) Gen. 3:15; 3:21
(2) Cain and Abel.
(3) Patriarchal period,
crisis time they sacrificed, offered in faith, opposed of God
2. The Law (Mosaic system)
Sacrifices were systemized
and at set times and sacraments primary idea was propitiation. Romans
3:25. The expected miracle from Gen. 3:15 was revealed in these sacrifices.
3. Prophetic Period.
Prophets are ___?
The minsnic (?) idea, supplemented sacrifices. They revealed the
suffering etc. Isa. 53:6; 10, 11; Acts 2:7-22.
The New Testament concept
is that the atonement is a completion and fulfillment of the Old Testament
system. Old Testament fully (?) grieved him. Rom. 3:21-26.
Christ’s death was the equivalent of are (?) The (?) came under penalty
There are three states in
the development of Atonement
1. Primitive sacrifices
2. The Law (Mosaic System)
3. Predictions of Prophets
I. Biblical Basis.
1. The motive for the atonement
is found in the love of God. (John 3:16).
2. Christ’s death was vicarious;
He was our substitute.
3. Scriptures regard it
as a propitiation for us, redemption, reconciliation.
A. Propitiation – To appease
the wrath of an offended one.
B. Redemption – To buy back
C. Reconciliation – A change
from state of enmity to friendship.
II. Historical Development.
1. Patristic (Church Father)
period in its early stages was an undistorted reflection of the teachings
of the New Testament generally.
A. Origen taught it as a
ransom paid to Satan. Irenaeus regarded it as a victory over Satan.
Gregory and Augustine both leaned this way.
B. Athanasius, the first
to say that the death of Christ was the payment for a debt due to God.
2. The Anselmic Theory –
Sin violated divine honor, and deserves infinite punishment since God is
infinite. Because Christ is infinite, He alone could pay the debt.
As sinless He died for us.
A. He said it was not a
ransom paid to Satan.
B. Abelard, the chief opponent
of Anselm and founder of theory of Atonement that shuts out the deepest
mystery of the cross. He started the moral influence theory.
3. The Reformation Period
– This was merely a reaction against the theology of
The Roman Catholic Church.
They made the death of Christ the center of faith.
III. Modern Theories of the
1. The penal Satisfaction
Theory – Held by the Calvinistic Churches. (Anselm founder). Took
over satisfaction but gave it the meaning of substitution instead of merit.
2. The Governmental Theory
– Developed by Grotius, a Dutch jurist. The death of Christ
became not an exhibition of love to draw man to God, but a deterrent to
sin through an exhibition of its punishment.
3. The Moral Influence Theories
– Holds that salvation comes through the appeal of Divine love. The
demonstration of God’s love is merely to melt the sinner’s hard heart.
A. The Socinian Theory later
blossomed into Unitarianism. Man’s moral condition is bettered by
B. The Mystical Theories,
held by Schliermcher, Ritschl, etc., hold the redemption by example idea.
C. Horace Bushnell’s Theory
– self-propitiation by self-sacrifice.
4. The New Theology – term
applied to mystical theory of Atonement in writings of J. M. Campbell.
Nearly same as Bushnell theory.
5. The Ethical Theory –
propounded by Dr. Strong, grounded on Holiness of God and causes us to
see the horror of sin. Growth in purity is marked by hatred of impurity.
6. The Racial Theory – propounded
by Dr. Curtis is similar in construction to the Ethical Theory, but it
has a racial import.
IV. Definition of Atonement.
Miley. "The vicarious sufferings of Christ are an atonement for sin
as a conditional substitute for penalty, fulfilling, on the forgiveness
of sin, the obligations of justice and the office of penalty in moral government."
1. Salvation is grounded
in the Atonement and the Atonement in:
A. The nature and claims
B. Governmental necessity.
C. The appeal of divine
2. The vital principle of
A. The pre-existent Logos
is the ground of unity between Christ and the race.
B. The Word made flesh procured
through that flesh redemption for us.
C. The restoration of the
Spirit to the race and to the individual is another aspect of this vital
3. The legal aspects of
A. Christ fulfilled the
whole range of moral demand for us.
B. Christ delivered us from
the Law in that He fulfilled its demands and thus redeemed us from its
penalty; made possible our redemption.
4. The Propitiatory aspect
of the Atonement. This gives us the true idea of satisfaction and
expiation. The reasons are as follows:
A. The holy nature of God
can neither tolerate sin or fellowship with sinners.
B. Propitiation concerns
not only the divine nature but also the divine attributes as well.
5. The Godward and Manward
aspect of the Atonement.
A. God is the Reconciler
and the Reconciled.
B. Reconciliation also refers
to that state of peace existing between God and man.
(1) The ransom price was
the blood of Christ.
(2) This ransom is mentioned
a. From curse of Law
b. From law itself
c. From power of sin.
d. From power of Satan,
and also frees from the guilt and power of transgression and inbred sin.
C. Atonement – Reconciliation.
(1) Atonement is universally
(2) It is in universal proclamation
(3) It is declared in Scripture that Christ died for those who may perish.
6. Benefits of the Atonement.
A. Unconditional (Arminianism)
(1) Continued existence
(2) Restoration of all men
to a state of salvability.
(3) Salvation of all those
that die in infancy.
(1) Justification, Regeneration,
(2) The Witness of the Spirit.
(4) The witness of the Spirit
to both works. (Daily walk with God.)
Person and Work of the Holy
Spirit: vol. 2 p. 303 ff.
The promise of the Father,
even as Christ in the Old Testament, The Sprit also was the unrevealed
Dispenser of His Salvation.
1. The Holy Spirit in the
Preparation of Redemption.
In the Old Testament He
has been present and operative from the very beginning as the Administrator
of the work of God. The human nature of Christ was a special divine
production of the Holy Ghost and His mission was inspired by the Holy Ghost.
2. The Holy Ghost after
Pentecost. This begins the dispensation of the Spirit. He rules
within the world.
A. He quickens from the
dead. He sanctifies and empowers the soul.
B. Outstanding symbols –
dove, water, fire, atmosphere, wind and oil.
C. The Spirit is not the
head of the Church but is the representative of the Head.
D. The Spirit is the gift
and the Giver. It is His Will to manifest Himself, spiritually.
XI. Second Semester
The Second Triad
The Atonement Vol. 2 p. 217-300
The Biblical Basis.
1. The motive for the atonement
is found in the love of God. Love is the moving cause in redemption
(Jn 3:16-17; Rom. 5:8, I Jn. 4:9).
2. Christ’s death was vicarious,
as He suffered in our room and stead as a proper substitute for us. (Jn.
11:50; Rom. 5:6-8; Gal. 1:4; 3:3; Heb. 2:9). The death of Christ
is the "procuring cause" of salvation.
3. The Scripture regard
the sufferings of Christ as a propitiation for us, a redemption, and a
A. "Propitiation is a term
drawn from the Kapporeth or Mercy-seat as used in the Old Testament scriptures.
To propitiate is to appease the wrath of an offended person, or to atone
B. Redemption literally
means, "to buy back". To set a captive free by paying the redemptive
price. The death of Christ is the redemptive price (Matt. 20:28;
I. Tim. 2:6; I. Cor. 6:20). It is evident that one thing is paid
for another, the "blood of Christ" for the redemption of captives and condemned
C. Reconciliation involves
a change from a state of enmity to a state of friendship (Rom. 5:10-11;
II. Cor. 5:18-19). This reconciliation is affected by Christ.
The Historical Development.
"The history of the ecclesiastical
doctrine of atonement is exceedingly complicated and difficult if all the
different shades of controversy are taken into account but is more simple
if the fundamentals alone are regarded." Pope, II, p. 297
1. The Patristic (Church
Father) period in its early stages was an undistorted reflection of the
teachings of the New Testament generally.
A. Origen taught that it
was a ransom paid to Satan. Irenaeus regarded it as a victory over Satan.
Origen lived (185-254); Irenaeus lived or wrote about (200). Gregory
lived about (395) is also associated with the views of Irenaeus.
Augustine probably leaned to the same view in a qualified manner.
B. Athanasius (325-373)
is said to have been the first to propound the theory that the death of
Christ was the payment of a debt due to God.
2. The Anselmic theory is
as follows: "Sin violates the divine honor, and deserves infinite
punishment since God is infinite. Sin is guilt or a debt, and under
the government of God, this debt must be paid. This necessity is
grounded in the infinite perfections of God. Either adequate satisfaction
must be provided, or vengeance must be exacted. Man cannot pay this
debt, for he is not only finite, but morally bankrupt through sin.
Adequate satisfaction being impossible from a being so inferior to God
as man is, the Son of God became man in order to pay the debt for us.
Being divine, He could pay the infinite debt; and being both human and
sinless, could properly represent men. But as sinless He was not
obliged to die, and owing no debt on His own account, He received as a
reward His merit, the forgiveness of our sins."
A. Anselm rejected the theory
of ransom paid to Satan in the following words: "Was it the law of
Satan we had transgressed? Was he the judge that cast us into prison?
Was it he to whom we were indebted? Was it overheard that the ransom
price of redemption was paid to the jailer? Whether any of the ancients
said so or not, I shall not now trouble myself to inquire, or in what sense
they said it; the thing in itself is ridiculous and blasphemous."
B. Abelard was the chief
opponent of Anselm and may be said to be the founder of a theory of the
Atonement that shuts out the deepest mystery of the cross. "He refers
the Christian redemption only to the love of God as its source, and taught
that there was nothing in the Divine essence that required satisfaction
for sin. The influence of the work of Christ as accomplished on the
cross is moral only, subduing the heart, awakening repentance and leading
the soul to the boundless mercy of God, whose benevolence is the only attribute
concerned in the pardon of sin. Thus we have the moral influence
theory. Bonaventura and Thomas Aquinas represented the later-school
men and pretty much shaped the theology of the Roman Catholic Church.
3. The Reformation Period.
In reacting against the theology of the Roman Catholic Church, the Reformers
swung back to the Anselmic theory. The Reformers made the death of
Christ the center of faith. (The reformers limited the atonement to the
elect. Luther preached an unlimited atonement for original sin too. Socinianism
says "The atonement just makes a moral impression on me. Armenians aim
for the middle ground between moral influence and moral satisfaction Vol.2
p 241. Dr Owens notes).
Modern Theories of the Atonement
1. The Penal Satisfaction
Theory. This theory is held by the reformed Churches, or Calvinistic
church, or the Anselmic theory. They changed the Anselmic theory
to suit their views. They took over from Anselm the idea of satisfaction
but gave it the meaning of substitution instead of merit. They also
included Christ’s active obedience as a part of the redemptive price, as
well as His voluntary death. While Anselm held that He owed obedience
to God as a man. Five points or criticism can be brought, justly
brought, against the Calvinistic theory of the Atonement.
A. Sin must be punished
on its own account; hence sin must be transferred to Christ and thus Christ
becomes as sinner, and as such, He could not make satisfaction for anyone
B. It is claimed that the
Penal substitution theory is the only theory that admits of the substitutionary
works of Christ, but the Governmental or Rectoral theory holds to substitution
as firmly as does the Penal theory. (Miley is one of the strongest advocates
of this theory, and so is A.M. Hills. Dr Owens notes).
C. The Penal theory leads
to universalism or else to unconditional election on the other hand.
Either all or else an elect few.
D. Thus the Penal theory
is associated with the Calvinistic idea of predestination and limited atonement."
E. The Penal theory leads
logically to Antinomianism. "This its advocates usually deny, but
historically, Antinomianism has always been held in connection with this
type of belief in the atonement." Wiley,2,244-245
2. The Governmental theory.
This was developed by Grotius. (1583-1645). He defended the orthodox
theory against Faustus Socinus, and in doing so propounded a new theory.
James Arminius protested against the rigorous penal substitution theory
and also against Socinian rejection. They sought to uphold the compassionate
and just will of God in the atonement. "They thus laid emphasis upon
the love of God as well as His justice. Grotius differed from Arminius
in the later development of these principles, by limiting the satisfaction
which was made by Christ, to the dignity of the law, the honor of the lawgiver
and the protection of the universe. The death of Christ and His sufferings
became, therefore, not an exhibition of love to draw men to God, as in
the moral influence theories, but a deterrent to sin through an exhibition
of its punishment." Wiley, 2. p. 252.
3. The Moral Influence Theories.
This theory holds that salvation comes through the appeal of Divine love.
The sole obstacle in the way of forgiveness is the sinner’s hardened heart.
That demonstration of God’s love is intended to melt the sinner’s heart
and cause him to turn to God.
There are several types of
the moral influence theories.
A. The Socinian theory which
later blossomed into Unitarianism. Man’s moral condition is bettered
B. The Mystical Theories
held by Schleiermacher, Ritschl, Murice, and Irving. It is redemption
by example idea. Christ was one with God and He taught men that they,
too, could be one with God.
C. Horace Bushnell’s Theory
of the Moral Atonement. Miley regarded this theory as Self-propitiation
by Self-sacrifice." Bushnell was a Trinitarian, but his theory is
strictly Socinian and Unitarian. Man works out his own salvation
by suffering, following the example of Jesus.
4. The New Theology – is
a term applied to the mystical theory of the Atonement as found in the
writings of J. McLeod Campbell and the Andover School of New England.
The theory is essentially the same as the Horace Bushnell Theory.
5. The Ethical Theory – as
propounded by Dr. Strong and is grounded on the holiness of God and causes
us to see the horror of sin. Thus our growth in purity is marked
by our hatred of impurity. Punishment of sin is the abhorrence of
it. "The Atonement has an ethical necessity."
6. The Racial Theory propounded
by Dr. Curtis is similar in construction to the Ethical Theory, but it
has a racial import.
CHAPTER 24: The Atonement,
Its Nature and Extent. Vol.2 p. 271 ff
1. Definition of the Atonement.
(1) Dr. Miley’s: "The
vicarious sufferings of Christ are an atonement for sin as a conditional
substitute for penalty, fulfilling, on the forgiveness of sin, the obligation
of justice and the office of penalty in moral government."
(2) Dr. Pope summarizes
his position the following manner: "The teaching of the scripture
on this subject may be summed up as follows: The finished work, as accomplished
by the Mediator Himself, in His relation to mankind, is His divine-human
obedience regarded as an expiatory sacrifice: the atonement proper.
Then it may be studied in its results to God, as to God and man, and as
to man. First, it is the supreme manifestation of the glory and consistency
of the divine attributes; and, as to this, is termed the righteousness
of God. Second, as it respects God and man, it is the reconciliation,
a word which involves two truths, or rather one truth under two aspects;
the propitiation of the divine displeasure against the world is declared;
and therefore the sin of the world is no longer a bar to acceptance.
Third, in its influence on man, it may be viewed as redemption: universal
as to the race, limited in its process and consummation to those who believe."
2. Salvation is thus
grounded in the Atonement and the Atonement in:
(1) The Nature and claims
of God. God is holy love. Sin bereaved God and left man an
orphan. God’s holiness prevented man from approaching Him and His
love urged Him out after man. Propitiation became necessary in order
to furnish a common ground of meeting. Holy love devised the plan.
(I Jn. 4:9-10; Rom. 5:8; Jn. 3:16).
(2) Government necessity.
God is an infinitely moral Being at the head of a highly moral government.
He cannot disregard acts of wrong or merely set aside judgment. Either
He must punish the sinner or offer a substitute and thus sustain His government.
(3) The appeal of Divine
Love. (Jn. 3:16; I Jn. 4:19). The cross is the greatest exhibition
of God’s love to man.
3. The Vital Principle
of the Atonement.
(1) The pre-existent Logos
is the ground of unity between Christ and the race. And as such is
a vital factor in the Atonement (Rom. 3:24-26; Col. 1:14-22). Mankind as
a race now depends on Him.
(2) The Word made flesh
procured through that flesh redemption for us. Thus He is the procuring
cause of redemption.
(3) The restoration of the
Spirit to the race and to the individual is another aspect of this vital
principle in the atonement. The moral ideal of the Spirit became
attainable through sanctification. (Heb. 2:11).
4. The Legal Aspects of the
(1) Christ fulfilled the
whole range of moral demand. He and He alone kept the moral law perfectly.
(2) Christ delivered us
from the law in that He fulfilled its demands and thus redeemed us from
its penalty (Gal. 4:4-5; Rom. 3:25). The process is lifted
from spiritual bondage to Sonship.
5. The Propitiatory Aspect
of the Atonement.
This gives us the true idea
of satisfaction and expiation. The reasons are as follows:
(1) The holy nature of God
can neither tolerate sin, nor fellowship with the sinner (II Cor. 6:14).
God cannot exhibit His love apart from righteousness;, as He must maintain
the honor of His divine sovereignty.
(2) Propitiation concerns
not only the divine nature but also the divine attributes as well.
Attributes are modes of the relation or of the operation of the divine
essence. They must be in harmony with each other. One cannot
be exalted above all others or exalter to the exclusion of all others.
They are united in Personality. Justice then must be maintained before
mercy and love can be expressed.
The Godward and Manward Aspect
of the Atonement.
Reconciliation is that aspect
of the finished work which expresses the restored relationship between
God and man.
1. God is the Reconciler
and the Reconciled.
II Cor. 5:18-19, Thus God
associates Himself with His people in the proclamation of the good news.
2. Reconciliation also refers
to the state of peace existing between God and man (Eph. 2:14-15).
(1) The ransom price was
the blood of Christ (Matt. 20:28; I Tim. 2:6).
(2) His ransom from the
bondage of sin is sometimes mentioned as redemption.
a. From the curse of the
law (Gal. 3:13).
b. From the law itself (Gal.
4:4-5; Rom. 6:14).
c. From the power of sin
(Jn. 8:34; Rom. 6:12-23).
d. From the power of Satan
It also frees from the guilt and power of inbred sin.
3. Atonement – Reconciliation.
Redemption is universal
and general in the provisional sense, but special or conditional in its
application to the individual.
(1) Notice the Atonement
universally considered. (John 3:15-17; Rom. 5:8-18; II Cor. 5:14-15).
(2) Notice the Atonement
in universal proclamation (Matt. 24:14; "Go ye therefore and teach", 28:19;
Mark 16:15; Luke 24:67).
(3) Scriptures that declare
that Christ died for those who may perish. (Rom 14:15; I Cor. 8:11; Heb.
4. The unconditional benefits
of the Atonement.
(1) The continued existence
of the race.
(2) The restoration of all
men to a state of salvability. This is affected by previenent grace.
(3) The salvation of those
who die in infancy. This is not specifically stated in the Scripture
but the general tenor of the Scripture is in harmony (Matt. 18:3; 19:14).
5. The conditional benefits
of the Atonement are:
(4) The Witness of the Spirit
(6) The Witness of the Spirit
to both works.
The Person and Work of the
Holy Spirit: P. 303 ff.
"As the Incarnate Son is
the Redeemer of Mankind in virtue of His perfect work of Reconciliation,
so the Holy Ghost in His Divine Personality is the Administrator of the
redemption. His revelation as such has kept pace with the revelation
of the redeeming Son. In the Old Testament age He was the promise
of the Father, even as the Christ was and, as the promised Christ already
was the world’s unrevealed Savior, so the Spirit was the unrevealed Dispenser
of his Salvation.
The Redeemer made the promise
of the Father his own promise and, on His ascension, obtained and sent,
as the fruit of His mediatorial obedience, the Holy Ghost in His most abundant
influence as the Third Person of the Godhead and the Personal Agent in
the final accomplishment of the purpose of the Mediatorial Trinity."
(Pope Vol. II, p. 321).
The Holy Spirit in the Preparation
"(But this spake He of the
Spirit, which they that believe on Him should receive for the Holy Ghost
was not yet given; because that Jesus was not yet glorified)." (John
1. The Holy Spirit in the
The Holy Spirit in His special
relation to the Christian was not sent down until Pentecost. He has,
however, been present and operative from the very beginning as the Administrator
of the work of God. Thus the Spirit is disclosed through the Old
Testament as the Agent of the Godhead in the production of all life, especially
of the living spirit of man. He was the Lord and Giver of Life (Job
33:4). The same Spirit "moved upon the face of the waters" as breathed
into the face of man and made him a living soul.
2. The Spirit in the New
Testament. In the period of Christ’s life on earth the Spirit occupied
a midway position between the Old Testament and the New Testament positions.
He is the actual Agent in the raising up of the Incarnate, Son. "Every
reference to the Holy Ghost in the Gospels falls under one head or the
other." (Pope Vol. II. 323).
(1) The human nature of
Christ was a special divine production of the Holy Ghost and His mission
was inspired by the Holy Ghost. Whatever in the Incarnate person
and Work of Christ belongs to Him as the Representative of mankind is under
the Spirit’s direction.
The Holy Spirit After Pentecost.
With Pentecost begins the
dispensation of the Spirit. The Holy Spirit is the Revealer of the
Son generally and of the Godhead as revealed in Him. He is our Lord’s
Agent in dispensing individual salvation and is a witness to the soul both
in one, that is Dispenser and Witness. He is our Lord’s Representative
in His body, the Church. He gathers in from the world and rules within
it and dispenses the gifts of Its Head severally, as He will. He
is subordinate in the Mediatorial Economy but is a divine person and the
Agent of His own acts in the unity of the Father and the Son. Regeneration
is a birth of the Spirit; Pentecost is a baptism with the Spirit.
1. The Spirit quickens from
the dead. The Spirit sanctifies and empowers the soul. The
Spirit seals in divine ownership.
2. There are certain outstanding
symbols of the Spirit, the dove, water, fire, atmosphere – wind, and oil.
3. The Spirit is not the
head of the Church but is the representative of the Head. Christ
is the fullness of the Godhead bodily and the Holy Ghost is the fullness
of the Godhead spiritually (Col. 2:9). When the Savior speaks of
His departure; He speaks of its necessity in order to the coming of the
Comforter (Jn. 14:16). He shall comfort and shall take of mine
and shew it unto you. He shall teach and bring to your remembrance
what I have said unto you.
4. "As the Son is both Priest
and Sacrifice, so the Spirit is both Gift and Giver (I Cor. 12:4-11).
The Holy Ghost is thus a person whose will it is to manifest Himself.
The Son manifested Himself physically and the Spirit manifests Himself
spiritually – He breaks forth.
Preliminary States of Grace.
Vol. 2 p.334-378.
The Atonement of Christ
became effective only when administered to believers by the Holy Ghost.
Thus we have "objective Soteriology" and "subjective Soteriology". One
is done for us, and the other is done in us.
1. The Gospel Vocation or
call. There is the caller and the act of calling and the result.
2. The call is as wide as
the possible benefits of the Atonement. Arminianism holds that the call
is to all but salvation is conditioned to volitional acceptance.
Calvinism holds that Atonement was made for the called and the called are
foreordained to be called. Thus every man is either created for eternal
damnation or eternal salvation. Thus we have election and reprobation
eternally decreed by the good pleasure of God.
3. Election appears in a
form with regard to the call of men to certain offices or groups to certain
tasks. Such an election could be conditioned by something in the
individual. Those, however, who hear and who heed, are called the
Prevenient Grace. Vol.2.
The grace of God is unlimited
and cannot be limited to the work of redemption alone. It is an eternal
in the inner relation of the Trinity. It existed in the form of Sacrificial
love before the foundation of the world. It is responsible for the
beauty and order of creation. It planned the restoration of sinful
man. It is the content in revealed theology. It is operative
in all things.
1. Prevenient Grace is the
grace that "goes before" or prepares the soul for the initial experience
of Salvation. It is that manifestation of divine influence, which
precedes the regenerate life.
2. During the period of
the earlier fathers the doctrine of prevenient grace did not appear to
have been questioned except by the Gnostics and Manichaeans. The
lax interpretation of it, however, by the Greek fathers led to Pelagianism
(Denial of inbred sin). The extreme emphasis placed on the divine
element in the West led to Augustinianism. The East was represented
by Pelagianism and the West by Augustinianism.
3. Pelagius, a British monk
of high rank traveled to Rome early in the Fifth Century and opposed the
doctrine of original sin, and prevenient grace. The natural sanctity
of the mind needed only the aid of instruction in order to attain holiness.
4. Augustinianism represents
the opposite views and made original sin the foundation of his entire doctrine
of system of doctrine. The fall had, he held, completely incapacitated
man. Salvation was solely by grace without any human cooperation.
The freedom of the will was maintained only with regard to do evil.
Predestination thus prepares for grace to be bestowed. Predestination
thus appeared and passed through its various stages.
5. Augustine did not carry
his scheme to its logical end but 1,000 years later Calvin did. (Calvin
1509-1564) John Calvin developed his doctrine in opposition
to the lax view held on sin by the Roman Catholics. He was not alone
6. Arminianism represents
a mediating position between Pelagianism and Calvinism. They are
called Remonstrants. The synod of Dort met on November 13,1618 to
May 9, of 1619 (154 sessions). The Remonstrants cause appeared to
be lost. The five points contended for by Calvin are: (KNOW THESE)
(1) Unconditional election
(2) Limited Atonement
(3) Natural Inability
(4) Irresistible Grace
(5) Final Perseverance
The Remonstrants remonstrated
against such doctrine.
7. Prevenient Grace as set
forth by the Arminians brings fallen man into that state or condition which
makes it possible for him to have salvation. God lifts him up, draws
him, convicts him, and thus all can be saved through Grace.
1. The doctrine of repentance
is fundamental in the Christian system and cannot be dispensed with.
It includes conviction for sin accomplished by a desire for amendment.
Dr. Pope has this to say of repentance: "Repentance is a divinely
wrought conviction of sin, the result of the Holy Spirit’s application
of the condemning law to the conscience or heart. It approves itself
in contrition, which distinguishes it from mere knowledge of sin, in submission
to the judicial sentence, which is the essence of true confession; and
in sincere effort to amend, which desires to make reparation to the dishonored
law. Hence it must needs come from God and go back to Him: the Holy
Spirit, using the law, being the Agent in producing this preliminary divine
change." (Wiley, p 459).
2. There is a divine and
human aspect to repentance. To regard repentance merely as human
would be to presume upon God. To regard it as all God is to sink
into carelessness and despair. God does not repent for us, but He
grants repentance; that makes repentance possible.
(1) He sees sin in its true
perspective, and abhors it from his heart.
(2) The Spirit then enables
him to confess sin.
3. Repentance is, in its
final analysis, the act of the sinner himself in response to the conviction
and appeals of the Spirit. "Turn ye, for why will ye die," The man
must turn himself. "Except ye repent, ye shall all likewise perish".
1. Faith in general is giving
credit to the truth or "a full assent of the mind to a declaration or promise,
on the authority of the person who makes it." Faith in general is
thus an attitude toward a statement of truth or believed truth.
2. Having faith refers t
the same principles in operation for salvation. That is, "Placing confidence
in," "to exercise trust in." That is the act. It does not merely
refer to attitude of the mind. It goes deeper than that. Salvation
is "Grace through faith."
(1) "Faith is opposed to
works as meritorious, and the formula is: ‘A man is not justified by works
of law, but only through faith in Christ.’" (Gal. 3:16).
(2) "Faith lives only in
its works and the formula is: ’Faith without works is dead’" (Ja. 2:26).
(3) "Faith is justified
and approved by works, and the formula is: ‘I will show thee my faith
by my works’" (Jas. 2:18).
(4) "Faith is perfected
in works, and the formula is: ‘By works was faith made perfect’"
(Ja. 2:22). "Saving faith is that act by which the prevenient
grace of the Spirit passes over into the regenerate life of believer.
Thus the faith which saves becomes the faith which is a law of our being.
The initial act becomes the permanent attitude of the regenerate man."
(Wiley Vol. II, p. 375).
Calvinism holds that man
is regenerated by absolute decree, and then turns to God. Arminianism
holds that through grace preveniently bestowed man turns to God and is
then regenerated. "Thus conversion in its truest scriptural meaning,
is the pivotal point, wherein through grace, the soul turns from sin, and
to Christ, in order to regeneration."
Chapter 27, pg. 379, Vol. II
Justification – Justified
in the sight of God.
Definition of Justification:
"Justification is a just
and gracious act of God by which, from the throne of His grace and mercy,
He absolves from His sins man, who is a sinner but who is a believer, on
account of Christ, and His obedience and righteousness, and considers him
righteous to the salvation of the justified person, and to the glory of
the divine righteousness and grace." James Arminius p. 380
Justification and regeneration
are both instantaneous, and both are done instantaneously. Justification
in heaven and is a forensic act of regeneration in the heart.
1. Adoption takes place
in heaven and is instantaneous with justification and regeneration.
2. The witness of the Spirit.
The Spirit witnesses in conviction to an unsaved state; it witnesses to
a saved state and a carnal state of the heart, and it witnesses to the
entirely Sanctified heart.
P. 440, Vol. II
1. Entire Sanctification
is for saved people only consecrated people only, for believing people
2. It is wrought in the
heart of the believer by the Pentecostal baptism with the Holy Ghost.
The heart is cleansed from sin and the Cleanser namely, the Holy Ghost,
remains as the Guest, the Gift, and the Comforter. He is received
by faith and is retained by faith. This experience is instantaneous.
(1) We sanctify ourselves
in consecration and then in answer to believing faith the Spirit sanctifies
the soul. Thus we have man’s part and God’s part.
(2) Sanctification is also
progressive with regard to the approach namely, man’s part. It is
instantaneous with regard to God’s part.
(3) Regeneration is partial.
Sanctification, and heart cleansing is entire sanctification.
3. Christian perfection
is not godlike perfection, not angelic perfection, not Adamic perfection
nor yet glorified perfection, but it is heart perfection, with regard to
the cleansing from all original sin and the indwelling Holy Spirit.
(Notes by Dr. Owens)
The Last Triad:
AND ITS ORGANIZATION
Chapter 31 Vol. 2 p103ff.
1. There was an economy of
Grace in the Old Testament. The Book of Hebrews calls that economy
the "Church in the wilderness." That church was one with minute organization.
The word ecclesia merely means the "Called out ones." The word can
be used either in the old or new economy.
2. The English word "Church"
comes from the Greek word "kuriaka
and merely means "the
Lord’s House." Spiritually the church refers to that body of believers
called "the body of Christ." Jesus called it "My Church."
3. This body is the sphere
of the operation of the Holy Spirit. It was a minute organization
in the old economy, and Paul by inference says it was a pedological institution,
a schoolmaster to bring us to Christ. (Gal. 3:16,17, 24, 25.) Vol. 3 p.
4. In a sense there could
be said to be three kingdoms.
(1) The kingdom that is
(2) The Church kingdom.
If Christ is the Head of that body, it must be somewhat a kingdom.
(3) The Millennium kingdom.
5. We have all three steps
in formation of the Church.
(1) The positive preparation
in the Old Testament for any future age.
(2) The intermediate community
during the earthly ministry of Christ. He laid the foundation for
it, but He did not found it.
(3) The immediate formation
of the Church took place at Pentecost, which is the birthday of the church,
and its future development after that day.
6. Dr. Pope sets forth the
Protestant idea in seven considerations (Pope Vol. III, p. 271 ff).
(1) The church is one and
manifold (many). It is one body in one Divine Head but composed of
many believers. Again it is one Church with One Head but many congregations
with different organizations. No one of the apostles has supreme
headship of the Church. No one recognized as supreme head. The supreme
headship was vested in the Holy Ghost who said "Separate me, Barnabas and
(2) The Church is perfect
and imperfect. (Holy and unholy). The individual may be perfectly
sanctified wholly but may be imperfect in character. And the organization
of which he is part is partly holy and unholy.
(3) The Church is visible
a. In its deepest and most
comprehensive sense the Church is a spiritual and unseen reality.
Jesus said to Pilate that His kingdom was not of this world.
b. Yet the Church is a visible
entity also. There is a material side to that spiritual reality.
(4) Catholic and local.
The word Catholic means universal now. But according to Pope in the
early times it meant it was the same everywhere. It is also local
in each several places. Hence even in our use of the term the Church
is an ecumenical (universal) as well as many local Churches.
(5) Apostolic and Confessional.
The Church is apostolic in that it is built upon the foundation laid by
the apostles and prophets. Jesus Christ being the Chief Cornerstone
(Eph. 2:20). It is confessional in that its members are required
to make a profession of personal faith in Jesus Christ as Savior and Lord.
(6) The gates of hell itself
shall not be able to prevail against the church as a whole (Matt. 16:18).
In this sense it is indefeatable, but individual churches may pass away.
In Rev. 2:5, Jesus Himself threatened to extinguish the candlestick of
the church at Ephesus. The Church is then both indefeatable and defeatable.
The Church is both militant and triumphant. The militant is the church
still on earth fighting the good fight of faith. The church triumphant
is the part on the other side in a state of triumph. There is no
intermediate purgatorial place. Pope 3, 268-270.
7. Preliminary Forms of Organization.
(1) At first each male person
seemed to have been his own priest as Cain and Able both sacrificed.
(2) Noah sacrificed for
the whole family and thus the patriarchal order had its rise. Abraham
continued this method and passed it on to Isaac and Jacob.
(3) Moses ushered in the
theocratic form and perfected sacrifice as a system and worked out the
priesthood. The church and State were closely together. The
State did not govern the Church, but the Church did govern the State.
In Christ as Prophet, Priest, and King they shall be united again in one
8. The Church Age Organization.
(1) It is perfectly clear
to a disinterested reader of the Bible that the Church was organized in
its minutest detail in its earliest stages. This is evidenced from:
a. Definite meeting times
(Acts 20:7), and an earnest urge not to forsake the assembling of themselves
together (Heb. 10:25).
b. They had constituted
ministry of persons, bishops, elders, presbyters, and deacons (Phil 1:1)
(Acts 20:17-28). These persons had to measure up to a certain standard
(I Tim. 3:1-13).
c. There are formal systems
of election. (Acts 1:23-26; 6:5-6). It was an enlarging system
as the need arose as evidenced by the later selection of the seven deacons.
d. A system of financial
support for the ministry and for general interest of charity (I Cor. 16:1-2).
e. A system of discipline
for the ministry and churches (I Tim. 5:17; I Peter 5:2; Matt. 18:17; I
Cor. 5:4, 5, 13).
f. A system of customs and
decrees (I Cor. 11:6; Acts 2:41,42).
g. A set of qualifications
for membership in the Christian Church. (Matt. 28:19; Acts 2:47).
h. A list of widows that
they claimed as their own responsibility (I. Tim. 5:9).
i. A system of recommendations
(Acts 18:27; II Cor. 3:1)
j. There was a stated common
work for all the churches (Phil 2:30). The church and the Churches
within the Church. That work was "the work of Christ."
(2) There are three interpretations
of church organization.
a. The first holds that
the church is strictly a spiritual organization and needs no organization.
This has difficulty because the church deals with people in the body and
not out of the body.
b. The second holds that
the scriptures give us a definite organization for the church in this world.
From this organization we must not depart.
c. The third view is a mediating
view between the first and second. This holds that the New Testament
lays down general principles but gives no definite form. This view
is the general Protestant view. Three principles are to be applied
(3) There are three types
of church government
a. The Roman Catholic with
authority vested in one sole person – the Pope. It thus becomes a
Papacy. In this view the local churches are not churches at all,
but divisions of the one church.
b. Congregational type of
government holds to the other extreme. The local church is autonomous.
It denies the right of any super-imposed organization. Thus the local
church alone is the church. The universal church is but a general
term for all such units.
c. Presbyterian, in which
it is vested in both ministry and laity.
(4) Regeneration must be
considered the basic requirement for membership in the Church or churches.
Since Jesus Christ is the Head of the Church a confession of saving faith
in Him is a necessity. By so doing the responsibility of Church membership
should be assumed.
If one is a member of the
invisible Spiritual body and the physical organization of considered necessary
to reach men, then the responsibility should be assumed.
(5) The function of the
church is missionary. It is an institution of evangelism. Its
mission is to conserve and to evangelize.
9. The Christian Ministry.
The duty of the ministry is to preach the gospel, administer the affairs
of the church, attend to the sacraments, and etc.
(1) In the Old Testament
we have priesthood technically organized. With the death of Jesus
Christ that priesthood passed away, and Jesus the Christ became the Mediator
between man and God.
In the New Testament we
do not have a priesthood in the Old Testament sense, but we do have a called
of God Ministry, known as Bishops, Presbyters, Elders to minister in the
things of God. Every believer, however, is his own priest, as she
himself must enter the presence of God through the One Mediator.
(2) The church then has
a divinely constituted ministry called of God and this call is recognized
by the church.
a. The prophets of old were
called of God and spake and wrote of that call (Ezek 3:17).
b. The apostles were distinctly
called of God, ordained and commissioned by Jesus Christ Himself (Luke
6:13; Mark 3:14).
c. The 70 were sent out
by Jesus to go before His face, but it does not say that they were ordained,
as were the 12 (Luke 10I: 1).
d. St. Paul was called to
the Christian Ministry in no uncertain fashion (Acts 9:15, 26, 16-18).
The disciples left no record of having ordained any. When Barnabas
and Paul were sent to Antioch, they were sent with the prayers and blessings
of the church, but we fall back on imagination when we call that an ordination
service. If not, then there is no record that Paul was ordained by
THE CHURCH – ITS OBSERVANCES
Chapter 32 Vol.3 p.138-210
The Church is the temple
of Divine service continuing and perfecting workshop of the past.
It included offerings presented to God, and blessings received by Him.
The former includes a form of worship. Divine worship is a requirement
in man’s nature. It is a requirement with order through the Spirit
by the Son to the Father (Pope, Vol. III p. 287).
1. The Sabbath is a set and
appointed time for man to worship God more leisurely and fully than at
(1) This institution goes
back to Eden where we are told; God rested the seventh day. God’s
seventh would be man’s first (Gen. 2:2-3). We have no Bible proof
that the patriarchs ever observed any day. The first time we have
a record that man was commanded to keep a day, and the first time we know
he did, was after the Israelites left Egypt. The Decalogue also commands
it. That cannot be considered as more ancient document than their
deliverance from Egypt.
(2) Wiley holds that the
Patriarchal Sabbath was man’s first day and that was changed to the seventh
day to stop idolatry. It was changed for 1500 years and then changed
back to the first day by Jesus. When the Israelites left Egypt they
observed a seven-day period of unleavened bread with the seventh day as
a feast of unleavened bread unto the Lord. Manna fell on six days,
but not on the seventh. (It is hard to see how this Sabbath day was
not a revolving day). Jesus said that the Sabbath was made for man
and not man for the Sabbath. Meaning, the Sabbath was to bend for
the benefit of men. He also declared that the Son of man was Lord
of the Sabbath. That is He could do with it just what He liked.
Pentecost in the Old Testament was prophetic with regard to the New Testament
Jesus arose on the first day. The first five appearances were on
that first day. The sixth appearance was eight days after, making
it the first day again. Pentecost, the birthday or inauguration of
the Church Age, was also on the first day.
(3) The Apostles of the
Lord and first generation Christians kept the first day of the week, "Now
upon the first day of the week when the disciples came together to break
bread Paul preached to them" (Acts 20:7a). That verse itself finishes
the dispute. It has a direct statement and infers strongly that they were
in the habit of gathering together on that day. The Apostles preached
to the Jews whenever they gathered together, but they themselves did so
the first day. They were to lay by the collection for the saints
when they gathered together (I Cor. 16:1-2) The Sabbath was called the
"Lord’s Day" (Rev. 1:10). Apparently the first day should be kept
by all in this age, even those that keep the seventh day.
2. The sacraments – The Greek
Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches hold to Seven sacraments. They
· Holy Order
· Extreme Unction
Protestantism holds to but
The first five were added
early by the church and then all seven were defined in 1124 by Otto of
Hamburg and were given ecclesiastical sanction at the Council of Trent.
We shall discuss the two held by Protestantism.
(1) The Lord’s Supper.
This sacrament has a Passover background. The Pascal lamb was slain
to set forth the death of Jesus the Christ up to that death. It then
was to cease. That lamb pointed forward to the death of Christ.
At the close of the Pascal
Passover Jesus instituted a commemoration that was to continue until I
come. It pointed to the death of Jesus and to remission of sins by
death. This commemoration instituted by Jesus at the close of the former
was a joyous occasion, as it set forth the return of the Christ to reign,
as He dieth no more.
"He took bread: And when
He had given thanks, He brake, and said, Take, eat; this is my body, which
is broken for you: this do in remembrance of me. After the same manner
also He took the cup, when He had supped, saying, This cup is the New Testament
in my blood: this do ye, as oft as ye drink it, in remembrance of me.
For as often as ye eat this bread, and drink this cup, ye do shew the Lord’s
death till he come."
a. The Romanists have salvation
ties to the Mass by eating the body and drinking Jesus’ actual blood.
The Scripture used in this one: Matt. 26:26-28; Mk. 14:22, 24; Lk. 22:19-20;
Jn. 6:53. The words "This is my body." "This is my blood."
Except ye eat the flesh
of the Son of man, and drink His blood, ye have no life in you," are taken
literally. Thus when the host is elevated and the Priest utters Latin
over it, it is supposed to become the actual body and blood of Christ.
Hence the necessity of the Priesthood. And none can enter heaven
except by them.
b. The Lutherans in general
and Luther in particular held to con-substantiation. That is the
body and blood of Christ are real. The body and Blood of Christ were
actually present. The elements were not changed but the body and
blood of Christ were around and over and under it. The prefix con
means with or parallel, hence he held to the scripture, "This is my body."(
Copulla, Dr. Owens notes) Not "this becomes my body", as the Romanists
c. The doctrine of the Eucharist
as a commemoration was advanced by Zwingli, a contemporary of Luther.
As the Word implies, he held it as a commemoration.
d. John Calvin and the reformers
took a mediating view between Luther and Zwingli. The body and blood
of Christ were not locally present but spiritually present as a reminder.
This is the view generally held by evangelical Protestants. (Art.
14, Manual of church of the Nazarene).
It is a sign of what has
been affected by God for lost men and a seal of the promise of redemption
for all who will believe to the saving of the soul, by the death of Jesus
for lost men until the mediatory reign of Christ shall cease.
(2) Baptism. In the
Church of the Nazarene baptism may be administered by ministers by sprinkling,
pouring, or immersing.
a. There are those who hold
that baptism is obsolete (as is animal Sacrifice). John the Baptist
stated, "He must increase, but I must decrease" (Jn. 3:30). "I indeed baptize
you with water unto repentance…"(Matt. 3:11). (Jesus lived and died
under the law, but delivered us from it. Dr. Owens’ notes)
The Quakers point out that
one inference is too slim to build a principle upon.
The apostles and their Judaizers
did baptize in the same form with water, but those who hold this form point
out that it was a carry-over from Judaism. Paul himself baptized
very few. Those few seemed to have been Jews who wanted to be baptized
by an apostle. Hundreds had met no apostle but Paul. He wished
to be all things to all men where right is not at stake; hence he bowed
to their wishes but had to explain it later. Paul declared that he was
sent not to baptize but to preach (I Cor. 1:17; Eph. 4:5). (One Lord, One
faith, and One Baptism. Dr Owens notes.) It is dangerous for holiness people
to put water in there; in fact; it is not overly healthy to follow Paul
too closely if you are not a Quaker or a Salvationist.
They point out why should
one baptized with Christ’s baptism pass back to John or symbolism. In this
view children who are not candidates for the reality would be for the symbol.
Water baptism would be for them and them alone.
b. There are those who hold
that immersion is the only form taught in the Bible. Such generally
(i) That only immersion
(ii) That only immersion
is Christian baptism.
(iii) That only adults can
be recipients of this baptism.
(iv) Christian baptism is
a type of the death and resurrection of Christ.
(v) The baptism of infants
is a modern innovation. (Hill’s, p. 516). Four are scripturally wrong,
and all five are historically wrong.
Within this group there
are those who hold to one immersion facing up in the name of the Father,
Son and Holy Spirit. There are those who hold to three immersions
in rapid succession in three names. This is unscriptural, as the
name is one (Matt. 28:19). There are not three Gods but one God and
three persons. The name is therefore one. Some also hold face
down three times. They will re-baptize people on this issue.
c. There are those who hold
that either or both, pouring or sprinkling are Christian modes of baptism.
They hold generally that the sign or seal of baptism, in adults, is the
seal of regeneration; in children, it is a seal of their possible salvation.
In saved adults it is the seal of their possible baptism with the Spirit.
Circumcision in the Old
Testament spiritually referred to the removal of impurity from the heart
as well as being the symbol of Abraham and God’s covenant, which covenant
still in vogue. The Old symbol then merged into the New Testament
symbol of baptism. Spiritually this also refers to the purification
of the heart.
In the old order the proper
time for circumcision was at the eighth day. Adults who entered as
adults were circumcised as adults. A child uncircumcised at the eighth
day was cut off from the covenant. Just as the paschal feast merged
into the Lord’s Supper, so circumcision in baptism. A child is a
member of the covenant of Grace today as were the children of the Old Testament;
hence the child today is eligible for the symbol (Pope, Vol. III, pp. 317-319).
God help the man who would rob a child of his God-given birthright.
"The promise is to you and to your children" (Acts 2:39). God is
the Sponsor of the little ones and His covenant of Grace sign is theirs
shall now observe the matter Biblically.
Bapto or its derivative
Baptizo, etc. in classic Greek meant to dip in water, milk, vinegar, honey,
was fire or ointment. It meant to dye, without reference to mode, wash,
sprinkle, pour largely or to cleanse with water.
The Septuagint and Josephus
used baptism with regard to ceremonial cleansing. The Book of Judith
calls ceremonial cleansing with regard to Judith being baptized in the
presence of soldiers. Dipping hyssop in water and shaking it over things
is baptism in Hebrew, (No. 9:13, 16, 19; Heb. 9:13-14; Dan. 4:33).
Nebuchadnezzar was baptized by the dew of heaven.
e. Jesus baptized
His hands before He ate. When a servant poured water on His master’s
hands his master was baptized. When they returned from market they
baptized themselves. They baptized themselves many times a day. They
complained because Jesus and His disciples did not baptize their hands
before they ate.
f. Prepositions within themselves
prove nothing definitely, but their context does. Eis, Eis, ek, apo,
all have different meanings in different placed. The "Eis" has to
be repeated before it means "into". "Apo" does not always mean "out
of" but "from".
g. If Jesus were immersed
in Jordan, so was John, for both went in the river and both came out.
(Matt. 3:16). It was after Jesus was baptized that He went out of
the water. If the Eunuch was under, Philip was under (Acts 8:388-39).
— "And he commanded the chariot to stand still and they went down both
into the water, both Philip and the eunuch and he baptized him. And
when they were come up out of the water, the Spirit of the Lord caught
away Philip, that the Eunuch saw him no more, and he went on his way rejoicing."
It is a self-evident, common sense fact that Jesus and John and Philip
and the Eunuch were standing in the water. Paul was baptized standing up
(Acts 9:18). Greek, "And having arisen."
The implication is that
water was brought into the house of Cornelius and into the Philippian jail
h. Bapto and baptizo are
used where no water is used.
(i) Paul says that the Israelites
were baptized unto Moses in the cloud and in the sea. (I Cor. 10:1-3).
They were sprayed by the stormy wind crossing the dry ocean floor.
They were under the cloud. It was not a water cloud but light by
day and darkness by night. Jesus said, "I have a baptism to be baptized
with, and how am I straitened till it be accomplished!" (Luke 12:50)
His water baptism was a
suffering and death. He had sanctified Himself for it. Paul
uses the term "Buried with Christ in baptism." A permanent state,
not momentary (Col. 2:11-12; Rom. 6:2, 5, 6; Gal. 3:27; I. Cor. 10:2).
Buried with Christ, dead to sin, as dead to it as Jesus was physically
dead in the grave.
i. Notice Scripture references
to the Baptism with the Spirit.
(i) (Num. 8:7; 19:13; Isa.
52:15; Ezek. 36:25; Ex. 4:9; Prov. 1:23; Isa. 44:3; Joel 2:28-29; Acts
2:17ff. Referring to Joel’s statement Peter said, "I will pour out
my spirit upon all mankind." Sprinkling and pouring in the Old Testament
which is called baptism climaxes with the outpoured Spirit of God which
is called baptism.
j. Some peculiar and closing
observations should be made.
(i) It is interesting to
note that immersion was informally practiced by a group of anti-holiness
people (Anabaptist), and largely carried on today by denominations who
are eternal security and anti-holiness (Old line Baptist, Pentecostals,
Mormons). Small holiness groups believed in it exclusively but have
made no great literary contribution.
(ii) It seems incredible
to believe that if thousands were immersed by John and Peter and others
at one time that it would have been by immersion, that nothing would have
been said about wet clothes, exchanging clothes, and booths for dressing.
(iii) It appears to be more
than a happen-so that most textbooks on holiness were written and are written
by men who believe in pouring and sprinkling.
ESCHATOLOGY: Vol.3 p.211-242
1. Death. Both Spiritual
and physical are given in the Bible as a result of sin. The gift
of the first Adam to his posterity. Both have been potentially abolished
by the second Adam, Christ.
a. (1) Physical death
is the separation of the spirit from the body;
And spiritual death is separation
of the person from God (The prodigal).
b. In regeneration the spirit
is brought into relationship with God through Christ. Thus spiritual
death is abolished for the child of God. Physical death is also abolished
in that the soul and body are to be reunited as were the soul and body
of Christ reunited. Thus physical death is abolished for the saved
and unsaved. The saved are to be resurrected and glorified and then pass
into the presence of God and Christ. The unsaved are resurrected
and made indestructible and pass into hell fire or the lake of fire.
c. The second death has
no reference to the physical alone but the whole person, spirit and body,
who is cast out of the presence of God. Thus this separation eternally
from God of the whole person is the second death.
(1) There is an innate conviction,
strong in the heart of all. How did it originate? Why does
it continue? It is a strong argument for immortality.
(2) The Philosophical arguments
a. The Psychological argument
is based on the nature of the soul as simple, indivisible and indestructible.
b. The Teleological argument
holds that the human soul cannot in this life fulfill all of its promises
in this life or tax its possibilities.
c. The Cosmical argument
holds that there is no possibility of the communion of all people.
d. The Analogical argument
is drawn from analogies. The seed dies and yet perpetuates its identity.
e. The Moral argument declares
that there are wrongs unredressed in this world that calls for another
conscious world to balance all. If there were on beyond, the good
man, the honest, the conscientious man is in many respects a fool.
(3) Immortality is revealed
in the Scriptures. Life and immortality were fully revealed in Christ;
hence, in the Old it is hazily taught, but it is stated there nevertheless
(Eccles. 3:21; 12:7). Enoch was not, for God took him. Elijah
was not as he too passed on. They referred to departure and going
into their fathers. The same is taught in Job.
In the New the light shines
crystal clear, Jesus coming from and going to God.
Hear Stephen’s testimony.
Paul’s declaration to be absent here is to present with Christ. (Luke
16:13-19). Jesus having abolished death became the first born from
the dead. And having arisen became the first fruits of the dead.
3. The intermediate state
– There is no such thing as soul sleep nor yet of annihilation of anyone.
They are doctrinely false. Build on minority texts.
(1) Annihilationism is out
and present conditional immortality springs from this. Annihilationism
contradicts the doctrine of immortality and the belief — It allows no degrees
of punishment. It is out of harmony with the majority of Bible statements
on this subject.
(2) Others hold that punishment
is remedial and that even the devil himself is remedial. Eternal
punishment is not thus necessarily eternal. Universalism which came
from German rationalism holds this view. They use I Cor. 3:15.
It is wonderful what theories can be backed up by Scripture taken out of
(3) Destructionalism holds
that the soul or spirit is mortal and perishes with the body. This
view holds that matter is the ground substance, and spirit is rectified
(4) Purgatory held by Roman
Catholicism is passed on Plato’s 10th chapter in his "Republic".
The myth of Er. There is no Scripture for that, but they on (invent?)
some. This is under the power of the keys or under the Church.
The Church may keep people in or let them out.
4. The names used to designate
the place of punishment.
(1) Sheol, Hades in the
Greek. In the Greek these terms originally referred to the place
of the dead. It may refer to the grave merely. "Thou wilt not
leave my soul in Hades, neither wilt thou suffer thine holy one to see
corruption." This refers to the grave where corruption would be.
(2) Tartarus – This refers
to be cast down. In Scripture it is found in II Peter 2:4 – "For
if God spared not the angels that sinned but cast them down to Tartarus
(hell) and to be reserved unto Judgment."
(3) Gehenna refers to the
place of punishment. It is taken over from the Gehenna Valley where
the refuse of the city continually burned. Gehenna appears many times
in the New Testament (Matt. 5:22; 29, 30). (Jesus used this word, literally
Ghenna of fire. Dr. Owens notes.) They (Sheol and Hades) do not refer to
hell at all. All are going to the grave, but Gehenna is different.
The rich man was there and wished others not to come. He would not
have made his request as concerning the grave. The torture of Gehenna is
referred to 12 times, 11 by Jesus. (Matt. 18:9; James 3:6; Mk. 9:43).
(4) The lake of fire cannot
differ in quality but may in quantity, as that is the final abode of all-evil
persons and evil. Hell, meaning Gehenna can only differ from it in
time. That is between the two is the wall of time with the judgments
SECOND ADVENT AND RELATED
SUBJECTS. Vol. 3. P. 243-319
1. Nil-millennialists (mille
– 1,000 years, Chilias – 1,000 years in Greek). They spiritualize
everything in relation to the personal return and reign on earth.
They do not believe in a Millenium as such at all.
2. The Roman Catholic Church
holds pretty much to St. Augustine’s view that the Millenium is identical
with the reign of the Church on earth. Augustine declared that the
1,000 years denoted the last 1,000 years of time or else a figure for the
whole duration of time. The Roman Catholic Church rejects this aspect
3. The Adventist’s theory
holds that the rapture, the revelation of Christ, and the conflagration
are all identical in the point of time. The 1,000 years is a period
when the righteous will be on high, and the wicked destroyed at the brightness
of His coming, and the earth is rendered void. Satan is chained in
the sense that during the period he can do no harm. Satan is unloosed
at the end of the 1,000 years of chaos, after the wicked nations are resurrected
for a period. That is, Satan has an opportunity to do evil. Satan
rallies the wicked and is defeated, and then we have the final destruction
of the wicked and the new heaven and the new earth becomes the abode of
the saints. Wiley has an excellent summary of this view. (Vol.
III, pp. 281-282)
4. Post-Mill. Holds
that the world will get better and better until millennial conditions get
better and better. After a period of such ideal conditions Jesus
returns and winds up all. To them there is but one resurrection in
mass, and one general judgment. A. M. Hills is the modern great exponent
of this view. John Miley is of the same persuasion, but no so (Bull headed).
5. Pre-millennialism may
differ somewhat. There is Dr. Wiley and Dr. Pope. Dr. Pope
has really no millenium proper, but he does have a "Day of the Lord" of
some length; after the return of Jesus in which things are wound up.
He is really a Nil-millennialist. Dr. Wiley follows Pope as closely
in this as in all else. He, however, lengthens it out somewhat and
mixes the tribulation, judgments, and reign all together in an untangable
mass. The matter seems to stand thus: Dr. Wiley is really a Nil,
but he is writing a theology for the Holiness Movement, that is at least
90% thorough going Premillennial. Therefore, he uses premillennial
terms and calls himself a Premillennial. The Holiness movement today
adheres pretty closely to what Dr. Wiley calls Keswickism. It is
not really Keswickism, but it was first systematized by Bengel of Germany.
Wesley was pretty much of this persuasion. He held to a 1,000 years
of reign without a Devil and then another 1,000 after he was released.
That period is undated and does not seem to be that long.
Modern thorough going Premillennialism
is something like this:
1. The next event in the
divine calendar is the rapture at which time:
(1) The dead in Christ will
be raised; the living saints caught up.
(2) The Holy Spirit as a
person will be withdrawn.
(3) The Man of Sin (Antichrist)
will be revealed.
2. The Tribulation will
then take place – a period of seven years. It is cut in two:
(1) The whole period will
be a period of intolerance for the Gentiles. They will have to worship
(2) The Jews return to Palestine
and worship God as they see fit under a covenant with death, and an agreement
with hell. At the midst of the week this covenant is broken and the Antichrist
marches against them to make them worship him. We then have the Battle
of Armageddon, at which time Christ fights for the Jews. They recognize
Him as their rejected Messiah and at one accept Him as such. He then
visibly returns to earth.
3. The first judgment follows:
(1) The resurrected saints
and raptured saints return with Him. They are spiritual bodies and
neither marry nor are given in marriage, and are not subjected to natural
(2) The living nations are
called into judgment with regard to what they have done with the Jews.
Two-thirds of the Jews and Gentiles are slain or die during the Tribulation
(3) One-third of the living
nations moves into the millennium and re-populate the earth. Life
is greatly lengthened; a person dying at 100 will be considered a child,
and a sinner in heart living to a 100 will be accursed.
(4) Christ reigns from Jerusalem
with a rod of iron, and suppresses all sin, and commands all to come and
worship Him. If they do not come, they are to be punished until extermination.
4. At the end of the 1,000
years Satan is let out of his prison in which he was incarcerated at the
beginning of the 1,000 years. He gathers all the heart rebels together
and surrounds the Holy City. God pours fire from heaven upon them
all, and they are defeated.
5. Then comes the general
judgment when all the dead are resurrected and judged. All appear.
The good and the bad are eternally separated. The bad in the lake
of fire and the good go into heaven itself. Eternity.
XII. THE GENERAL RESURRECTION
AND FINAL JUDGMENT
CHAPTER 35 Vol. 3.p. 320-354
1. Taking Jesus’ resurrection
as the example, and this must we do, the very bodies that are buried are
to rise, but rise completely changed and of a spiritual nature. It
is sown a natural body; It is raised a spiritual body. The it refers
to the same one.
(1) All died physically
because of our descent from the first Adam. This goes for the saved
and the unsaved (with the exception of the translated few and the raptured
generation of the saved).
(2) All are to be resurrected
because of our relationship to the Last Adam. The good and the bad
are to be raised. The Spirits of the saved will return and be reunited
with their bodies; and the spirits of the doomed will return and be reunited
with their bodies.
(3) The saved will be given
glorified bodies (their own glorified) to carry into the presence of God
forever. The unsaved will be given indestructible bodies (their own
raised) to carry into the lake of fire forever.
2. At the general judgment
all shall be there, saved and unsaved (I Cor. 15:21-22; Rev. 20:11-15).
The Book probably has reference to God’s revelation to mankind whether
by nature, conscience or written, and the books probably has reference
to the lives of individuals.
(1) It is not a judgment
to determine destiny. That is determined. Most of the wicked
are called from a place of punishment to attend the general judgment, and
then return to a place of punishment. Most of the righteous are called
from a place of happiness to attend the general judgment, and return to
a place of happiness. The wicked have already been condemned and
the righteous have already been acquitted.
(2) The Judge at that judgment
is the Christ of God, the God-man who are judged himself at the bar of
the world before both Jew and Gentile in Pilate’s presence. All judgment
is turned over to him who was himself judged. It is an awful thought
for the religious leaders of Pilate’s day, and for the political rulers
of Pilate’s day. Yet no more awful for them than for those who have
and are setting him at naught since and today.
(3) At that judgment God
will vindicate His every action and every attribute. We are in the
dark with regard to much here. All shall be explained and revealed
and shown to have been done in wisdom and in love.
(4) All wrongs unredressed,
and all insults unavenged will be fully taken care of, every debt of every
kind will be paid; every fraud, and every lie and every secret and covered
thing – in short every violation of the laws of God will be somehow fully
The person who refused to
repent here because of something that he is not willing to adjust will
have to adjust it, and pay for the adjustment in the currency of that world.
No one is getting off with a thing.
(5) All mistakes and errors,
and unaccountable actions will be shown as such and wrongly accused persons
will be acquitted and compensated to the full.
(6) The influence of each
on the other will be fully shown to the extent that the sinner will say
Amen to his doom. The morality of the universe will be fully sustained.
2. Just before, or possibly
during the Day of Judgment, which is of an indefinite time (not necessarily
a day, may be much longer or much shorter) (II Peter 3:7,10; Rev. 21:5)
the earth itself will be removed by fire and as such pass away. The elements
are to melt with fervent heat, and be folded up and pass away.
(1) Angels also which kept
not their first estate will apparently be judged and pass into the lake
of fire in relation to that second judgment (II Peter 2:4).
(2) This will apparently
close the mediatorial reign of Christ. He will step down from that
Mediatorial throne and step back into the bosom of the eternal Trinity
that God may be all in all (I Cor. 15:28). Pope III pg. 425.
THE ETERNAL STATE OF THE SOUL
Chapter 36 Vol. 3, p. 355 ff
1. Scripture teaches in an
unmistakable manner the doctrine of eternal punishment. From the
statements of Jesus Himself we are forced to admit this (Matt. 7:23; Mk.
10:28; Matt. 13:41, 42, 49, 50; 25:41, 46; Mk. 8:36; 9:43-44; Luke 16:22-23;
(1) The fact remains that
those who die in their sins are separated from God forever and are placed
in a state of punishment. That place is a conscious state.
(2) Some learned men have
tried to argue this away by saying it is contrary to the goodness of God.
The fact remains that God is not mocked "Be not deceived; God is not mocked:
for whatsoever a man soweth, that shall he also reap." (Gal. 6:7
also read 8).
(3) The present life is
a probation to settle the nature of an eternal habitation and the direction.
Every principle involved is this probation.
(4) An aspect of this eternal
punishment is called the second death, but this second death is an eternal
state. – "But the fearful, and unbelieving, and the abominable, and
murderers and whoremongers and sorcerers and idolaters, and all liars,
shall have their part in the lake which burneth with fire and brimstone:
which is the second death: (Rev. 21:8) NOTICE: (Rev. 20:14-15).
This sentence of the second
death cannot be executed while the sinner lives; it comes at the judgment.
During time the restraining grace is upon the sinner and prevents a complete
breakdown in soul corruption, but when that grace is withdrawn, that breakdown
is complete, and its corruption will be complete. Physical death
and corruption are a type of the spiritual death. This is a more profound
truth than most of us realize.
(5) Jesus went a step farther
and spoke of that punishment as outer darkness. He associated it
with weeping and wailing and gnashing of teeth (Matt. 8:12; 22:13; 25:20).
St. Peter uses the term chains of darkness (II Pet. 2:4, 17).
(6) This punishment is private.
It is banishment forever from what should have been and might have been.
This banishment or loss is terrific (Matt. 25:41).
(7) This punishment is not
only private, but it is positive. Jesus calls it hell fire, and John
- lake of fire. "And shall cast them into a furnace of fire: there
shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth" (Matt. 13:42).
(8) This punishment is as
eternal as the blessedness of the saved is as eternal as the Throne of
God. This aspect is worse than all others combined. The words
eternal and everlasting are used the same with the saved and unsaved.
2. The Bible says more about
the eternal blessedness of the redeemed than the eternal state of the body,
but theology says more about the body. Heaven is a state and a place.
The state is often emphasized and the place overlooked.
(1) The saved soul enters
heaven at death and awaits there the resurrection of the body. Body
and soul are then reinhabited in heaven above after the general judgment.
(2) Jesus comforted His
disciples with this (Jn. 14:2-3). Stephen and Paul give us interesting
statements (Acts 7:55; II Cor. 5:8). The distance from earth to heaven
cannot be spatial. If there is a distance to be traversed, it does
not take time to do it.
(3) Heaven is not in a Christian’s
heart, home nor community. There may be earnest therein, but these
are not heaven. Heaven is a place with foundations, walls and gates
but with no top.
(4) The New Jerusalem that
John saw coming down can hardly be heaven itself. It appears to be
the church triumphant. Twelve foundations had the names of the 12
apostles of the Lamb, upon the foundation the Church Age rests. It
also is called the "Bride" – "The Lamb’s Wife". This again brands
it as the church triumphant.
(5) The blessedness of the
saved is beyond description. We shall not try; the Angels said "Write
it not." And Paul saw things that could not be written nor uttered.
We shall let it go at that.
(6) Hill’s abridged work,
page 620, makes a few observations:
a. The root and branch of
sin are gone. There is the absence of all physical evil.
b. Heaven will be mental
gain. Mental powers will come to their own there and be fully taxed.
c. Heaven will be moral
and spiritual gain. The contaminated air and sin stained. Temptation
will be a thing of the past. People will not be a trial to each other,
but only blessing and enjoyment.
d. Heaven will be social
gain. Society will be to our perfect taste. The sanctified
Christian in an unholy environment finds himself in a holy environment.
The change is wonderful, but nothing like heaven will be.
e. Heaven will bring limitless
development and progress. Life really calls for progress.
f. Heaven for the Christian
is also endless.
It will then be too bad
for the holiness fighter. How would he feel if he were there?
God help him when he hits the bar of heaven. The eternal security
person who sins in word, thought and deed would look like what there?
The whole trouble then will be that the mediator will have stepped from
His mediatorial throne (Rev. 22:19-21).
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