Christian Theology

Dr. Noble King
All Rights Reserved

           Second Semester

VII. First Traidic Material

There is a free gift of righteousness bestowed on all men of the Second Adam (Jesus Christ), who was in reality the first .  St. Paul calls Adam "The Figure of Him that was to come."  (Before Moses was, I am).  Before Adam was, I am, could also be said before, the type must precede the Anti-type, but the Anti-type must precede the type in the divine purpose.  Pope Vol. II, pg. 55.  The provision was there all ready when the need arose.  The effects of the gospel was poured upon and preached to the first offenders.  Adam, the first, became the chief human cornerstone of the second Adam.  Pope declares Paul’s strained language to explain how far this surpasses the fall. 

1. The death-dealing first Adam is set over against the life-giving second Adam.  Romans 5:18-19.  All were constituted sinners at the first, and the possibility of righteousness was placed within their grasps in the second.
2. Included in the free gift was the return of the Holy Spirit as a helper and arouser, and convictor as a matter of salvation for as Pope points out (The atonement doesn’t put away sin as a sovernity as arbitrarily grace, but as a virtue of grace as pardoning feeling of activating grace.)  Pope Vol. II. Pg. 56.
According to Wesley’s view prevenient grace was given totally to ruined man, so he could decide for God in total salvation, thus with the new office of the Holy Spirit in redemption, there was without doubt a restraint out of operation of depravity from beginning to now.
3. Arminianism accepts both Federal and Natural headship of Adam.  Adam was legally the representative of the race and the natural Headship of Christ. Wiley vol. 2 p. 133.
4. The nature of the free gift is seen in:
(1) Preventing man from sinking below the level of possible redemption. Pope pp. 152.  Remember the Following:
(2) The reversal of condemnation and a bestowal of a title to eternal life.  Read Wood Perfect Love, pp. 29.
(3) The free gift was the restoration of the Holy Spirit, to the race as an awakener and convictor.

III. The Doctrine of the Son — Chapter 20 — Christology. Vol.2 p.143 ff
(Redemption is in the New Testament declared to have been a purpose of God in Eternity).  (This design having reference only to the Savior’s work, and a part as work of the Spirit’s work).  (Under a decree of redemption, the whole world has lived and had its being).  (A lamb was both foreordained before and slain from the foundation of the world and the heritage of the Atonement, like death passed through to all men, the heritage of the race).

1.   The incarnation of Christ was the verification in time of an eternal fact in the Divine counsel.  Thus the self-devotion of the one mediator dates back to before he became Christ Jesus the man.  I Peter 1:19-20; Rev. 13:8; Titus 3:4; I Tim. 2:3-6.

Christ is thus the central factor in human history, and the cross the central factor in that decree.  The decree is a mystery slowly revealed in progressive unfoldings in various ways by gradual prophecy and preparation, both of which assumed the form of a series of covenants, or covenant economy.  Constant fore announcements were made.  Original sin and Original Grace met together in Eden.  Thus the gospel was preached from the very beginning.  Genesis 3:15; 21; 22:18.

2. There was continuous preparation, which preparation was further evidence of giving of the law, which acted as a schoolmaster to bring us to Christ (I. Cor. 1:21, Gal. 3:19, 23-25).

3. This gradual development is an unfolding of an age-old covenant of Grace by blood.  (The Grace of our Lord Jesus Christ) Christ was the covenant and the messenger of the covenant (Gen. 15:9-18; Heb. 9:15, 16, II Cor. 13:14; Malachi 3:1; Isa. 49:8; Gen. 3:18, 19, 29).
This covenant has taken three forms in the history of Revelation.
(1) As entered into with mankind after the fall.
(2) As ratified with Noah for the New World.
(3) As confirmed to Abraham as the representative of all believers from all time.  With regard to its reaffirmation to Abraham, it also introduced a special compact with his descendants after the flesh.


The Redeemer was promised the race through Adam.
Gen. 3:15 F. F. To a division of that race through Seth.
Gen. 4:26; Jn. 10:35.  To a nation of that division through Abraham.
Gen. 12:2 F. F. to Judah as a tribe of that Nation. Gen. 49:8-10.
To David as House as that tribe. Psa. 132:10, 11.
To Mary as a person in that house. Luke 1:31, 35

4. The divine decree was at last accomplished (Gal. 4:4).  The New Covenant is now spoken of as a finished transaction.  Heb. 8:8-10.  That covenant was Christ Himself, very God, and very Man born of a woman as any other child is born, and begotten of the Holy Ghost with an eternal pre-existence before time; thus two complete natures meet in one Person.  And that person decreed in eternity to redeem man; thus a man could be saved before Jesus came in time just the same as they can now be saved, after He has disappeared into time.
(1)  The supreme secret of the ages was then revealed.  The mystery of the Gospel was a mystery no longer (Eph. 6:19; 3:4; 9; Col. 2:2, I Peter 1:12; I Jn. 4:14).
(2) All men are conditionally chosen from eternity in Him that is redemption that is within the reach of all, by Grace. (Eph. 1:4).  He eternally loved us with a perfect love, and it is possible for us to love Him with perfected love.
(3) Historical controversies followed each other.  Sometimes the humanity of Jesus Christ was overly stressed and sometimes His deity was overly stressed.

1. The Primitive Period  - Council of Nicea (325) was chiefly concerned with reality of the two natures of Christ; the one Person.  That creed expresses the beliefs of the early churches in general.  "That Jesus Christ was incarnate for us (man) and for our salvation."Vol.2 p.156
2. Ebionitism – denied the reality of the divine nature in Christ maintaining at the time of His baptism, and that unmeasured fullness of the Spirit was given to Him as it was not and has not been given any other since, thus consecrating Him for the Messianic office.  This is the general position of present day Modernism.
3. The Docetae  - denied the reality of Christ’s physical body.  It seemed to appear but was not really real as ours.  "Ebionitism was the result of Judaism on Christianity and Docetism is the result of Pagan Philosophy."  Pope II, p 98, Wiley II, p. 156.
4. All such beliefs side step the two perfect natures in one Person and have failed to shake the great central truth.  In keeping with the general trend of the Trinitarian creeds (Manual of the Church of the Nazarene 1932, p. 26).
5. Historical controversies, in the matter of whom salvation is for, followed each other also.  The early church held fast to the universality of the object of the redeeming purpose.  They knew nothing of the restriction in the Divine purpose of redemption.
(1) Augustine did not follow his teacher Ambrose in this respect; he laid down the proposition that a certain number were to be saved with irresistible Grace supplied to that number and a certain number were to be damned.
(2) Gottschalk was the chief link between Augustine and Calvin.  He lived in the 9th Century.
(3) The Scholastic divines took opposite sides in the matter.  Thomas of Bradwardine, Archbishop of Canterbury (1349) Wycliff after him.  Wycliff prepared the way for the doctrine called by Calvin’s name.  The general tendency of medieval doctrine was towards the universal redemption of mankind as laid down by the Council of Trent of which the Greek Catholic Church has not deviated. 
(4) Calvin carried the error of Augustine to its logical conclusion.  Supra-Lapsarianism holds that God pre-destined the fall as well as the Salvation of some to the glory of His grace and the damnation for the glory of His justice.  Infra-Lapsarianism holds that God permitted the fall.  This, however, renounces the absolute sovereignty of God, which cannot consist in a mere permission to fall.  The whole framework of Calvinism falls when absolute sovereignty of God falls.  Some are trying to get away from that ironclad system by saying that Christ’s death was for all but was extended only to the elect.
(5) Remonstrants — Arminians of Holland were the first in modern times to protest against this.  Calvinism forgot that the decree of redemption of those who are actually redeemed, that redemption in purpose, and had not reference to those that perish and that if general appeals and … Pope Vol. II, p 100 Lutheranism and Methodism hold the same position "The death of Christ for the whole world." Note on back of this page "In the likeness of human flesh" and sinful flesh are two different things. At no time before or after birth did Jesus have to be cleansed from sin. Thus the germs of physical death would not be there." Pope vol. 2, p 118 (Dr. Owens’ notes).

PART III Chapter 21Vol. 2 p.169 ff.
The Person of Christ

Christ is truly God and perfectly man.  Unconfusedly in two natures and indivisible in one person, the eternal Christ.  The Bible does not give us a term for this union.  The truth teaches Christ in two natures. 

VIII. The Deity of Christ

The deity of the eternal Son.  Neither member of the Trinity was before or after the other, and neither as member is inferior but are equals. 

Now we have to do with the deity of the Son in person of Christ.

1. The Scriptures assert that Jesus of Nazareth was the Messiah of the Old Testament and the Christ of the New Testament, and that He pre-existed as the eternal Son of God. (Jn. 8:58; 3:13; Isa. 9:6).  Not only did Christ pre-exist, but He pre-existed as God, (Jn. 1:1-5) Eternal Logos.
2. Christ was Jehovah of the Old Testament. (" If in block letters it really means YAWEH. ’Dr. Owens) Moses said, "The Lord thy God will raise up unto thee a Prophet from the midst of thee, of thy brethren, like unto me; unto him ye shall hearken (Deut. 18:15).  In Stephen’s last address he declared that that was fulfilled in Christ (Acts 7:37).  The angel of Jehovah "was at once servant and Lord," Angel and Jehovah (Ex. 23:20, 21).  The word Lord often refers to Jehovah in the Old Testament as it does in the New.  He is both Jehovah and God.  (Matt. 18:20; Jn. 20:28, 29).
3. Christ made certain claims, which were tremendous.  He claimed deity in a full sense.  Jesus claimed eternity  (Jn. 8:58; 17:5).  He empowered them to heal in His name (Matt. 10:7-8).  He exercised and claimed divine prerogatives (Matt. 9:2-6; Mk. 2:28).  He claimed to know the Father as others did not and could not (Matt. 11:27).  He claimed alone unique Sonship to God (Matt. 10:32, 33).  He encouraged and accepted worship of Himself (Matt. 14:33).  He claimed to be the final judge of all men (Matt. 7:21-23; Mark 14: 62;John 5:22).

IX. The Manhood of Christ 

The manhood of Christ is declared in the Scripture to be perfect in the sense of possessing all that belongs to nature.  He is the man Christ Jesus (I. Tim. 2:5; Jn. 1:14).  He is the Son of Man (Gal. 4:4).  He was partaker of flesh and blood and came in the flesh being born of woman in the likeness of man, in the likeness of sinful flesh (Heb. 12:2; Rom. 8:3).  Pope II, 116.

1. He was conceived by the Holy Ghost but not by a communication of his essence as in human paternity, but by a miraculous operation enabling the virgin to perform the function of maternity and yet remain a virgin (Summers Theology).
2. Thus our Lord was conceived by the Holy Ghost and was nourished of her substance during her gestation and was born as other men.  His body was real and continued to be real, even after the resurrection.  When He could say, "A spirit hath not flesh and bones as ye see me have" (Luke 24:39).  He possessed a human soul, the seat of intellect, sensibility, and will (Luke 2:52).
3. Our Lord thus added nothing to His manhood by carrying it into the Godhead.  He was still man.  Upon this fact rests the Savior’s own language of subordination to the Father.
(1) The human nature underwent a sinless process of normal development.  He was thus an ideal racial man and developed as such.  Immortality in Adam was a conditional gift but in Christ it was absolute.  "In Him was life"(Jn. 1:4).  Pope, Vol. II, p. 118 –"He surrendered His right to the immortality of His holy manhood and of himself laid down His life." 

X. The Divine Human Person

Theanthropic (God-Man) has two distinct natures that are neither confounded nor confused.  None of the attributes of either nature are ascribed to the other nature.  Yet there is but one person and that person — The Eternal Christ — is divine.  Human nature acquired personality on union with the Divine Person. 

1. This union of two natures in one person receives no name in the Scriptures.  Theology calls it the Hypostatical Union.  This term is derived from the use of the word hypostasis to represent the personal substances in the Godhead.  Hence it signifies that only one person is the result of the union of the two natures.  There is but one Christ, "Thou art the Christ."  That Christ has two distinct natures blended into one.  That one person is the subject and the predicate of both natures (Acts 20:28; I. Cor. 2:8)
2. His work was the work of one mediator between God and man.  His perfect human nature made Him a perfect representative of the human race.  And His perfect Divine nature made Him a perfect representative of the Trinity.  Thus God and man could be and were brought together in that one mediator.  Pope Vol. III. p. 120.
3. The union of two natures in one person is indissoluble and eternal. Our humanity was carried into the Godhead by Christ as a permanent fixture (Rom 9:5; col. 2:9; Heb. 13:8; 4:14, 15.)
4. The primary revealed purpose of the union of the two natures in one was to effect redemption.  "He by the grace of God should taste death for every man" (Heb. 2:9).  By this death He effected three things:
(1) The abolishment of death itself.
(2) The reconciliation of offenders.
(3) The propitiation necessary for both. (Wiley vol. 2 p. 185).  One seed was promised, and One Seed effected the reconciliation. (Gal. 3:16; 3:14, 15).

Chapter 22 THE ESTATES AND OFFICES OF Christ Vol. 2 p. 187ff

1. Humiliation in regard to Person.
Our Lord took on manhood in its sinless perfection, but under the law of development, with the natural infirmities to which sin had reduced it.  Sin bruised His heel before He bruised its head.  He as a man of sorrow and acquainted with grief in a lower sense as well as in a higher – (Isa. 53:3).  The Scriptures reveal to us a humiliation in which He took a nature unshielded from human infirmities "Himself took our infirmities"  (Matt. 8:17b; Phil. 2:8).

We must also apply the term humiliation to our Lord’s person as divine.  The divine nature was also humbled severely, in that its glory was hidden for a season under the veil of the flesh.  He emptied Himself of His glory for a time.  That in itself made that time a time of humiliation.  The incarnate Son was subordinated to the Father in a specific humiliation.  From the first words concerning His mission "I must be in My Father’s will", down to the last, "My Father is greater than I."  This truth rules all the Redeemer’s relation to His Father (Luke 2:49; John 14:28).  Pope, II, p. 154.

He was under the guidance of the Holy Spirit during His earthly life rather than under the independent agency of His divine personality.  That particular subordination ceased when he who received became the giver of the Holy Ghost.  Indeed it may be said to have ceased when the Redeemer laid down His life of Himself and through the Eternal Spirit offered Himself to God for us (Heb. 9:14; Gal. 5:18).

Thus human nature and the divine nature were both humiliated, but it was the humiliation of but One person, the Divine human Person. Pope, II, p. 155.

2. Humiliation with regard to His redeeming work.
Viewed in relation to His work, the humiliating state of Christ began with His baptism and ended with His descent through death into Hades (grave).  It may be regarded as his personal submission to be the representative of a sinful race, and as His obedience to the Father’s redeeming will.  These converge in His passion and death in which the Redeemer’s humiliation was perfected.
(1) That our Lord humbled Himself to be the representative to law of sinful man is the first key to the solution to His entire history on earth.  Pope, II, p. 156.  In right of circumcision our Lord’s human nature underwent the covenant sign of initiation into the Hebrew covenant to put away sin (Luke 1:35).  He thus early placed Himself under the Law, until the Law was abolished by Him (Gal. 4:4).  He was in fact born under the Law.  His baptism and temptation in the wilderness were alike of universal import in this respect. He appeared there as the bearer away of sin "Behold the Lamb of God that taketh away the sin of the world" (Jn. 1:29).  Not until He had fulfilled the requirement of all righteousness did He receive the attestation of heaven that sin had nothing in Him other than being laid upon Him.  Thus His voluntary submission led to His vicarious passion as the final expiation (II Cor. 5:21; Gal. 4:4-5; 3:13).
The voluntary humiliation which made Christ a representative of sinners (Phil. 2:8; Isa. 53:3, 4, 10, 12).
(2) Christ was obedient to the mediatorial will of His Father.  He who is Lord of all entered the world as a servant (Jn. 6:38; 10:18).  In His obedience He took a servant’s place and paid deference to those under whom He placed Himself (Matt. 19:17; Mark 13:32; Jn. 20:17; 14:28).  With regard to His passion He habitually referred to Himself as Son of man.
(3) The death of Christ was His perfect humiliation.  It was His supreme submission, self-renunciation, and abasement.  It was His passion in general and His crucifixion in particular.  Stalker, The Trial and Death of Jesus.
a. The passion of Our Lord must be separate in thought at least from His death.  He was obedient unto death, and His soul was exceedingly sorrowful, even unto death.  (Phil. 2:8; Heb. 2:9; Lam 1:12).  "Reproach hath broken my heart."  (Psa. 69:20a; Jn. 19:34).  The blood and water that flowed from His riven side after His death proved that true.
b. The crucifixion cannot, however, be very well separated from His death. (Phil. 2:8).  Pope, Vol. II, p. 160.
(4) Viewing the passion in relation to the crucifixion of the Lord, we observe the following:
a. The fulfillment of the determinate council and knowledge of God.  (Acts 2:23; II Cor. 5:21; Isa. 53:10).
b. The crucifixion of our Lord was the fulfillment of prophecy (Gen. 22:6; Jn. 3:14; Isa. 53:5; Psa. 22:16).
c. Providence took up into its plan the death on the cross as that which alone could unit the whole world (Jn. 18:37).
(5) Hence the cross was to our High Priest merely the awful form which His altar assumed (I. Peter 2:24; Heb. 11:19; 13:10-11; Gal 3:13).
3. The limits of His humiliation.  His humiliation embraces His whole life, from the conception to His burial or actual death.  The incarnation is not in itself necessarily a humiliation, but being incarnated in the likeness of sinful flesh was.  The article of death for sin in the stead of others was a humiliation, but descending into the grave was not necessarily a humiliation, that is the act of so doing.  The end of His personal humiliation was reached the moment He died.  Obligations went no further than the dissolution of body and spirit.  That separation was then attested by His entombment.  His body saw no corruption as it was still part of His incarnate person.  "Christ and the Gospel" – Resurrection Pope, Vol. II, 163.
4. Just as we notice in summation that the humiliation of the divine nature and the human nature was one in the one Person, so the humiliation of the one person and the work of that one person are also one humiliation.  In a sense, Jesus Christ as a member of the Godhead throughout could not be humiliated.  It was purposeful condescension.  In another sense He could be and was humiliated.

The State of Exaltation: vol. 2 p.201ff.

"The Redeemer’s estate of exaltation may be viewed in its historical stages as a process.
·  The descent.
· The resurrection.
· The ascension.
· The session.(Sitting down)
1. The moment He (His Spirit) left His body His exaltation began.  The phrase "Descend into hell" is not in the New Testament.  St. Peter quoted the words of David "Thou wilt not leave my soul in Hades, neither wilt thou give thine Holy One to see corruption."  The Greek Hades answering to the Hebrew Sheol signifies merely the unseen state.  There is no reference to punishment being endured in it.  It is merely the covered or hidden death.  In Pope, Vol. II, p. 167, he says, "Into this death our Lord entered."  Paul making use of the same Psalm does not distinguish between the two.  He speaks only of the body "Thou wilt not give thine Holy One to see corruption."  Undoubtedly the entombment of our Lord and his passing into the condition of death are the one meaning of those passages, and they signify that they were a reality and that so far that His burial belonged to His humbled estate.  When He entered into the realm of departed spirits, it was as a conqueror over death (Acts 2:30, 31; Psa. 16:10; Acts 13:29, 35; I Pet. 3:19, 20; Rom. 6:8, 9; Eph. 4:8,9)
2. The second estate in His exaltation is His resurrection.  He broke the power of death by placing Himself under the power of death and by coming therefrom Himself.  By so doing He vindicated Himself and His claim.
(1) In all our Lord’s predictions of His resurrection He makes Himself the active agent in the resurrection.  His first allusion to it was among His earliest predictions — "Destroy this temple and in three days I will raise it up" (Jn. 2:19).  And His last allusion to it was among His latest statements, "I lay down my life that I might take it again, no man taketh it from me, but I lay it down of myself.  I have power to lay it down and I have power to take it up again" (Jn. 10:17-18).  The mediatorial law of obedience called for a voluntary surrender of His life and a retaking of it again by His power, of His own will.  He was declared to be the Son of God with power according to the spirit of holiness (Rom. 1:4).  For He rose again the third day (I. Cor. 15:4).
(2) Like all events in the history of the Mediator, the resurrection is also ascribed to the Father.  In fact the whole plan of redemption is ascribed to the Father, but Jesus Christ is the active agent in the whole mediatorial work; so also in the resurrection.
a. He arose from the dead by the glory of the Father (Rom 6:4; Eph. 1:20; I Pet. 1:21; Jn. 17:1).
b. His resurrection was His Father’s testimony to the perfection of His divine human person as Son.  "Thou art My Son, this day have I begotten Thee."  What is meant here is that Thou My Son, this day have I raised thee up (Acts 13:33).
Christ’s resurrection was also attested by many infallible proofs (Acts 1:3).  It was also a guarantee of the resurrection of all mankind.  All die by the relation to the first Adam, and all shall be resurrected by relationship to the Second Adam (I. Cor. 15:20-23).
(3) The third step is His ascension. It marks the close of His earthly life proper (Acts 1:21; 1:1-2, Luke 24:50-51).
a. He withdrew in that special sense to the bosom of God to send the Comforter (Jn. 16:7).
b. In that special Presence at the right-hand of God He took up His mediatorial office in a special manner as prophet, priest, and king.
(4) The fourth and last stage of His exaltation is the Session.  This is closely connected with the third.  In fact just as closely connected as the sufferings and death on the cross.  It refers to Christ’s place at the right hand of God as an intercessory presence.  Mark connects the two (Mark 16:19).  Our Lord referred to the Session when He said, "The Lord said unto my Lord, sit thou on my right hand, till I make thine enemies thy footstool" (Matt. 22:44).   Christ’s presence on the throne is the beginning of a supreme authority which shall end only when He "Hath put all enemies under His feet" (I. Cor. 15:22).  He is not only the Head of the church, but the Head over all things to the church (Eph. 1:20-23).  From the Session our Lord will return to the earth a second time, without sin unto salvation (Heb. 9:28), and the ascension is the pattern of this return (Acts 1:ll).
The sequel of the ascension is the Session at the right hand of God in heaven with its attestations on earth, namely the Pentecostal descent of the Holy Spirit (Jn. 7:39).  Pope, II. P. 182.

Offices of Christ: Vol.. 2 p.210 ff.

The three offices of the Christ Jesus are by virtue of His incarnation as the appointed mediator between God and man. These offices He began to discharge on earth.
1. Christ as prophet is the perfect revealer of divine truth to man.  During His earthly ministry He was the LawGiver and preacher of the Gospel, each distinctly and both in One.  Thus He was the Revealer, the Revealed, the LawGiver, and the Preacher.
(1) The Old Testament prophets spoke and wrote of Him.  The anointing oil of the Old Testament was typical of His anointing with the Holy Spirit.  When He came He continued the theme of the Old Testament prophets, which was Himself.
(2) At the right hand of God He continues His work, having commissioned those He left behind to continue His work, namely about Himself and His work.  He is still Prophet.
2. Christ as Priest.  The central and most important office of His mediatorship is Priesthood, of which the High Priest as representative of the Levitical system is a type.  He as the Offerer, and the Offered and the cross was the form that the altar upon which He offered Himself took.
3. The Kingly Office.  As King our Lord was sealed, anointed, and crowned in the resurrection.  He was King even in His humiliation and He taught and acted as such, "My kingdom is not of this world".  To His disciples He said, "and I appoint unto you a kingdom as My Father hath appointed me, that ye may eat and drink at my table in my kingdom" (Jn. 18:36; Luke 22:29-30).  But it was not until His resurrection that He was clothed with mediatorial authority according to the set time of the economy of Grace.  From the sepulcher He went to the mountain of Galilee where He clothed Himself with His final authority and said, "All power is given unto me in Heaven and in earth (Matt. 28:18).

The Significance of the Divine Names. Vol. 1 p. 241 -254


Almost all the elements of Christian Doctrine may be connected with the application, which the Scriptures give to our Lord.  What the names of God are in Theology proper; the names of Christ are in Christology, they define all we know of His pre-temporal Being, of His general mediatorial relations, whether as the humbled or the exalted Christ, of His specific Messianic office and of His relations to the church in administered Salvation.

1. Names of the super-human Being who became man.
(1) Names that belong to Him as divine.  He is God absolutely or the Great God, God blessed forever, He is Jehovah our Lord, the Lord of Glory, the First and the Last, the Beginning and the End, Shaddai and Adonai (Rom. 9:5; I. Cor. 2:8; Rev. 22:13).
(2) Names of the second Person of the Godhead.  He is the Son, the Son of God, Only Begotten, Wisdom, the Angel of Jehovah, the Word of Life, the Word of God, the Word, the Image of God, again the Effulgence of His Glory, the First Born of every creature, the Beginning or author of the creation of God.  Those names are based on the original dignity of the Son but are given to Him in His incarnate relation and each has at least some reference to His own Divine-human estate (Jn. 1:18; Heb. 1:2; Col. 1:15; Rev. 3:14).
2. Names that express the union of the Divine and the Human.  Those names are few but real.
(1) Emmanuel (God with us) takes the lead (Isa. 7:14; Matt. 1:23).  It is the first in the Gospel and will in reality be the last or endure with the last.
(2) The Son of Man as a term also stands out.  It was habitually used by our Lord.  Theology uses such terms as God-man, the Incarnate, and Divine human Person, Theanthropic (God-man).
3. Names that express the official aspect of Christ.  These are based on a variety of principles and require arrangement.
(1) Those names of His Divine and Eternal nature that connect Him with the creation generally and form a transition to His redeeming relation (Acts 3:15; Heb. 2:10; 12:2; Acts 5:31).  Thus He is the Prince of Life.
(2) Some belong to the time of prophetic preparation, and are continued in the New Testament (Mal. 3:1; Isa. 9:6; Gen. 49:10 and Gen. 3:15).
(3) The names that denote the relation of the incarnate Son to His work generally; these occupy the central place in this classification.  (Jesus from Joshua Phil. 2:10; Our Righteousness Jer. 23:6; I. Jn. 2:1; The Sanctifier Heb. 2:11; The Mediator Heb 9:15).
4. Names that designate the specific offices of the Redeemer: As Redeemer (Revealer) He is Prophet, as Offerer He is High Priest of whom Aaron was a type, as Offerer He was the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world (Jn. 1:29). John rises far above all else in calling (Jesus?) the Advocate or Pleader, the Living Propitiation (I Jn. 2:1-2).  In regard to the regal aspect of the office of the Redeemer, the higher names are King of Kings and Lord of Lords. 
5. Other names result from the changes and combinations of the titles of the Redeemer.  The most obvious is Jesus Christ.  Both Jesus and Christ are official names and not personal names.  Pope, II, 254.
6. Names that refer to our Lord’s relation to His people.  They too are symbols:
(1) The Rock or Foundation.
(2) The Rock of Ages.
(3) The chief Corner Stone.
(4) The Good Shepherd.
(5) The Vine.
(6) The Head of the Church.
(7) The Friend of Sinners.
(8) The Bridegroom.
(9) The Brother of His disciples.
(10) The Fountain.
(11) The Water.
(12) The Bread.
(13) The Physician.
(14) The Door.

Notes concerning Scriptures against Eternal Security

I. Arminianism holds with Bible teachings that man may fall away.
1. Cited cases of those who have fallen away.
(1) Satan and other fallen angels.
a. Fountainhead of sin Job 4:18.  II Pet. 2:48; Jude 1:6, For them there is no hope.
(2) Adam and Eve.  Gen. 1:27, 31; 3:6-10; Eccl. 7:29.
a. Fountainhead of the race: They fell to the extent that blood had to be shed for their salvation and their posterity through them.
(3) The Jews were once right with God and backslid, I. Cor. 10:1-12; Heb. 3:17-19; Jude 1:5.  They often fall into sin and Moses had to sacrifice not to redeem their influence, but their souls.
(4) Saul – first King of Israel.  I Sam. 10:9-10; 15:23-24; 16:14.
(5) Judas – Fell by transgression.  Ps. 41:9; John 13:18; Matt. 26:24-25; John 17:12; Acts 1:25 (Fell by transgression).
(6) Demas once ranked high in the Christian church but he forsook all having loved this present world.  Col. 4:14; II Tim. 4:10.
2. Solemn warnings against apostasy from God with its fearful consequences.  Ez. 18:24-26; Matt. 5:13; John 15:2, 6; Rom. 11:19-22; Heb. 10:38; Heb. 6.
3. Solemn injunction in the Bible for final perseverance.  Matt. 24:13; 26:41; John 15:4; I. Cor. 9:24; 10:12; Col. 1:22-23; Heb. 3:14; 4:1; I Peter 5:8-9; II Peter 1:10-11.

One of the greatest Baptist preachers of his day made the following statement.  Cortland Myers said he had seen too many fall away to believe any more in Eternal Security.

INTRODUCTION TO THE ATONEMENT Intro. P.217 ff.  And vol.  2 P.217 ff.

Three Stages in the Development of the Atonement

· Primitive Sacrifices
· The Law
· Predictions of Prophets

1. Primitive Sacrifices, divine origin.
(1) Gen. 3:15; 3:21
(2) Cain and Abel.
(3) Patriarchal period, crisis time they sacrificed, offered in faith, opposed of God

2. The Law (Mosaic system)
Sacrifices were systemized and at set times and sacraments primary idea was propitiation.  Romans 3:25.  The expected miracle from Gen. 3:15 was revealed in these sacrifices.

3. Prophetic Period.
Prophets are ___?  The minsnic (?) idea, supplemented sacrifices.  They revealed the suffering etc. Isa. 53:6; 10, 11; Acts 2:7-22.

The New Testament concept is that the atonement is a completion and fulfillment of the Old Testament system.  Old Testament fully (?) grieved him.  Rom. 3:21-26.  Christ’s death was the equivalent of are (?)  The (?) came under penalty of sin.



There are three states in the development of Atonement
1. Primitive sacrifices
2. The Law (Mosaic System)
3. Predictions of Prophets

I. Biblical Basis.
1. The motive for the atonement is found in the love of God. (John 3:16).
2. Christ’s death was vicarious; He was our substitute.
3. Scriptures regard it as a propitiation for us, redemption, reconciliation.
A. Propitiation – To appease the wrath of an offended one.
B. Redemption – To buy back
C. Reconciliation – A change from state of enmity to friendship.

II. Historical Development.
1. Patristic (Church Father) period in its early stages was an undistorted reflection of the teachings of the New Testament generally.
A. Origen taught it as a ransom paid to Satan.  Irenaeus regarded it as a victory over Satan.  Gregory and Augustine both leaned this way.
B. Athanasius, the first to say that the death of Christ was the payment for a debt due to God.
2. The Anselmic Theory – Sin violated divine honor, and deserves infinite punishment since God is infinite.  Because Christ is infinite, He alone could pay the debt.  As sinless He died for us.
A. He said it was not a ransom paid to Satan.
B. Abelard, the chief opponent of Anselm and founder of theory of Atonement that shuts out the deepest mystery of the cross.  He started the moral influence theory.
3. The Reformation Period – This was merely a reaction against the theology of 
The Roman Catholic Church.  They made the death of Christ the center of faith.

III. Modern Theories of the Atonement.
1. The penal Satisfaction Theory – Held by the Calvinistic Churches. (Anselm founder).  Took over satisfaction but gave it the meaning of substitution instead of merit.
2. The Governmental Theory – Developed by Grotius, a Dutch jurist.   The death of Christ became not an exhibition of love to draw man to God, but a deterrent to sin through an exhibition of its punishment.
3. The Moral Influence Theories – Holds that salvation comes through the appeal of Divine love.  The demonstration of God’s love is merely to melt the sinner’s hard heart.
A. The Socinian Theory later blossomed into Unitarianism.  Man’s moral condition is bettered by example.
B. The Mystical Theories, held by Schliermcher, Ritschl, etc., hold the redemption by example idea.
C. Horace Bushnell’s Theory – self-propitiation by self-sacrifice.
4. The New Theology – term applied to mystical theory of Atonement in writings of J. M. Campbell.  Nearly same as Bushnell theory.
5. The Ethical Theory – propounded by Dr. Strong, grounded on Holiness of God and causes us to see the horror of sin.  Growth in purity is marked by hatred of impurity.
6. The Racial Theory – propounded by Dr. Curtis is similar in construction to the Ethical Theory, but it has a racial import.

IV. Definition of Atonement.  Miley.  "The vicarious sufferings of Christ are an atonement for sin as a conditional substitute for penalty, fulfilling, on the forgiveness of sin, the obligations of justice and the office of penalty in moral government."
1. Salvation is grounded in the Atonement and the Atonement in:
A. The nature and claims of God.
B. Governmental necessity.
C. The appeal of divine love.
2. The vital principle of the Atonement.
A. The pre-existent Logos is the ground of unity between Christ and the race.
B. The Word made flesh procured through that flesh redemption for us.
C. The restoration of the Spirit to the race and to the individual is another aspect of this vital principle.
3. The legal aspects of the Atonement.
A. Christ fulfilled the whole range of moral demand for us.
B. Christ delivered us from the Law in that He fulfilled its demands and thus redeemed us from its penalty; made possible our redemption.
4. The Propitiatory aspect of the Atonement.  This gives us the true idea of satisfaction and expiation.  The reasons are as follows:
A. The holy nature of God can neither tolerate sin or fellowship with sinners.
B. Propitiation concerns not only the divine nature but also the divine attributes as well.
5. The Godward and Manward aspect of the Atonement.
A. God is the Reconciler and the Reconciled.
B. Reconciliation also refers to that state of peace existing between God and man.
(1) The ransom price was the blood of Christ.
(2) This ransom is mentioned as redemption:
a. From curse of Law
b. From law itself
c. From power of sin.
d. From power of Satan, and also frees from the guilt and power of transgression and inbred sin.
C. Atonement – Reconciliation.
(1) Atonement is universally considered.
(2) It is in universal proclamation
      (3) It is declared in Scripture that Christ died for those who may perish.
6. Benefits of the Atonement.
A. Unconditional (Arminianism)
(1) Continued existence of race.
(2) Restoration of all men to a state of salvability.
(3) Salvation of all those that die in infancy.
B. Conditional
(1) Justification, Regeneration, Adoption.
(2) The Witness of the Spirit.
(3) Sanctification.
(4) The witness of the Spirit to both works.  (Daily walk with God.)

Person and Work of the Holy Spirit: vol. 2 p. 303 ff.

The promise of the Father, even as Christ in the Old Testament, The Sprit also was the unrevealed Dispenser of His Salvation.

1. The Holy Spirit in the Preparation of Redemption.
In the Old Testament He has been present and operative from the very beginning as the Administrator of the work of God.  The human nature of Christ was a special divine production of the Holy Ghost and His mission was inspired by the Holy Ghost.
2. The Holy Ghost after Pentecost.  This begins the dispensation of the Spirit.  He rules within the world.
A. He quickens from the dead.  He sanctifies and empowers the soul.
B. Outstanding symbols – dove, water, fire, atmosphere, wind and oil.
C. The Spirit is not the head of the Church but is the representative of the Head.
D. The Spirit is the gift and the Giver.  It is His Will to manifest Himself, spiritually.

XI. Second Semester
The Second Triad
     The Atonement Vol. 2 p. 217-300

The Biblical Basis.

1. The motive for the atonement is found in the love of God.  Love is the moving cause in redemption (Jn 3:16-17; Rom. 5:8, I Jn. 4:9).
2. Christ’s death was vicarious, as He suffered in our room and stead as a proper substitute for us. (Jn. 11:50; Rom. 5:6-8; Gal. 1:4; 3:3; Heb. 2:9).  The death of Christ is the "procuring cause" of salvation.
3. The Scripture regard the sufferings of Christ as a propitiation for us, a redemption, and a reconciliation.
A. "Propitiation is a term drawn from the Kapporeth or Mercy-seat as used in the Old Testament scriptures.  To propitiate is to appease the wrath of an offended person, or to atone for offenses."
B. Redemption literally means, "to buy back".  To set a captive free by paying the redemptive price.  The death of Christ is the redemptive price (Matt. 20:28; I. Tim. 2:6; I. Cor. 6:20).  It is evident that one thing is paid for another, the "blood of Christ" for the redemption of captives and condemned men.
C. Reconciliation involves a change from a state of enmity to a state of friendship (Rom. 5:10-11; II. Cor. 5:18-19).  This reconciliation is affected by Christ.

The Historical Development.

"The history of the ecclesiastical doctrine of atonement is exceedingly complicated and difficult if all the different shades of controversy are taken into account but is more simple if the fundamentals alone are regarded."  Pope, II, p. 297

1. The Patristic (Church Father) period in its early stages was an undistorted reflection of the teachings of the New Testament generally.
A. Origen taught that it was a ransom paid to Satan. Irenaeus regarded it as a victory over Satan.  Origen lived (185-254); Irenaeus lived or wrote about (200).  Gregory lived about (395) is also associated with the views of Irenaeus.  Augustine probably leaned to the same view in a qualified manner.
B. Athanasius (325-373) is said to have been the first to propound the theory that the death of Christ was the payment of a debt due to God.
2. The Anselmic theory is as follows:  "Sin violates the divine honor, and deserves infinite punishment since God is infinite.  Sin is guilt or a debt, and under the government of God, this debt must be paid.  This necessity is grounded in the infinite perfections of God.  Either adequate satisfaction must be provided, or vengeance must be exacted.  Man cannot pay this debt, for he is not only finite, but morally bankrupt through sin.  Adequate satisfaction being impossible from a being so inferior to God as man is, the Son of God became man in order to pay the debt for us.  Being divine, He could pay the infinite debt; and being both human and sinless, could properly represent men.  But as sinless He was not obliged to die, and owing no debt on His own account, He received as a reward His merit, the forgiveness of our sins."
A. Anselm rejected the theory of ransom paid to Satan in the following words:  "Was it the law of Satan we had transgressed? Was he the judge that cast us into prison?  Was it he to whom we were indebted?  Was it overheard that the ransom price of redemption was paid to the jailer?  Whether any of the ancients said so or not, I shall not now trouble myself to inquire, or in what sense they said it; the thing in itself is ridiculous and blasphemous."
B. Abelard was the chief opponent of Anselm and may be said to be the founder of a theory of the Atonement that shuts out the deepest mystery of the cross.  "He refers the Christian redemption only to the love of God as its source, and taught that there was nothing in the Divine essence that required satisfaction for sin.  The influence of the work of Christ as accomplished on the cross is moral only, subduing the heart, awakening repentance and leading the soul to the boundless mercy of God, whose benevolence is the only attribute concerned in the pardon of sin.  Thus we have the moral influence theory.  Bonaventura and Thomas Aquinas represented the later-school men and pretty much shaped the theology of the Roman Catholic Church.
3. The Reformation Period.  In reacting against the theology of the Roman Catholic Church, the Reformers swung back to the Anselmic theory.  The Reformers made the death of Christ the center of faith. (The reformers limited the atonement to the elect. Luther preached an unlimited atonement for original sin too. Socinianism says "The atonement just makes a moral impression on me. Armenians aim for the middle ground between moral influence and moral satisfaction Vol.2 p 241. Dr Owens notes).

Modern Theories of the Atonement

1. The Penal Satisfaction Theory.  This theory is held by the reformed Churches, or Calvinistic church, or the Anselmic theory.  They changed the Anselmic theory to suit their views.  They took over from Anselm the idea of satisfaction but gave it the meaning of substitution instead of merit.  They also included Christ’s active obedience as a part of the redemptive price, as well as His voluntary death.  While Anselm held that He owed obedience to God as a man.  Five points or criticism can be brought, justly brought, against the Calvinistic theory of the Atonement.
A. Sin must be punished on its own account; hence sin must be transferred to Christ and thus Christ becomes as sinner, and as such, He could not make satisfaction for anyone else.
B. It is claimed that the Penal substitution theory is the only theory that admits of the substitutionary works of Christ, but the Governmental or Rectoral theory holds to substitution as firmly as does the Penal theory. (Miley is one of the strongest advocates of this theory, and so is A.M. Hills. Dr Owens notes).
C. The Penal theory leads to universalism or else to unconditional election on the other hand.  Either all or else an elect few.
D. Thus the Penal theory is associated with the Calvinistic idea of predestination and limited atonement." 
E. The Penal theory leads logically to Antinomianism.  "This its advocates usually deny, but historically, Antinomianism has always been held in connection with this type of belief in the atonement."  Wiley,2,244-245

2. The Governmental theory.  This was developed by Grotius. (1583-1645).  He defended the orthodox theory against Faustus Socinus, and in doing so propounded a new theory.  James Arminius protested against the rigorous penal substitution theory and also against Socinian rejection.  They sought to uphold the compassionate and just will of God in the atonement.  "They thus laid emphasis upon the love of God as well as His justice.  Grotius differed from Arminius in the later development of these principles, by limiting the satisfaction which was made by Christ, to the dignity of the law, the honor of the lawgiver and the protection of the universe.  The death of Christ and His sufferings became, therefore, not an exhibition of love to draw men to God, as in the moral influence theories, but a deterrent to sin through an exhibition of its punishment."  Wiley, 2. p. 252.

3. The Moral Influence Theories.  This theory holds that salvation comes through the appeal of Divine love.  The sole obstacle in the way of forgiveness is the sinner’s hardened heart.  That demonstration of God’s love is intended to melt the sinner’s heart and cause him to turn to God.

There are several types of the moral influence theories.
A. The Socinian theory which later blossomed into Unitarianism.  Man’s moral condition is bettered by example.
B. The Mystical Theories held by Schleiermacher, Ritschl, Murice, and Irving.  It is redemption by example idea.  Christ was one with God and He taught men that they, too, could be one with God.
C. Horace Bushnell’s Theory of the Moral Atonement.  Miley regarded this theory as Self-propitiation by Self-sacrifice."  Bushnell was a Trinitarian, but his theory is strictly Socinian and Unitarian.  Man works out his own salvation by suffering, following the example of Jesus.

4. The New Theology – is a term applied to the mystical theory of the Atonement as found in the writings of J. McLeod Campbell and the Andover School of New England.  The theory is essentially the same as the Horace Bushnell Theory.

5. The Ethical Theory – as propounded by Dr. Strong and is grounded on the holiness of God and causes us to see the horror of sin.  Thus our growth in purity is marked by our hatred of impurity.  Punishment of sin is the abhorrence of it.  "The Atonement has an ethical necessity."

6. The Racial Theory propounded by Dr. Curtis is similar in construction to the Ethical Theory, but it has a racial import.

CHAPTER 24: The Atonement, Its Nature and Extent. Vol.2 p. 271 ff 


1. Definition of the Atonement.
(1)  Dr. Miley’s: "The vicarious sufferings of Christ are an atonement for sin as a conditional substitute for penalty, fulfilling, on the forgiveness of sin, the obligation of justice and the office of penalty in moral government."
(2)  Dr. Pope summarizes his position the following manner:  "The teaching of the scripture on this subject may be summed up as follows: The finished work, as accomplished by the Mediator Himself, in His relation to mankind, is His divine-human obedience regarded as an expiatory sacrifice: the atonement proper.  Then it may be studied in its results to God, as to God and man, and as to man.  First, it is the supreme manifestation of the glory and consistency of the divine attributes; and, as to this, is termed the righteousness of God.  Second, as it respects God and man, it is the reconciliation, a word which involves two truths, or rather one truth under two aspects; the propitiation of the divine displeasure against the world is declared; and therefore the sin of the world is no longer a bar to acceptance.  Third, in its influence on man, it may be viewed as redemption: universal as to the race, limited in its process and consummation to those who believe."

2.  Salvation is thus grounded in the Atonement and the Atonement in:
(1) The Nature and claims of God.  God is holy love.  Sin bereaved God and left man an orphan.  God’s holiness prevented man from approaching Him and His love urged Him out after man.  Propitiation became necessary in order to furnish a common ground of meeting. Holy love devised the plan.  (I Jn. 4:9-10; Rom. 5:8; Jn. 3:16).
(2) Government necessity.   God is an infinitely moral Being at the head of a highly moral government.  He cannot disregard acts of wrong or merely set aside judgment.  Either He must punish the sinner or offer a substitute and thus sustain His government.
(3) The appeal of Divine Love. (Jn. 3:16; I Jn. 4:19).  The cross is the greatest exhibition of God’s love to man.

3.  The Vital Principle of the Atonement.
(1) The pre-existent Logos is the ground of unity between Christ and the race.  And as such is a vital factor in the Atonement (Rom. 3:24-26; Col. 1:14-22). Mankind as a race now depends on Him.
(2) The Word made flesh procured through that flesh redemption for us. Thus He is the procuring cause of redemption. 
(3) The restoration of the Spirit to the race and to the individual is another aspect of this vital principle in the atonement.  The moral ideal of the Spirit became attainable through sanctification. (Heb. 2:11).

4. The Legal Aspects of the Atonement.
(1) Christ fulfilled the whole range of moral demand.  He and He alone kept the moral law perfectly.
(2) Christ delivered us from the law in that He fulfilled its demands and thus redeemed us from its penalty  (Gal. 4:4-5; Rom. 3:25).  The process is lifted from spiritual bondage to Sonship.

5. The Propitiatory Aspect of the Atonement.
This gives us the true idea of satisfaction and expiation.  The reasons are as follows:
(1) The holy nature of God can neither tolerate sin, nor fellowship with the sinner (II Cor. 6:14).  God cannot exhibit His love apart from righteousness;, as He must maintain the honor of His divine sovereignty.
(2) Propitiation concerns not only the divine nature but also the divine attributes as well.  Attributes are modes of the relation or of the operation of the divine essence.  They must be in harmony with each other.  One cannot be exalted above all others or exalter to the exclusion of all others.  They are united in Personality.  Justice then must be maintained before mercy and love can be expressed.

The Godward and Manward Aspect of the Atonement.
Reconciliation is that aspect of the finished work which expresses the restored relationship between God and man.
1. God is the Reconciler and the Reconciled.
II Cor. 5:18-19, Thus God associates Himself with His people in the proclamation of the good news.
2. Reconciliation also refers to the state of peace existing between God and man (Eph. 2:14-15).
(1) The ransom price was the blood of Christ (Matt. 20:28; I Tim. 2:6). 
(2) His ransom from the bondage of sin is sometimes mentioned as redemption.
a. From the curse of the law (Gal. 3:13).
b. From the law itself (Gal. 4:4-5; Rom. 6:14).
c. From the power of sin (Jn. 8:34; Rom. 6:12-23).
d. From the power of Satan (Heb. 10:15).
      It also frees from the guilt and power of inbred sin.
3. Atonement – Reconciliation.
Redemption is universal and general in the provisional sense, but special or conditional in its application to the individual.
(1) Notice the Atonement universally considered.  (John 3:15-17; Rom. 5:8-18; II Cor. 5:14-15).
(2) Notice the Atonement in universal proclamation (Matt. 24:14; "Go ye therefore and teach", 28:19; Mark 16:15; Luke 24:67).
(3) Scriptures that declare that Christ died for those who may perish. (Rom 14:15; I Cor. 8:11; Heb. 20:29).
4. The unconditional benefits of the Atonement.
(1) The continued existence of the race.
(2) The restoration of all men to a state of salvability.  This is affected by previenent grace.
(3) The salvation of those who die in infancy.  This is not specifically stated in the Scripture but the general tenor of the Scripture is in harmony (Matt. 18:3; 19:14).
5. The conditional benefits of the Atonement are:
(1) Justification
(2) Regeneration
(3) Adoption
(4) The Witness of the Spirit
(5) Sanctification
(6) The Witness of the Spirit to both works.

    CHAPTER 25

The Person and Work of the Holy Spirit: P. 303 ff.

"As the Incarnate Son is the Redeemer of Mankind in virtue of His perfect work of Reconciliation, so the Holy Ghost in His Divine Personality is the Administrator of the redemption.  His revelation as such has kept pace with the revelation of the redeeming Son.  In the Old Testament age He was the promise of the Father, even as the Christ was and, as the promised Christ already was the world’s unrevealed Savior, so the Spirit was the unrevealed Dispenser of his Salvation.

The Redeemer made the promise of the Father his own promise and, on His ascension, obtained and sent, as the fruit of His mediatorial obedience, the Holy Ghost in His most abundant influence as the Third Person of the Godhead and the Personal Agent in the final accomplishment of the purpose of the Mediatorial Trinity."  (Pope Vol. II, p. 321).

The Holy Spirit in the Preparation of Redemption.
"(But this spake He of the Spirit, which they that believe on Him should receive for the Holy Ghost was not yet given; because that Jesus was not yet glorified)."  (John 7:39).

1. The Holy Spirit in the Old Testament.
The Holy Spirit in His special relation to the Christian was not sent down until Pentecost.  He has, however, been present and operative from the very beginning as the Administrator of the work of God.  Thus the Spirit is disclosed through the Old Testament as the Agent of the Godhead in the production of all life, especially of the living spirit of man.  He was the Lord and Giver of Life (Job 33:4).  The same Spirit "moved upon the face of the waters" as breathed into the face of man and made him a living soul.

2. The Spirit in the New Testament.  In the period of Christ’s life on earth the Spirit occupied a midway position between the Old Testament and the New Testament positions.  He is the actual Agent in the raising up of the Incarnate, Son.  "Every reference to the Holy Ghost in the Gospels falls under one head or the other."  (Pope Vol. II. 323).
(1) The human nature of Christ was a special divine production of the Holy Ghost and His mission was inspired by the Holy Ghost.  Whatever in the Incarnate person and Work of Christ belongs to Him as the Representative of mankind is under the Spirit’s direction.

The Holy Spirit After Pentecost.

With Pentecost begins the dispensation of the Spirit.  The Holy Spirit is the Revealer of the Son generally and of the Godhead as revealed in Him.  He is our Lord’s Agent in dispensing individual salvation and is a witness to the soul both in one, that is Dispenser and Witness.  He is our Lord’s Representative in His body, the Church.  He gathers in from the world and rules within it and dispenses the gifts of Its Head severally, as He will.  He is subordinate in the Mediatorial Economy but is a divine person and the Agent of His own acts in the unity of the Father and the Son.  Regeneration is a birth of the Spirit; Pentecost is a baptism with the Spirit.

1. The Spirit quickens from the dead.  The Spirit sanctifies and empowers the soul.  The Spirit seals in divine ownership. 
2. There are certain outstanding symbols of the Spirit, the dove, water, fire, atmosphere – wind, and oil.
3. The Spirit is not the head of the Church but is the representative of the Head.  Christ is the fullness of the Godhead bodily and the Holy Ghost is the fullness of the Godhead spiritually (Col. 2:9).  When the Savior speaks of His departure; He speaks of its necessity in order to the coming of the Comforter (Jn. 14:16).   He shall comfort and shall take of mine and shew it unto you.  He shall teach and bring to your remembrance what I have said unto you.
4. "As the Son is both Priest and Sacrifice, so the Spirit is both Gift and Giver (I Cor. 12:4-11).  The Holy Ghost is thus a person whose will it is to manifest Himself.  The Son manifested Himself physically and the Spirit manifests Himself spiritually – He breaks forth.


Preliminary States of Grace. Vol. 2 p.334-378.
The Atonement of Christ became effective only when administered to believers by the Holy Ghost.  Thus we have "objective Soteriology" and "subjective Soteriology". One is done for us, and the other is done in us.
1. The Gospel Vocation or call.  There is the caller and the act of calling and the result.
2. The call is as wide as the possible benefits of the Atonement. Arminianism holds that the call is to all but salvation is conditioned to volitional acceptance.  Calvinism holds that Atonement was made for the called and the called are foreordained to be called.  Thus every man is either created for eternal damnation or eternal salvation.  Thus we have election and reprobation eternally decreed by the good pleasure of God.
3. Election appears in a form with regard to the call of men to certain offices or groups to certain tasks.  Such an election could be conditioned by something in the individual.  Those, however, who hear and who heed, are called the elect.
Prevenient Grace. Vol.2. P.344ff
The grace of God is unlimited and cannot be limited to the work of redemption alone.  It is an eternal in the inner relation of the Trinity.  It existed in the form of Sacrificial love before the foundation of the world.  It is responsible for the beauty and order of creation.  It planned the restoration of sinful man.  It is the content in revealed theology.  It is operative in all things.
1. Prevenient Grace is the grace that "goes before" or prepares the soul for the initial experience of Salvation.  It is that manifestation of divine influence, which precedes the regenerate life.
2. During the period of the earlier fathers the doctrine of prevenient grace did not appear to have been questioned except by the Gnostics and Manichaeans.  The lax interpretation of it, however, by the Greek fathers led to Pelagianism (Denial of inbred sin).  The extreme emphasis placed on the divine element in the West led to Augustinianism.  The East was represented by Pelagianism and the West by Augustinianism.
3. Pelagius, a British monk of high rank traveled to Rome early in the Fifth Century and opposed the doctrine of original sin, and prevenient grace.  The natural sanctity of the mind needed only the aid of instruction in order to attain holiness.
4. Augustinianism represents the opposite views and made original sin the foundation of his entire doctrine of system of doctrine.  The fall had, he held, completely incapacitated man.  Salvation was solely by grace without any human cooperation.  The freedom of the will was maintained only with regard to do evil.  Predestination thus prepares for grace to be bestowed.  Predestination thus appeared and passed through its various stages.
5. Augustine did not carry his scheme to its logical end but 1,000 years later Calvin did.  (Calvin 1509-1564)   John Calvin developed his doctrine in opposition to the lax view held on sin by the Roman Catholics.  He was not alone in supra-lapsarinaism.
6. Arminianism represents a mediating position between Pelagianism and Calvinism.  They are called Remonstrants.  The synod of Dort met on November 13,1618 to May 9, of 1619 (154 sessions).  The Remonstrants cause appeared to be lost.  The five points contended for by Calvin are: (KNOW THESE)
(1) Unconditional election 
(2) Limited Atonement
(3) Natural Inability
(4) Irresistible Grace
(5) Final Perseverance
The Remonstrants remonstrated against such doctrine.
7. Prevenient Grace as set forth by the Arminians brings fallen man into that state or condition which makes it possible for him to have salvation.  God lifts him up, draws him, convicts him, and thus all can be saved through Grace.
1. The doctrine of repentance is fundamental in the Christian system and cannot be dispensed with.  It includes conviction for sin accomplished by a desire for amendment.  Dr. Pope has this to say of repentance:  "Repentance is a divinely wrought conviction of sin, the result of the Holy Spirit’s application of the condemning law to the conscience or heart.  It approves itself in contrition, which distinguishes it from mere knowledge of sin, in submission to the judicial sentence, which is the essence of true confession; and in sincere effort to amend, which desires to make reparation to the dishonored law.  Hence it must needs come from God and go back to Him: the Holy Spirit, using the law, being the Agent in producing this preliminary divine change."  (Wiley, p 459).
2. There is a divine and human aspect to repentance.  To regard repentance merely as human would be to presume upon God.  To regard it as all God is to sink into carelessness and despair.  God does not repent for us, but He grants repentance; that makes repentance possible.
(1) He sees sin in its true perspective, and abhors it from his heart.
(2) The Spirit then enables him to confess sin. 
3. Repentance is, in its final analysis, the act of the sinner himself in response to the conviction and appeals of the Spirit.  "Turn ye, for why will ye die," The man must turn himself.  "Except ye repent, ye shall all likewise perish".  (Luke 13:3).
Saving Faith.
1. Faith in general is giving credit to the truth or "a full assent of the mind to a declaration or promise, on the authority of the person who makes it."  Faith in general is thus an attitude toward a statement of truth or believed truth.
2. Having faith refers t the same principles in operation for salvation. That is, "Placing confidence in," "to exercise trust in."  That is the act.  It does not merely refer to attitude of the mind. It goes deeper than that.  Salvation is "Grace through faith."
(1) "Faith is opposed to works as meritorious, and the formula is: ‘A man is not justified by works of law, but only through faith in Christ.’" (Gal. 3:16).
(2) "Faith lives only in its works and the formula is: ’Faith without works is dead’" (Ja. 2:26).
(3) "Faith is justified and approved by works, and the formula is:  ‘I will show thee my faith by my works’" (Jas. 2:18).
(4) "Faith is perfected in works, and the formula is:  ‘By works was faith made perfect’" (Ja. 2:22).   "Saving faith is that act by which the prevenient grace of the Spirit passes over into the regenerate life of believer.  Thus the faith which saves becomes the faith which is a law of our being.  The initial act becomes the permanent attitude of the regenerate man."  (Wiley Vol. II, p. 375).
Calvinism holds that man is regenerated by absolute decree, and then turns to God.  Arminianism holds that through grace preveniently bestowed man turns to God and is then regenerated.  "Thus conversion in its truest scriptural meaning, is the pivotal point, wherein through grace, the soul turns from sin, and to Christ, in order to regeneration."

         Chapter 27, pg. 379, Vol. II

Justification – Justified in the sight of God.
Definition of Justification:
"Justification is a just and gracious act of God by which, from the throne of His grace and mercy, He absolves from His sins man, who is a sinner but who is a believer, on account of Christ, and His obedience and righteousness, and considers him righteous to the salvation of the justified person, and to the glory of the divine righteousness and grace." James Arminius p. 380
Justification and regeneration are both instantaneous, and both are done instantaneously.  Justification in heaven and is a forensic act of regeneration in the heart.
1. Adoption takes place in heaven and is instantaneous with justification and regeneration.
2. The witness of the Spirit.  The Spirit witnesses in conviction to an unsaved state; it witnesses to a saved state and a carnal state of the heart, and it witnesses to the entirely Sanctified heart.

   Chapter 29, P. 440, Vol. II
1. Entire Sanctification is for saved people only consecrated people only, for believing people only.
2. It is wrought in the heart of the believer by the Pentecostal baptism with the Holy Ghost.  The heart is cleansed from sin and the Cleanser namely, the Holy Ghost, remains as the Guest, the Gift, and the Comforter.  He is received by faith and is retained by faith.  This experience is instantaneous.
(1) We sanctify ourselves in consecration and then in answer to believing faith the Spirit sanctifies the soul.  Thus we have man’s part and God’s part.
(2) Sanctification is also progressive with regard to the approach namely, man’s part.  It is instantaneous with regard to God’s part.
(3) Regeneration is partial.  Sanctification, and heart cleansing is entire sanctification. 

3.  Christian perfection is not godlike perfection, not angelic perfection, not Adamic perfection nor yet glorified perfection, but it is heart perfection, with regard to the cleansing from all original sin and the indwelling Holy Spirit.  (Notes by Dr. Owens)

The Last Triad:

      Chapter 31 Vol. 2 p103ff.

1. There was an economy of Grace in the Old Testament.  The Book of Hebrews calls that economy the "Church in the wilderness."  That church was one with minute organization.  The word ecclesia merely means the "Called out ones."  The word can be used either in the old or new economy.

2. The English word "Church" comes from the Greek word "kuriaka
 and merely means "the Lord’s House."  Spiritually the church refers to that body of believers called "the body of Christ."  Jesus called it "My Church."

3. This body is the sphere of the operation of the Holy Spirit.  It was a minute organization in the old economy, and Paul by inference says it was a pedological institution, a schoolmaster to bring us to Christ. (Gal. 3:16,17, 24, 25.) Vol. 3 p. 105.

4. In a sense there could be said to be three kingdoms.
(1) The kingdom that is within you.
(2) The Church kingdom.  If Christ is the Head of that body, it must be somewhat a kingdom.
(3) The Millennium kingdom.

5. We have all three steps in formation of the Church.
(1) The positive preparation in the Old Testament for any future age.
(2) The intermediate community during the earthly ministry of Christ.  He laid the foundation for it, but He did not found it.
(3) The immediate formation of the Church took place at Pentecost, which is the birthday of the church, and its future development after that day.

6. Dr. Pope sets forth the Protestant idea in seven considerations (Pope Vol. III, p. 271 ff).
(1) The church is one and manifold (many).  It is one body in one Divine Head but composed of many believers.  Again it is one Church with One Head but many congregations with different organizations.  No one of the apostles has supreme headship of the Church. No one recognized as supreme head. The supreme headship was vested in the Holy Ghost who said "Separate me, Barnabas and Paul."
(2) The Church is perfect and imperfect.  (Holy and unholy).  The individual may be perfectly sanctified wholly but may be imperfect in character.  And the organization of which he is part is partly holy and unholy.
(3) The Church is visible and invisible. 
a. In its deepest and most comprehensive sense the Church is a spiritual and unseen reality.  Jesus said to Pilate that His kingdom was not of this world.
b. Yet the Church is a visible entity also.  There is a material side to that spiritual reality.
(4) Catholic and local.  The word Catholic means universal now.  But according to Pope in the early times it meant it was the same everywhere.  It is also local in each several places.  Hence even in our use of the term the Church is an ecumenical (universal) as well as many local Churches.
(5) Apostolic and Confessional.  The Church is apostolic in that it is built upon the foundation laid by the apostles and prophets.  Jesus Christ being the Chief Cornerstone (Eph. 2:20).  It is confessional in that its members are required to make a profession of personal faith in Jesus Christ as Savior and Lord.
(6) The gates of hell itself shall not be able to prevail against the church as a whole (Matt. 16:18).  In this sense it is indefeatable, but individual churches may pass away.  In Rev. 2:5, Jesus Himself threatened to extinguish the candlestick of the church at Ephesus.  The Church is then both indefeatable and defeatable.  The Church is both militant and triumphant.  The militant is the church still on earth fighting the good fight of faith.  The church triumphant is the part on the other side in a state of triumph.  There is no intermediate purgatorial place. Pope 3, 268-270.

7. Preliminary Forms of Organization.
(1) At first each male person seemed to have been his own priest as Cain and Able both sacrificed.
(2) Noah sacrificed for the whole family and thus the patriarchal order had its rise.  Abraham continued this method and passed it on to Isaac and Jacob.
(3) Moses ushered in the theocratic form and perfected sacrifice as a system and worked out the priesthood.  The church and State were closely together.  The State did not govern the Church, but the Church did govern the State.  In Christ as Prophet, Priest, and King they shall be united again in one head.

8. The Church Age Organization.
(1) It is perfectly clear to a disinterested reader of the Bible that the Church was organized in its minutest detail in its earliest stages.  This is evidenced from:
a. Definite meeting times (Acts 20:7), and an earnest urge not to forsake the assembling of themselves together (Heb. 10:25).
b. They had constituted ministry of persons, bishops, elders, presbyters, and deacons (Phil 1:1) (Acts 20:17-28).  These persons had to measure up to a certain standard (I Tim. 3:1-13).
c. There are formal systems of election.  (Acts 1:23-26; 6:5-6).  It was an enlarging system as the need arose as evidenced by the later selection of the seven deacons.
d. A system of financial support for the ministry and for general interest of charity (I Cor. 16:1-2).
e. A system of discipline for the ministry and churches (I Tim. 5:17; I Peter 5:2; Matt. 18:17; I Cor. 5:4, 5, 13).
f. A system of customs and decrees (I Cor. 11:6; Acts 2:41,42).
g. A set of qualifications for membership in the Christian Church.  (Matt. 28:19; Acts 2:47).
h. A list of widows that they claimed as their own responsibility (I. Tim. 5:9).
i. A system of recommendations (Acts 18:27; II Cor. 3:1)
j. There was a stated common work for all the churches (Phil 2:30).  The church and the Churches within the Church.  That work was "the work of Christ."
(2) There are three interpretations of church organization.
a. The first holds that the church is strictly a spiritual organization and needs no organization.  This has difficulty because the church deals with people in the body and not out of the body.
b. The second holds that the scriptures give us a definite organization for the church in this world.  From this organization we must not depart.
c. The third view is a mediating view between the first and second.  This holds that the New Testament lays down general principles but gives no definite form.  This view is the general Protestant view.  Three principles are to be applied as needed.
(3) There are three types of church government
a. The Roman Catholic with authority vested in one sole person – the Pope.  It thus becomes a Papacy.  In this view the local churches are not churches at all, but divisions of the one church.
b. Congregational type of government holds to the other extreme.  The local church is autonomous.  It denies the right of any super-imposed organization.  Thus the local church alone is the church.  The universal church is but a general term for all such units.
c. Presbyterian, in which it is vested in both ministry and laity.
(4) Regeneration must be considered the basic requirement for membership in the Church or churches.  Since Jesus Christ is the Head of the Church a confession of saving faith in Him is a necessity.  By so doing the responsibility of Church membership should be assumed.
If one is a member of the invisible Spiritual body and the physical organization of considered necessary to reach men, then the responsibility should be assumed.
(5) The function of the church is missionary.  It is an institution of evangelism.  Its mission is to conserve and to evangelize.

9. The Christian Ministry.  The duty of the ministry is to preach the gospel, administer the affairs of the church, attend to the sacraments, and etc.
(1) In the Old Testament we have priesthood technically organized.  With the death of Jesus Christ that priesthood passed away, and Jesus the Christ became the Mediator between man and God.
In the New Testament we do not have a priesthood in the Old Testament sense, but we do have a called of God Ministry, known as Bishops, Presbyters, Elders to minister in the things of God.  Every believer, however, is his own priest, as she himself must enter the presence of God through the One Mediator.
(2) The church then has a divinely constituted ministry called of God and this call is recognized by the church.
a. The prophets of old were called of God and spake and wrote of that call (Ezek 3:17).
b. The apostles were distinctly called of God, ordained and commissioned by Jesus Christ Himself (Luke 6:13; Mark 3:14).
c. The 70 were sent out by Jesus to go before His face, but it does not say that they were ordained, as were the 12 (Luke 10I: 1).
d. St. Paul was called to the Christian Ministry in no uncertain fashion (Acts 9:15, 26, 16-18).  The disciples left no record of having ordained any.  When Barnabas and Paul were sent to Antioch, they were sent with the prayers and blessings of the church, but we fall back on imagination when we call that an ordination service.  If not, then there is no record that Paul was ordained by man.


            Chapter 32 Vol.3 p.138-210

The Church is the temple of Divine service continuing and perfecting workshop of the past.  It included offerings presented to God, and blessings received by Him.  The former includes a form of worship.  Divine worship is a requirement in man’s nature.  It is a requirement with order through the Spirit by the Son to the Father (Pope, Vol. III p. 287).

1. The Sabbath is a set and appointed time for man to worship God more leisurely and fully than at other times.
(1) This institution goes back to Eden where we are told; God rested the seventh day.  God’s seventh would be man’s first (Gen. 2:2-3).  We have no Bible proof that the patriarchs ever observed any day.  The first time we have a record that man was commanded to keep a day, and the first time we know he did, was after the Israelites left Egypt.  The Decalogue also commands it.  That cannot be considered as more ancient document than their deliverance from Egypt.
(2) Wiley holds that the Patriarchal Sabbath was man’s first day and that was changed to the seventh day to stop idolatry.  It was changed for 1500 years and then changed back to the first day by Jesus.  When the Israelites left Egypt they observed a seven-day period of unleavened bread with the seventh day as a feast of unleavened bread unto the Lord.  Manna fell on six days, but not on the seventh.  (It is hard to see how this Sabbath day was not a revolving day).  Jesus said that the Sabbath was made for man and not man for the Sabbath.  Meaning, the Sabbath was to bend for the benefit of men.  He also declared that the Son of man was Lord of the Sabbath.  That is He could do with it just what He liked.  Pentecost in the Old Testament was prophetic with regard to the New Testament Jesus arose on the first day.  The first five appearances were on that first day.  The sixth appearance was eight days after, making it the first day again.  Pentecost, the birthday or inauguration of the Church Age, was also on the first day.
(3) The Apostles of the Lord and first generation Christians kept the first day of the week, "Now upon the first day of the week when the disciples came together to break bread Paul preached to them" (Acts 20:7a).  That verse itself finishes the dispute. It has a direct statement and infers strongly that they were in the habit of gathering together on that day.  The Apostles preached to the Jews whenever they gathered together, but they themselves did so the first day.  They were to lay by the collection for the saints when they gathered together (I Cor. 16:1-2) The Sabbath was called the "Lord’s Day" (Rev. 1:10).  Apparently the first day should be kept by all in this age, even those that keep the seventh day.

2. The sacraments – The Greek Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches hold to Seven sacraments.  They are:
· Confirmation
· Penance
· Holy Order
· Matrimony
· Extreme Unction
· Eucharist
· Baptism
Protestantism holds to but TWO: 
· Eucharist
· Baptism
The first five were added early by the church and then all seven were defined in 1124 by Otto of Hamburg and were given ecclesiastical sanction at the Council of Trent.  We shall discuss the two held by Protestantism.
(1) The Lord’s Supper.  This sacrament has a Passover background.  The Pascal lamb was slain to set forth the death of Jesus the Christ up to that death.  It then was to cease.  That lamb pointed forward to the death of Christ.
At the close of the Pascal Passover Jesus instituted a commemoration that was to continue until I come.  It pointed to the death of Jesus and to remission of sins by death. This commemoration instituted by Jesus at the close of the former was a joyous occasion, as it set forth the return of the Christ to reign, as He dieth no more.
"He took bread: And when He had given thanks, He brake, and said, Take, eat; this is my body, which is broken for you: this do in remembrance of me.  After the same manner also He took the cup, when He had supped, saying, This cup is the New Testament in my blood: this do ye, as oft as ye drink it, in remembrance of me.  For as often as ye eat this bread, and drink this cup, ye do shew the Lord’s death till he come."
Elements changed.
a. The Romanists have salvation ties to the Mass by eating the body and drinking Jesus’ actual blood.  The Scripture used in this one: Matt. 26:26-28; Mk. 14:22, 24; Lk. 22:19-20; Jn. 6:53.  The words "This is my body."  "This is my blood."
Except ye eat the flesh of the Son of man, and drink His blood, ye have no life in you," are taken literally.  Thus when the host is elevated and the Priest utters Latin over it, it is supposed to become the actual body and blood of Christ.  Hence the necessity of the Priesthood.  And none can enter heaven except by them.
b. The Lutherans in general and Luther in particular held to con-substantiation.  That is the body and blood of Christ are real.  The body and Blood of Christ were actually present.  The elements were not changed but the body and blood of Christ were around and over and under it.  The prefix con means with or parallel, hence he held to the scripture, "This is my body."( Copulla, Dr. Owens notes)  Not "this becomes my body", as the Romanists held.
c. The doctrine of the Eucharist as a commemoration was advanced by Zwingli, a contemporary of Luther.  As the Word implies, he held it as a commemoration. 
d. John Calvin and the reformers took a mediating view between Luther and Zwingli.  The body and blood of Christ were not locally present but spiritually present as a reminder. This is the view generally held by evangelical Protestants.  (Art. 14, Manual of church of the Nazarene).
It is a sign of what has been affected by God for lost men and a seal of the promise of redemption for all who will believe to the saving of the soul, by the death of Jesus for lost men until the mediatory reign of Christ shall cease.
(2) Baptism.  In the Church of the Nazarene baptism may be administered by ministers by sprinkling, pouring, or immersing. 
a. There are those who hold that baptism is obsolete (as is animal Sacrifice).  John the Baptist stated, "He must increase, but I must decrease" (Jn. 3:30). "I indeed baptize you with water unto repentance…"(Matt. 3:11).  (Jesus lived and died under the law, but delivered us from it. Dr. Owens’ notes)
The Quakers point out that one inference is too slim to build a principle upon.
The apostles and their Judaizers did baptize in the same form with water, but those who hold this form point out that it was a carry-over from Judaism.  Paul himself baptized very few.  Those few seemed to have been Jews who wanted to be baptized by an apostle.  Hundreds had met no apostle but Paul.  He wished to be all things to all men where right is not at stake; hence he bowed to their wishes but had to explain it later. Paul declared that he was sent not to baptize but to preach (I Cor. 1:17; Eph. 4:5). (One Lord, One faith, and One Baptism. Dr Owens notes.) It is dangerous for holiness people to put water in there; in fact; it is not overly healthy to follow Paul too closely if you are not a Quaker or a Salvationist.
They point out why should one baptized with Christ’s baptism pass back to John or symbolism. In this view children who are not candidates for the reality would be for the symbol.  Water baptism would be for them and them alone.
b. There are those who hold that immersion is the only form taught in the Bible.  Such generally hold:
(i) That only immersion is baptism.
(ii) That only immersion is Christian baptism.
(iii) That only adults can be recipients of this baptism.
(iv) Christian baptism is a type of the death and resurrection of Christ.
(v) The baptism of infants is a modern innovation. (Hill’s, p. 516).  Four are scripturally wrong, and all five are historically wrong.
Within this group there are those who hold to one immersion facing up in the name of the Father, Son and Holy Spirit.  There are those who hold to three immersions in rapid succession in three names.  This is unscriptural, as the name is one (Matt. 28:19).  There are not three Gods but one God and three persons.  The name is therefore one.  Some also hold face down three times.  They will re-baptize people on this issue.
c. There are those who hold that either or both, pouring or sprinkling are Christian modes of baptism.  They hold generally that the sign or seal of baptism, in adults, is the seal of regeneration; in children, it is a seal of their possible salvation.  In saved adults it is the seal of their possible baptism with the Spirit.
Circumcision in the Old Testament spiritually referred to the removal of impurity from the heart as well as being the symbol of Abraham and God’s covenant, which covenant still in vogue.  The Old symbol then merged into the New Testament symbol of baptism.  Spiritually this also refers to the purification of the heart.
In the old order the proper time for circumcision was at the eighth day.  Adults who entered as adults were circumcised as adults.  A child uncircumcised at the eighth day was cut off from the covenant.  Just as the paschal feast merged into the Lord’s Supper, so circumcision in baptism.  A child is a member of the covenant of Grace today as were the children of the Old Testament; hence the child today is eligible for the symbol (Pope, Vol. III, pp. 317-319).  God help the man who would rob a child of his God-given birthright.  "The promise is to you and to your children" (Acts 2:39).  God is the Sponsor of the little ones and His covenant of Grace sign is theirs too.
 d.   We shall now observe the matter Biblically.
 Bapto or its derivative Baptizo, etc. in classic Greek meant to dip in water, milk, vinegar, honey, was fire or ointment. It meant to dye, without reference to mode, wash, sprinkle, pour largely or to cleanse with water.
The Septuagint and Josephus used baptism with regard to ceremonial cleansing.  The Book of Judith calls ceremonial cleansing with regard to Judith being baptized in the presence of soldiers. Dipping hyssop in water and shaking it over things is baptism in Hebrew, (No. 9:13, 16, 19; Heb. 9:13-14; Dan. 4:33).  Nebuchadnezzar was baptized by the dew of heaven.
e.  Jesus baptized His hands before He ate.  When a servant poured water on His master’s hands his master was baptized.  When they returned from market they baptized themselves. They baptized themselves many times a day.  They complained because Jesus and His disciples did not baptize their hands before they ate. 
f. Prepositions within themselves prove nothing definitely, but their context does.  Eis, Eis, ek, apo, all have different meanings in different placed.  The "Eis" has to be repeated before it means "into".  "Apo" does not always mean "out of" but "from".
g. If Jesus were immersed in Jordan, so was John, for both went in the river and both came out.  (Matt. 3:16).  It was after Jesus was baptized that He went out of the water.  If the Eunuch was under, Philip was under (Acts 8:388-39).  — "And he commanded the chariot to stand still and they went down both into the water, both Philip and the eunuch and he baptized him.  And when they were come up out of the water, the Spirit of the Lord caught away Philip, that the Eunuch saw him no more, and he went on his way rejoicing."  It is a self-evident, common sense fact that Jesus and John and Philip and the Eunuch were standing in the water. Paul was baptized standing up (Acts 9:18).  Greek, "And having arisen."
The implication is that water was brought into the house of Cornelius and into the Philippian jail at once.
h. Bapto and baptizo are used where no water is used.
(i) Paul says that the Israelites were baptized unto Moses in the cloud and in the sea. (I Cor. 10:1-3).  They were sprayed by the stormy wind crossing the dry ocean floor.  They were under the cloud.  It was not a water cloud but light by day and darkness by night.  Jesus said, "I have a baptism to be baptized with, and how am I straitened till it be accomplished!" (Luke 12:50)
His water baptism was a suffering and death.  He had sanctified Himself for it.  Paul uses the term "Buried with Christ in baptism."  A permanent state, not momentary (Col. 2:11-12; Rom. 6:2, 5, 6; Gal. 3:27; I. Cor. 10:2). Buried with Christ, dead to sin, as dead to it as Jesus was physically dead in the grave.
i. Notice Scripture references to the Baptism with the Spirit.
(i) (Num. 8:7; 19:13; Isa. 52:15; Ezek. 36:25; Ex. 4:9; Prov. 1:23; Isa. 44:3; Joel 2:28-29; Acts 2:17ff.  Referring to Joel’s statement Peter said, "I will pour out my spirit upon all mankind."  Sprinkling and pouring in the Old Testament which is called baptism climaxes with the outpoured Spirit of God which is called baptism.
j. Some peculiar and closing observations should be made.
(i) It is interesting to note that immersion was informally practiced by a group of anti-holiness people (Anabaptist), and largely carried on today by denominations who are eternal security and anti-holiness (Old line Baptist, Pentecostals, Mormons).  Small holiness groups believed in it exclusively but have made no great literary contribution.
(ii) It seems incredible to believe that if thousands were immersed by John and Peter and others at one time that it would have been by immersion, that nothing would have been said about wet clothes, exchanging clothes, and booths for dressing.
(iii) It appears to be more than a happen-so that most textbooks on holiness were written and are written by men who believe in pouring and sprinkling.

ESCHATOLOGY: Vol.3 p.211-242

1. Death.  Both Spiritual and physical are given in the Bible as a result of sin.  The gift of the first Adam to his posterity.  Both have been potentially abolished by the second Adam, Christ.
a. (1)  Physical death is the separation of the spirit from the body;
And spiritual death is separation of the person from God (The prodigal). 
b. In regeneration the spirit is brought into relationship with God through Christ.  Thus spiritual death is abolished for the child of God.  Physical death is also abolished in that the soul and body are to be reunited as were the soul and body of Christ reunited.  Thus physical death is abolished for the saved and unsaved. The saved are to be resurrected and glorified and then pass into the presence of God and Christ.  The unsaved are resurrected and made indestructible and pass into hell fire or the lake of fire.
c. The second death has no reference to the physical alone but the whole person, spirit and body, who is cast out of the presence of God.  Thus this separation eternally from God of the whole person is the second death.

2. Immortality.
(1) There is an innate conviction, strong in the heart of all.  How did it originate?  Why does it continue?  It is a strong argument for immortality.
(2) The Philosophical arguments for Immortality.
a. The Psychological argument is based on the nature of the soul as simple, indivisible and indestructible.
b. The Teleological argument holds that the human soul cannot in this life fulfill all of its promises in this life or tax its possibilities.
c. The Cosmical argument holds that there is no possibility of the communion of all people.
d. The Analogical argument is drawn from analogies.  The seed dies and yet perpetuates its identity.
e. The Moral argument declares that there are wrongs unredressed in this world that calls for another conscious world to balance all.  If there were on beyond, the good man, the honest, the conscientious man is in many respects a fool.
(3) Immortality is revealed in the Scriptures.  Life and immortality were fully revealed in Christ; hence, in the Old it is hazily taught, but it is stated there nevertheless (Eccles. 3:21; 12:7).  Enoch was not, for God took him.  Elijah was not as he too passed on.  They referred to departure and going into their fathers.  The same is taught in Job.
In the New the light shines crystal clear, Jesus coming from and going to God.
Hear Stephen’s testimony.  Paul’s declaration to be absent here is to present with Christ.  (Luke 16:13-19).  Jesus having abolished death became the first born from the dead.  And having arisen became the first fruits of the dead.
3. The intermediate state – There is no such thing as soul sleep nor yet of annihilation of anyone.  They are doctrinely false.  Build on minority texts.
(1) Annihilationism is out and present conditional immortality springs from this.  Annihilationism contradicts the doctrine of immortality and the belief — It allows no degrees of punishment.  It is out of harmony with the majority of Bible statements on this subject.
(2) Others hold that punishment is remedial and that even the devil himself is remedial.  Eternal punishment is not thus necessarily eternal.  Universalism which came from German rationalism holds this view.  They use I Cor. 3:15.  It is wonderful what theories can be backed up by Scripture taken out of its setting.
(3) Destructionalism holds that the soul or spirit is mortal and perishes with the body.  This view holds that matter is the ground substance, and spirit is rectified matter.
(4) Purgatory held by Roman Catholicism is passed on Plato’s 10th chapter in his "Republic".  The myth of Er.  There is no Scripture for that, but they on (invent?) some.  This is under the power of the keys or under the Church.  The Church may keep people in or let them out.
4. The names used to designate the place of punishment.
(1) Sheol, Hades in the Greek.  In the Greek these terms originally referred to the place of the dead.  It may refer to the grave merely.  "Thou wilt not leave my soul in Hades, neither wilt thou suffer thine holy one to see corruption."  This refers to the grave where corruption would be.
(2) Tartarus – This refers to be cast down.  In Scripture it is found in II Peter 2:4 – "For if God spared not the angels that sinned but cast them down to Tartarus (hell) and to be reserved unto Judgment."
(3) Gehenna refers to the place of punishment.  It is taken over from the Gehenna Valley where the refuse of the city continually burned.  Gehenna appears many times in the New Testament (Matt. 5:22; 29, 30). (Jesus used this word, literally Ghenna of fire. Dr. Owens notes.) They (Sheol and Hades) do not refer to hell at all.  All are going to the grave, but Gehenna is different. The rich man was there and wished others not to come.  He would not have made his request as concerning the grave. The torture of Gehenna is referred to 12 times, 11 by Jesus. (Matt. 18:9; James 3:6; Mk. 9:43). 
(4) The lake of fire cannot differ in quality but may in quantity, as that is the final abode of all-evil persons and evil.  Hell, meaning Gehenna can only differ from it in time.  That is between the two is the wall of time with the judgments of all.


1. Nil-millennialists (mille – 1,000 years, Chilias – 1,000 years in Greek).  They spiritualize everything in relation to the personal return and reign on earth.  They do not believe in a Millenium as such at all.
2. The Roman Catholic Church holds pretty much to St. Augustine’s view that the Millenium is identical with the reign of the Church on earth.  Augustine declared that the 1,000 years denoted the last 1,000 years of time or else a figure for the whole duration of time.  The Roman Catholic Church rejects this aspect of Augustinianism.
3. The Adventist’s theory holds that the rapture, the revelation of Christ, and the conflagration are all identical in the point of time.  The 1,000 years is a period when the righteous will be on high, and the wicked destroyed at the brightness of His coming, and the earth is rendered void.  Satan is chained in the sense that during the period he can do no harm.  Satan is unloosed at the end of the 1,000 years of chaos, after the wicked nations are resurrected for a period. That is, Satan has an opportunity to do evil.  Satan rallies the wicked and is defeated, and then we have the final destruction of the wicked and the new heaven and the new earth becomes the abode of the saints.  Wiley has an excellent summary of this view.  (Vol. III, pp. 281-282)
4. Post-Mill.  Holds that the world will get better and better until millennial conditions get better and better.  After a period of such ideal conditions Jesus returns and winds up all.  To them there is but one resurrection in mass, and one general judgment.  A. M. Hills is the modern great exponent of this view. John Miley is of the same persuasion, but no so (Bull headed).
5. Pre-millennialism may differ somewhat.  There is Dr. Wiley and Dr. Pope.  Dr. Pope has really no millenium proper, but he does have a "Day of the Lord" of some length; after the return of Jesus in which things are wound up.  He is really a Nil-millennialist.  Dr. Wiley follows Pope as closely in this as in all else.  He, however, lengthens it out somewhat and mixes the tribulation, judgments, and reign all together in an untangable mass.  The matter seems to stand thus: Dr. Wiley is really a Nil, but he is writing a theology for the Holiness Movement, that is at least 90% thorough going Premillennial.  Therefore, he uses premillennial terms and calls himself a Premillennial.  The Holiness movement today adheres pretty closely to what Dr. Wiley calls Keswickism.  It is not really Keswickism, but it was first systematized by Bengel of Germany. Wesley was pretty much of this persuasion.  He held to a 1,000 years of reign without a Devil and then another 1,000 after he was released.  That period is undated and does not seem to be that long.

Modern thorough going Premillennialism is something like this:
1. The next event in the divine calendar is the rapture at which time:
(1) The dead in Christ will be raised; the living saints caught up.
(2) The Holy Spirit as a person will be withdrawn.
(3) The Man of Sin (Antichrist) will be revealed.
2. The Tribulation will then take place – a period of seven years.  It is cut in two:
(1) The whole period will be a period of intolerance for the Gentiles.  They will have to worship the Beast.
(2) The Jews return to Palestine and worship God as they see fit under a covenant with death, and an agreement with hell. At the midst of the week this covenant is broken and the Antichrist marches against them to make them worship him.  We then have the Battle of Armageddon, at which time Christ fights for the Jews.  They recognize Him as their rejected Messiah and at one accept Him as such.  He then visibly returns to earth.
3. The first judgment follows:
(1) The resurrected saints and raptured saints return with Him.  They are spiritual bodies and neither marry nor are given in marriage, and are not subjected to natural conditions.
(2) The living nations are called into judgment with regard to what they have done with the Jews.   Two-thirds of the Jews and Gentiles are slain or die during the Tribulation and Judgment.
(3) One-third of the living nations moves into the millennium and re-populate the earth.  Life is greatly lengthened; a person dying at 100 will be considered a child, and a sinner in heart living to a 100 will be accursed.
(4) Christ reigns from Jerusalem with a rod of iron, and suppresses all sin, and commands all to come and worship Him.  If they do not come, they are to be punished until extermination.
4. At the end of the 1,000 years Satan is let out of his prison in which he was incarcerated at the beginning of the 1,000 years.  He gathers all the heart rebels together and surrounds the Holy City.  God pours fire from heaven upon them all, and they are defeated.

5. Then comes the general judgment when all the dead are resurrected and judged.  All appear.  The good and the bad are eternally separated.  The bad in the lake of fire and the good go into heaven itself.  Eternity.


     CHAPTER 35 Vol. 3.p. 320-354

1. Taking Jesus’ resurrection as the example, and this must we do, the very bodies that are buried are to rise, but rise completely changed and of a spiritual nature.  It is sown a natural body; It is raised a spiritual body.  The it refers to the same one.
(1) All died physically because of our descent from the first Adam.  This goes for the saved and the unsaved (with the exception of the translated few and the raptured generation of the saved).
(2) All are to be resurrected because of our relationship to the Last Adam.  The good and the bad are to be raised.  The Spirits of the saved will return and be reunited with their bodies; and the spirits of the doomed will return and be reunited with their bodies.
(3) The saved will be given glorified bodies (their own glorified) to carry into the presence of God forever.  The unsaved will be given indestructible bodies (their own raised) to carry into the lake of fire forever.

2.  At the general judgment all shall be there, saved and unsaved (I Cor. 15:21-22; Rev. 20:11-15).  The Book probably has reference to God’s revelation to mankind whether by nature, conscience or written, and the books probably has reference to the lives of individuals.
(1) It is not a judgment to determine destiny.  That is determined.  Most of the wicked are called from a place of punishment to attend the general judgment, and then return to a place of punishment.  Most of the righteous are called from a place of happiness to attend the general judgment, and return to a place of happiness.  The wicked have already been condemned and the righteous have already been acquitted.
(2) The Judge at that judgment is the Christ of God, the God-man who are judged himself at the bar of the world before both Jew and Gentile in Pilate’s presence.  All judgment is turned over to him who was himself judged.  It is an awful thought for the religious leaders of Pilate’s day, and for the political rulers of Pilate’s day.  Yet no more awful for them than for those who have and are setting him at naught since and today.
(3) At that judgment God will vindicate His every action and every attribute.  We are in the dark with regard to much here.  All shall be explained and revealed and shown to have been done in wisdom and in love.
(4) All wrongs unredressed, and all insults unavenged will be fully taken care of, every debt of every kind will be paid; every fraud, and every lie and every secret and covered thing – in short every violation of the laws of God will be somehow fully adjusted.
The person who refused to repent here because of something that he is not willing to adjust will have to adjust it, and pay for the adjustment in the currency of that world.  No one is getting off with a thing.
(5) All mistakes and errors, and unaccountable actions will be shown as such and wrongly accused persons will be acquitted and compensated to the full.
(6) The influence of each on the other will be fully shown to the extent that the sinner will say Amen to his doom. The morality of the universe will be fully sustained.

2. Just before, or possibly during the Day of Judgment, which is of an indefinite time (not necessarily a day, may be much longer or much shorter) (II Peter 3:7,10; Rev. 21:5) the earth itself will be removed by fire and as such pass away. The elements are to melt with fervent heat, and be folded up and pass away.
(1) Angels also which kept not their first estate will apparently be judged and pass into the lake of fire in relation to that second judgment (II Peter 2:4).
(2) This will apparently close the mediatorial reign of Christ.  He will step down from that Mediatorial throne and step back into the bosom of the eternal Trinity that God may be all in all (I Cor. 15:28).  Pope III pg. 425.


                Chapter 36 Vol. 3, p. 355 ff

1. Scripture teaches in an unmistakable manner the doctrine of eternal punishment.  From the statements of Jesus Himself we are forced to admit this (Matt. 7:23; Mk. 10:28; Matt. 13:41, 42, 49, 50; 25:41, 46; Mk. 8:36; 9:43-44; Luke 16:22-23; John 5:28-29).
(1) The fact remains that those who die in their sins are separated from God forever and are placed in a state of punishment.  That place is a conscious state.
(2) Some learned men have tried to argue this away by saying it is contrary to the goodness of God.  The fact remains that God is not mocked "Be not deceived; God is not mocked: for whatsoever a man soweth, that shall he also reap."  (Gal. 6:7 also read 8).
(3) The present life is a probation to settle the nature of an eternal habitation and the direction.  Every principle involved is this probation.
(4) An aspect of this eternal punishment is called the second death, but this second death is an eternal state.  – "But the fearful, and unbelieving, and the abominable, and murderers and whoremongers and sorcerers and idolaters, and all liars, shall have their part in the lake which burneth with fire and brimstone: which is the second death: (Rev. 21:8) NOTICE:  (Rev. 20:14-15).
This sentence of the second death cannot be executed while the sinner lives; it comes at the judgment.  During time the restraining grace is upon the sinner and prevents a complete breakdown in soul corruption, but when that grace is withdrawn, that breakdown is complete, and its corruption will be complete.  Physical death and corruption are a type of the spiritual death. This is a more profound truth than most of us realize.
(5) Jesus went a step farther and spoke of that punishment as outer darkness.  He associated it with weeping and wailing and gnashing of teeth (Matt. 8:12; 22:13; 25:20).  St. Peter uses the term chains of darkness (II Pet. 2:4, 17).
(6) This punishment is private.  It is banishment forever from what should have been and might have been.  This banishment or loss is terrific (Matt. 25:41).
(7) This punishment is not only private, but it is positive. Jesus calls it hell fire, and John  - lake of fire.  "And shall cast them into a furnace of fire: there shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth" (Matt. 13:42).
(8) This punishment is as eternal as the blessedness of the saved is as eternal as the Throne of God.  This aspect is worse than all others combined.  The words eternal and everlasting are used the same with the saved and unsaved.

2. The Bible says more about the eternal blessedness of the redeemed than the eternal state of the body, but theology says more about the body. Heaven is a state and a place.  The state is often emphasized and the place overlooked.
(1) The saved soul enters heaven at death and awaits there the resurrection of the body.  Body and soul are then reinhabited in heaven above after the general judgment.
(2) Jesus comforted His disciples with this (Jn. 14:2-3).  Stephen and Paul give us interesting statements (Acts 7:55; II Cor. 5:8).  The distance from earth to heaven cannot be spatial.  If there is a distance to be traversed, it does not take time to do it.
(3) Heaven is not in a Christian’s heart, home nor community.  There may be earnest therein, but these are not heaven.  Heaven is a place with foundations, walls and gates but with no top.
(4) The New Jerusalem that John saw coming down can hardly be heaven itself.  It appears to be the church triumphant.  Twelve foundations had the names of the 12 apostles of the Lamb, upon the foundation the Church Age rests.  It also is called the "Bride" – "The Lamb’s Wife".  This again brands it as the church triumphant.
(5) The blessedness of the saved is beyond description.  We shall not try; the Angels said "Write it not."  And Paul saw things that could not be written nor uttered.  We shall let it go at that.
(6) Hill’s abridged work, page 620, makes a few observations:
a. The root and branch of sin are gone.  There is the absence of all physical evil.
b. Heaven will be mental gain.  Mental powers will come to their own there and be fully taxed.
c. Heaven will be moral and spiritual gain.  The contaminated air and sin stained.  Temptation will be a thing of the past.  People will not be a trial to each other, but only blessing and enjoyment.
d. Heaven will be social gain.  Society will be to our perfect taste.  The sanctified Christian in an unholy environment finds himself in a holy environment.  The change is wonderful, but nothing like heaven will be.
e. Heaven will bring limitless development and progress.  Life really calls for progress.
f. Heaven for the Christian is also endless.
It will then be too bad for the holiness fighter.  How would he feel if he were there?  God help him when he hits the bar of heaven.  The eternal security person who sins in word, thought and deed would look like what there?  The whole trouble then will be that the mediator will have stepped from His mediatorial throne (Rev. 22:19-21).


1.  Wiley, H. O.  Christian Theology 1945 (Methodist)   3 vol.
2.  Pope, W. B. A Compendium of Christian Theology, 1880, (Methodist) 3 vol.
3.  Miley, John Systematic Theology, 1892, (Methodist)  2 vol.
4.  Hills, A. M. Fundamental theology, 1932, (Methodist)  2 vol.
5.  Ralston, T. N. Elements of Divinity, 1924, (Methodist)
6.  Fields, B. B. Students Handbook of Christian Theology, (Methodist)
7.  Banks, J. S.  Manuel of Christian Theology, (Methodist)
8.  Bennie & Steel Bennie’s Theological Compendia. 1902, (Methodist)
9.  Watson, Richard, Theological Institutes, (Methodist)    2 vol.
10. Wakefield, Samuel  Complete Systematic of Theology, 1969, (Methodist)  Good
11. Raymond  Minor Systematic Theology, 1879, (Methodist) 3 vol.
12. Curtis, O. A. Christian Theology, 1905, (Methodist)
13. Wardlaw, R. Systematic Theology, 1857, (Nat. Methodist) 3 vol.
(Sanctification at death) 
14. Dogg, J. L.  Manuel of Theology, 1871 (Baptist)(Sanctification by Growth)
15. Adams, W. A. Christian Theology in Outline, 1926, (Nat. Methodist)
16. Fairchild, J. H.  History of Christian Doctrine, 1892, (Congregational)
17. Fisher, G. P. History of Christian Doctrine, 1896, (Yale University)
18. Calvin, John Institutes of the Christian Religion
19. Hodge, Charles Systematic Theology, 1976, (Calvinism)  3 vol. 
20. Berkhof, L. Systematic Theology, 1946, (Calvinism)

John Ross OneTexan
Top of Page
John Briscoe Webmaster
Texts may be freely used for personal or scholarly purposes, provided they remain unaltered, Dr. King is given full credit, and this website is referenced.
Texts may not be redistributed in any for-profit form or mirrored at any other website without the expressed, written consent of John Ross.
If you charge anything for accessing this material, even a "nominal disk copying fee", you must register with us and obtain written permission.
The material is NOT SHAREWARE and may not be distributed by
 shareware dealers without our written permission.