The Life and Teachings of Jesus
Dr. W. Noble King
Bethany Nazarene College 
All Rights Reserved

This document consists of notes taken by students who attended Dr. King's class at Bethany Nazarene College. The notes therefore reflect student response to Dr. King's lectures and do not necessarily represent fully or accurately his thought in all respects.  I (JR)received these class notes from Rev. Don Moore who took the class in the fall of 1949 and into January of 1950.  I have placed at the end of these notes the colloquium assignment that came to my attention after the Gospels class notes were done.  I had gone up to Bethany, Oklahoma, after Rev. Wilbur Brannon had given a number of his class notes to the Bethany archives, and while reading his class notes on The Gospels found and copied the colloquium assignment.                            ***....*** 


650 pages of outside reading.
Term paper minimum 3,000 words.
A test at the end of each 6 weeks

Collateral reading

Bower.  The Master.
Edersheim, Alfred.  The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah.  2 vols.  New York: Randolph & Co., 1886.
Farrar, Canon.  The life of Christ.  Hartford, Conn.  S. S. Scranton Co., 1873.
Hastings, James, ed.  A Dictionary of Christ and the Gospels.  2 vols.  New York, 1924.
Hollis, William Slater.  The Character of Christ, 1962
Klausner,  The Jew.
Orr, James.  The Virgin Birth of Christ.  London: Hodder & Staughton, 1907.
Papini, Giovanni.  Life of Christ.  Trans. by Dorothy Canfield Fisher.  New York: Harcourt Brace, 1923.
Smith, David.  The Days of His Flesh.  8th. ed.  New York: Harper & Brothers, n.d.
Stalker, James.  The Life of Christ.  New York: Fleming H. Revell, 1909.
Stirling, John F.  Atlas of the Life of Christ.  New York: Revell, 1956.
Weiss, Bernard.  The Life of Christ.

 The world was prepared in four different ways for the advent and coming of Christ.  Alexander had conquered the civilized world.  Yet he asked to buried on the Aegean Sea with his hands out of the sand to show that he conquered the world but died empty handed.

 1. There was one common language-all public speech was in Greek.  The common language in Judea was Aramaic. 
 2. Rome conquered the civilized world and forced order over the entire world.  All people could travel in safety. 
 3. Rome built great highways from the Euphrates to the Atlantic, from Scotland to the Nile (Smith, p.3).  The Gospel travelers went over the same roads. 
 4. Heathen religions had completely failed and men recognized the fact. The mystic East looked to the practical West and the West looked to the ancient East.

 Judea had radically changed from Malachi to Matthew.  Its language had changed.  Had Malachi have risen from the dead he would not have known where he was.

 Palestine had been ravished by many conquerors.  Freedom was won and lost many times.
 Judea passed completely under the Roman sway.  A usurper set over them as a King, and was a Roman vassal on the throne of David.  This man was Herod, an Idumaen, and the descendant of Ishmael and Esau.  He hated the Jews and was hated by them.  The Roman soldiers paraded the streets of Jericho.  Roman flags flew over all the country. Roman tax gathers set at the city gates, and Rome backed up the usurper.  The high priest were set up and put down at the whim of Rome.  The proud nation had fallen low and patriotism was a mere religion, and national passion was intense and unquenchable.
 The change in religion was equally great and the fall was equally low. The nation was far more orthodox than in anytime past.  Once its chief danger was idolatry, but the exile cured them of idolatry forever.  The Jews were, henceforth, uncompromisingly monotheistic.  After the return from exile all religious rites were reinstated.  Furthermore, the synagogue was introduced.  The Synagogue with its Rabbi's was almost more popular than the temple with its priest.  Therefore the synagogue's multiplied.
 In spite of much religion, real religion was dead.  The inner spirit had disappeared at the time of Jesus.  Jesus criticized these more than ever.  The Pharisees and the Sadducees were most important.  The Pharisee was intensely patriotic.  They hated the foreign yoke extremely, i.e., Rome.  They came to hate men as well.  They believed themselves to be the special favorites of heaven because they were direct descendants of Abraham.  They multiplied fast, prayers, tithes (31% of their income), washings, and sacrifices which were substituted for the love of God and love of man.
 Most of the scribes belonged to the Pharisees.  The scribes copied and interpreted the law and were lawyers for the people.  The Jewish law code was incorporated in the scriptures.  Jurisprudence thus became a branch of theology.  The commentaries of those men were multiplied. The interpretation became as sacred as the text! They were," The  traditions of the elders".  These traditions regulated every detail of life, personal, domestic, social, and public.  The conscience was burdened with innumerable details, which were as binding as the ten commandments. Peter said, "Neither they, nor their fathers were able to keep."  When the ceremonial is elevated to the same rank as the moral, the moral will be lost sight of, and the ceremonial will remain alone" (Stalker, p.31). 
 The Sadducees refused to be bound by the traditions of the elders and wished to return to the Bible for selfish reasons.  They did not want to live so straight-laced.  They were worldly-minded and not at all religiously inclined.  They belonged mostly to the upper classes.  The Pharisees belonged to the middle class.  The so-called lower classes were separated from the Sadducees and admired the Pharisees.  Down below all of these was a large class who had lost all connection with religion-publicans and sinners.  Society had cast them out, for whose souls "no man cared." 
 Such were the pitiable features of society on which Jesus was about to discharge his influence.  It was a nation enslaved, the upper class devoting themselves to selfishness, courtship and skepticism.  Teachers and chief professors were lost in a mere show of ceremonialism, and boasting themselves of religious strength, while their souls were honeycombed with deceit and wickedness" (Stalker, p. 35). 
 In spite of their degradation, yet they were the people of God. They were children of Abraham, heirs of the covenant.  They had Godly patriarchs and Kings after God's own heart, judges, and generations of faithful prophets.  The Pharisees and the other leaders looked to the Messiah to free them and elevate them to popular dominion.  They expected high offices in the Kingdom without any heart change in themselves. 
 Such was a degrading condition of the Jewish history when the hour of national history for her was about to strike.  Faith seemed to linger in a few humble homes of a few peasants.  As far as we know about 6 people (Gen. 49:10).

 The Nativity, the infancy and the silent years. 

 Augustus Caesar was sitting on the throne of the Roman Empire.  At his slightest wish he could move the civilized world.  A favorite occupation of his was to compile a register of the population and of their revenue in all of his domain.  He issued an edict that all the world should be taxed or possibly to make a census to serve as a basis for future taxation (Luke 2:1, margin).  As great as are the historic difficulties in which the census was involved there seem to be good independent grounds for believing that it may have been ordered by Sentius Saturnius and begun by Publius Sulpicus Quirinus during his first term of office.  It was completed during his second term of office (Farrar pp. 3-4; Luke 2:2).  In any case both of the above named had something to do with it, that is the taxation. 
 The Jewish custom was to register at their tribal headquarters.  This for Joseph and Mary was Bethlehem, which was the ancestral home of Boaz, Jesse, and David.  As far as we know Joseph died just before Jesus started preaching for Joseph was the legal heir.  Joseph the Carpenter of Nazareth in the line of Matthan and Mary went to Bethlehem a distance of 80 to 100 miles. They reached the Kahn or inn which is probably the very one which had been known for centuries as the House of Chimham.  If so Joseph and Mary were covering the very ground on which 1000 years before stood the hereditary house of Boaz, Jesse, and David.  It was a low limestone mine or grotto or stable to house the animals.  There Christ is born.  “He was born in a hole and taken out by a Cross!” Christ humiliation was complete.  He was at the bottom for his nation, which was a nation of slaves!  He is born at the bottom of the social ladder in every respect. 

 The infancy of Jesus:

 About one mile from Bethlehem stands a chapel, The Angels of the Shepherds.  This is on the site where tradition says the Angels appeared to the shepherds.  On that field nearby Jacob camped with his flocks.  Ruth gleaned and David herded his sheep.  Amon had driven his herds in the same fields.  Rachel's tomb was near and also David’s tomb.
 Guided by the lamp that usually swung from the center by a rope, the shepherds made their way to the inn and stable.  They saw Joseph and Mary and the babe clothed “In strips of rags.”  They returned praising God.
 Eight days after His birth, Jesus was circumcised and given the name of Jesus (Luke 2:21).  This probably happened in Bethlehem.  His circumcision was according to Jewish law because he was born under that law.  As Stalker states his name was circumcised that is inscribed in the role of the nation.  Farrar says that Bethlehem is “A prelude of Calvary, even the infant’s cradle is tinged with a crimson reflection from the Cross.”
 Forty days after birth, both Joseph and Mary presented the child in the temple at Jerusalem.  St. Vonab Entura said, “Do they bring the Lord of the temple to the temple of the Lord.”  Mary also offered for her own purification and two turtle doves for her son, which was the offering of the very poorest.  This is a counterattack on Catholicism about Mary.  They paid five shekels, an offering releasing him from temple service (Lev. 12, Num. 18:15-6, Luke 2:22-23).
 It was at this presentation that Simeon and Anna saw Jesus and blessed him.  Others were looking for a king on the throne. 

Eastern Magi, or wise men or astrologers came.  Whether they were from Persia or merely from the East we are not definitely informed.  That there were three who came rest wholly on tradition.  Their traditional names are, Casper, Melchoir, Balthasar, no servants or camels were mentioned.  They saw his start in the East.  They could have been acquainted with Balaam’s statement in Numbers. 24:17.  This star could appear and disappear and stand over the very room where Christ was.  It was a star like presence somewhat like the cloud over the Tabernacle in the wilderness (Farrar, pp. 10-16).
 They made their way to Jerusalem to Herod.  This is a classic example of the price of blunders in the lives of great men.  It cost the lives of those children (Mic. 5:2; Matt. 2:6).
 Prime examples of this are: Abraham marrying Hagar and producing Ishmael, who has been the eternal enemy of the Jews, and Abraham’s home was disrupted.  David suffered much for his blunders in his home.
 Herod asked them to inform him where they found a King.  They then journeyed back to Bethlehem.  They found them in a house.  They presented their gifts and were warned of God to return another way.  Joseph was warned to flee into Egypt.  Where he went in Egypt or how long he stayed we do not know.  Tradition says two years.  He was told to return for Herod was dead.  He intended to reside in Bethlehem but was warned in a dream that Archelaus reigned in his father’s stead, so he went on to Galilee (Matt. 2:1-23).  Symbolize what you like about the gifts.

 The exact order of the events before the return to Nazareth can be only conjectured.

 The circumcision (Luke 1:59; 2:21). 
 The purification (Luke 2: 22; Lev. 12:2-6). 
 The visit of the Magi (Matt. 2:1). 
 The Flight into Egypt after the wise men's visit (Matt. 2:f.).

 The following gathered around his cradle:

The shepherds in simple reverent wonder.  They were temple shepherds. 
Simeon and Anna who were the only two outside of John the Baptist parents’ and Joseph and Mary who were looking for the Messiah. 
The magi with gifts, Gentile wisdom, and a desire to know the Christ.
Around this was the sinister and murderous face of Herod.

 The Silent Years:

 Galilee was the ancient heritage of Naphtali, Asher, Zebulon and Issachar.  It was beautiful and rich with fruit trees and fertile plains beyond description.  It is the fairest region of the Holy Land.  It was called Gilead - Haggogim - meaning circle of the Gentiles as it was surrounded by the Phoenicians, the ten cities of the Decapolis and Samaria.  The Gentiles kept apart from the Jews and they despised them.  The Jews in Galilee were patriotic.  Judea was poorer but it had Jerusalem, the temple, great teachers and the Sanhedrin.  Judea looked down on Galilee.  “But Galilee gave Jesus a home and Judah gave him a Cross.“ 
 Nazareth was built of white limestone rock.  It was on a hill by the Plain of Esdraelon.  It was beautiful but wicked.  The Jews had a proverb, “Out of Galilee ariseth no prophet” and yet several great prophets did come from Galilee.  The people from Nazareth had evil reputations even around the Galileans.  Another proverb was, “Can any good thing come out of Nazareth” (John 1:46)?  Yet in that province and in that town the child Jesus increased in wisdom and stature and in favor with God and man.
 There were other children in the home.  James, who “caboosed it to heaven.” Joseph, Jude or Judah and Simon and several daughters-at least two because daughters is in the plural.  During his earthly ministry his own brothers not only rejected his claims but sneered at him and wanted to hush him.  Once they attempted to lay hands on him and to bring him back to Nazareth (Matt. 13:55-56; Mark 6:3; Mark 3:21-22; John 7:3-5).  After his resurrection at least two of his brothers believed on him.  James and Jude- brothers of Jesus wrote two Epistles.  They seem to be hard and exacting.  Hence there would have been little fellowship in the family of Jesus.
 Jesus was a pre-existing person.  "And the word was made flesh and dwelt among us and we beheld his glory" (John 1:9; Phil. 2:5-7; John 17:5).  Jesus also created all things and upholds all things.  Smith (pp. 12, 23) is of the opinion that Jesus became fully conscious of his divine nature at the age of twelve.  "I definitely hold with James Stalker, “I cannot even trust myself to even think of a time when he did not know what his work in this world was to be (p. 24).”  Any other position would isolate the continuity of personality. 
A Jewish child’s education began at home and his parents were his first teachers (Deut. 6:6-7).  Then at age six or seven he would have been sent to the school called " House of the Book."  The book of the law was the subject of the study.  The school was attached to the synagogue and every town had a Synagogue - hence every town had its own school.  Jesus appears to have read in the synagogue before appearing to teach.  He could write.  A child could then pass to a "Scribal College," "the House of Midrash."  This was higher education.  It was said of Jesus, "How knoweth this man letters, having never learned?”  "This means that he had never attended Scribal College.  The leading such college was at Jerusalem and it was in the temple. 
 If Jesus was about two when the family returned from Egypt, then from two to age thirty we know of only one incident in his life.  That was the time when his family left him in the temple when he was twelve.  Jesus never attended the rabbinical college, yet on one memorial occasion he was at the feet of the Rabbis.

 First, Second and Third years of Jesus’ Ministry

 Jesus was about thirty years of age when he began his ministry.  It was an age of transition, of uncertainty and of doubt.  The heart of mankind was callused and his moral senses were petrified.  Even the heathen felt “That the fullness of time had come.”
 A great prophet arose in John the Baptist, the son of Zacharias.  Elizabeth and Mary were kinswomen and probably were second cousins.  John’s home was at one end and of the land near Hebron.  Jesus’ home was near to the other end of the land in Galilee.  They must have known of each other and John must have known who Jesus was but he did not know him. "I knew him not.”
 John was a Nazarite.  He was a hermit and early in his life he went to the wilderness.  He wore a leather girdle and camel's hair.  He ate locust and wild honey.  He was in the wilderness until his showing to Israel.  He started to preach at Bethany just across the Jordan River at the place where Joshua and the Israelites crossed over into Judea-the Promised Land.  People came from all of Judea and Jerusalem that is from all the land to hear this prophet.  He was a prophet with a living word from a living God.  It had been a long time since a Prophet’s voice had been heard.  The word voice here is - bellowing like an ox - his nature was impetuous and fiery.  He was a sermon within himself. "He was a voice crying in the wilderness."
 He preached repentance to all.  No class was exempted.  The false religious teachers and leaders he reproved.  He called them vipers and told them to repent.  They had catered to the favor of man.
 Farrar (p. 99) remarks of John: "He who is superior to the common ambitions of man is superior also to their common timidities.  If he has little to hope from the favor of his fellows, he has little to fear from their dislike; with nothing to gain from the administration of servile flattery, he has nothing to lose by the expression of just rebuke."
 John demanded fruits of repentance before he administered the symbol of that repentance and the type, which was Jewish baptism.  "I baptize you with water"( Mat. 3:11).  The Israelites sprinkled.  The Egyptians were immersed. 
Jesus' baptism was with the Holy Ghost and with fire.  When Jesus presented himself with the others; John asked him who he was?  "Suffer it to be so now; for thus it becometh us to fulfil all righteousness” (Matt: 3:15).  John objected to baptizing him at once.  But Jesus informed John that he "must fulfill all righteousness."  He meant that he met the full demands of the law: circumcision, sacrifice and death for sin. 
 As Jesus ascended from the water, the heavens were opened and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove and resting upon him.  "This is my beloved son, in whom I am well pleased" (Matt. 3:17).
 From the waters of the Jordan, Jesus was led, driven-into the wilderness by the Spirit.  It was probably here that he was to receive his life's work, but it also is said that he was driven here to be tempted by the devil.  The first Adam was defeated in a beautiful garden, but the last Adam, like a beast in a hot desert, was tempted.  The desert was desolate and haunted by the hot blast of the Syrian sun. 
 Jesus was the Second Adam.  The First Adam failed.  The Devil tempted Jesus not as a person but as a savior.  In all the temptations, Satan tried to get Jesus to take an easier way around the Cross.
 The Devil had Jesus on the worst battlefield possible.  Both the first Adam and Jesus met the same devil at the beginning of their careers.  Jesus was hungry and tired and the Devil came to him at supposedly his weakest phase (Matt. 4:3-8).  Of course, Jesus was capable of temptation, or there would have been no temptation.  This was no allegory.  The one essential point is that it involves the greatest, most powerful, personal giants in the world. 
But Jesus defeated Satan on his own battleground.  The temptation is thought to have taken place on a mountain West of Jericho, which is a desert plain, which leads down to the Dead Sea.

 The temptation:

 It was a place where owls dwelt and he was with the wild beast in the desert.

 Matthew places the temptations in this order:


 Luke’s order is:


 He was hungry, and the rocks were like loaves of bread all around.  He was tempted of these.  Moses got bread from heaven and Elisha was fed bread from the ravens at God's command.  Jesus relied on scripture; "Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of God” (Matt. 4:4).
 The Devil set him on the pinnacle of the temple and said that if he would jump down the Lord would protect him.  This is a shortcut to the Cross.  Jesus answer was, "It is written again, Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God (Matt. 4:7).
 Then the Devil gave him a view of the kingdoms of the world.  All would be his if he would bow down and worship the devil.  Jesus said, "Get thee hence, Satan: for it is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve" (Matt. 4:10). 

 Every area is appealed to physical need, religious fame, and world power.  Jesus came with a design for his life that moved forward to the end without uncertainty and hesitancy.  Nothing could tempt him before his time nor deter him when his time had come.  When he saw the Cross he said, "To this end was I born."  That is the way he would receive a name and world power.  Satan constantly tried to get him to stop short of the Cross.  The Cross did not make Satan happy, he knew he was ruined at Calvary. 
 Furthermore Jesus faced three “ifs” here and one on the Cross.  Three of the four “ifs” were to doubt his Sonship with the father.  If he was so tempted we will be tempted along the same line.  Angels came and ministered unto him. (Farrar 55-65, Smith 34-41, Stalker 42-45).


 There are various ways to divide the public ministry of Jesus.  We divide his ministry into three years.  The first year is the year of obscurity.  The second year is the year public favor.  The third year is a year of opposition (Smith, p. 42). 
 The year of obscurity or the first year of Jesus ministry.  Stalker and Farrar point out that the recorded events of the first year are few.  John gives us nearly all of the few facts of Jesus first year. 

 The Judean  ministry:

 First is the call of the twelve disciples.  And Jesus returned to Jordan where he had been baptized by John after his temptation. As John the Baptist saw him passing he said, “Behold the Lamb of God” (John 1:36).  The two disciples of John turned and followed Jesus.  Moses had said, "Would to God all Israel were prophets.”  John the Baptist said, ”He must increase and I must decrease.”  Andrew was the brother of Simon Peter.  John the beloved was called at this time.  Andrew went and found Simon and brought him to Jesus, for Andrew was a disciple of John the Baptist. He also brought Philip.  On the road to Cana of Galilee Jesus called Bar Tal Mai, Nathaniel, Bartholomew.  Thus two days after Jesus' return he had called five disciples.  All had been disciples of John the Baptist, therefore, all were Christians. 
 The first recorded miracle: God created the home in Eden and Jesus Christ graced a home by his first recorded miracle as the Messiah.  On the third day they passed through Nazareth and journeyed on about 4 or 5 miles to Cana.  Cana was 90 miles from the Jordan where Jesus had been baptized or a three days' journey.  The participants were evidently related to Mary because Mary was in general charge of the marriage.  It might have been the children of Alphaeus and thus Mary's nephew or niece, or one of Mary's own daughters.  Tradition names them, Esther and Tamara.
 During the evening the wine ran out.  The five extra men that Jesus brought uninvited might have been the cause.  Mary informed him of the embarrassment.  Jesus said, "Woman, what have I to do with the” (John 2:4).  “Woman” was the equivalent to our word “lady.”  The reply of Jesus was consistent with the finest courtesy and politeness.  When Jesus presented himself in public ministry he no longer regarded human and physical relationships (Matt. 12:46-50).  This was hard for Mary to receive (Smith, p. 54).
 There were six water-pots, each containing 20 or 30 gallons.  Jesus ordered them to fill them with water and to draw from them and present the wine to the director of the feast.  They did so and it was the best that they had.
 After the marriage at Cana, Jesus went to Capernaum with his disciples. All lived there but Nathaniel.  His mother and brothers had accompanied him there.  Jesus made his home there.  He stayed there for a few days as the Passover was near at hand in Jerusalem and he wanted to go there.  This is the Passover of April in 26 A.D. (John 2:11-12; Smith, p. 58).
 Nicodemus: Jesus taught and performed miracles during the feast of Passover.  He cleansed the temple for the first time.  His teaching brought to his lodging a teacher of the Jews - a teacher of the teachers - Nicodemus.  Jesus delivered to him his clearest exposition on the "new birth" (John 3:1-21). There is here, John 3:14, a great reference to Num. 21:9: "And as Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so shall Son of Man be lifted up.”  There is another great text here, namely, John 3:16.
 Later, during a meeting of the Scribes and Pharisees, Nicodemus broke up the meeting by defending Jesus publicly (John 7:50-53).  He was also at the Cross and brought the body of Jesus to Joseph of Arimathaea. 
 Thus far we can follow closely the first steps of Jesus, but at this point our information about his first year of ministry, comes to a close.  In the last six months of the first year we know of no other event but that he baptized in the Jordan.  "(Though Jesus himself baptized not, but his disciples)” (John 4:2).  And also that he made and baptized more than John (John 3:22).  It should be noted that only in the fourth gospel are we given the details of the first year of Jesus’ ministry.  The synoptic Gospels omit the first year of Jesus’ public ministry altogether.  John speaks of Jesus' ministry in Galilee and in Judea before the second year.  The Synoptic Gospels pay little attention to what happened in Judea until after the close of Jesus ministry.  It is to John we are indebted for the events of the first year of Jesus' ministry (Stalker, p. 52).
 Thus Jesus continued John's preparatory work as John was in prison by year's end.  Jesus opened fully his messianic work.  Jesus came to the world and was to reach the world through the Jewish nation.  The leaders of that nation were at Jerusalem; hence he began his work at Jerusalem.  They would not heed him so we went to Galilee.
 Jesus continued where John had baptized, for John had been borne away.  Jesus went to Aenon near Samaria, near Galilee.
 Christian baptism was not instituted until after Pentecost (Matt. 28:19; Smith, p. 70).

 The Year of Public Favor: the second year of Christ Ministry.

 Jesus now shifted to the north of Palestine, to Galilee.  The next 18 months was very limited in geographical scope.  Galilee is 60 miles long and 30 miles wide.  It is an elevated plateau with mountain passes.  It is on the northern side of the lake of Tiberias where the plains of Gennesaret are and upon which are the chief cities of Capernaum, Bethsaida, and Chorazin.  There are many other cities all around the lake; thousands of fishermen were on the lake.  Galilee was luxurious, fertile, and productive.  Its surface was covered with large towns, which were densely populated.  The lake is in the center of this area.  The great highway from Egypt to Damascus, to Phoenicia, and to Babylon goes through there (Stalker, pp. 55-57, 81-86). 
 On Jesus trip from Judea to Galilee he came through Samaria and met the woman at the well.  He visited Capernaum.  He healed the nobleman’s son and was expelled from Nazareth.  To the woman at the well he made a clear and concise statement concerning his Messiahship (John 4:26). John the Baptist was arrested about this time for rebuking Herod Antipas (Smith, pp. 70-71).  Herod Antipas was Tetrarch of Galilee and Judea.
 Jesus’ reputation got to Galilee before he arrived.  Nazareth is one of the chief places he went.  Now known as a preacher, he was invited to read and preach in the synagogue.  He read the prophecy of himself in Isaiah 61:1, (Luke 4:16-30).  He declared himself the one of whom Isaiah spoke.  At first they marveled at him but then they turned with the wrath upon him and they would have killed him.  He passed through their midst and went to Capernaum, where he made his home.  At Capernaum he began his Galilean work.  He made tours in all directions from this center.  Apparently he had a boat that he used all the time in passing to and fro across the lake.  In a short while the whole province rang with his name and fame.  Crowds gathered in the tens of thousands to hear him.  Host came from Jerusalem, Judea, Idumaea in the far south and Tyre and Sidon in the far north.  He took to the open areas to speak to them.  Galilee was excited about him.  Jesus drew his crowds by his miracles and his teachings.
 Perhaps his miracles excited his widest attention.  His first case of healing leprosy created great excitement.  So also with his healing of those possessed with demons.  Then he raised the widow’s son at Nain from the dead. His miracles were in two classes.  Those worked on men, and those worked in what we would call in nature in general.  The farmers were by far the most numerous.  Sometimes he used means for the miracles and sometimes he did not. Some times he was present and some times he was not.  He himself was by far the greatest miracle.  Miracles were the natural outflow of his divine fullness.  All his miracles bore his own character.
 The other great instrument that he used was his teaching.  It was more important than his miracles.  His enemies agreed that “Never a man spake as this man spake.”  All his words would not make six average sermons.  Only fifty-one days of his life are recorded, yet his words are the most precious inheritance that the human race has.  His words have in them his own character.
 They are grand and wonderful.  His teachings are Jewish and are full of figures of speech.  He thought in images.  Everything around him was sermon material.  He spake with authority and not as the Scribes and Pharisees.  He taught by parables to teach a truth.
 Another characteristic of “Power” was that “His word was with power.”  The truth possessed him and burned and swelled in his heart.  He then spoke forth from his heart to the hearts of his hearers.  Great personality and great character backed up the truth.
 His teaching was with grace. “ They wondered at the gracious words that proceeded out of his mouth.”  To him, every soul was infinitely precious. “Beneath the purple robes of the monarch and the crimson cloth of the scholar and in the jacket of the worker was a longing for his peace.”
 The scribes frowned on the rich and evaded the poor, but not so Jesus.

 One of the central ideas of Jesus’ teaching was the doctrine of the Kingdom of God:

 It was in the hearts of men. 
 It was on earth as a fact.

 The Sermon on the Mount deals with the of the Kingdom of God for all classes.  Jesus spoke on the mountains, in the temple, and on the seashore, on the highways in the synagogue, to multitudes, to one person, to a few persons and to his disciples alone.  The number of the crowds did not bear upon the truths that he uttered.

 The Apostles, his Twelve.  These men were at first disciples like others. He chose twelve to be with him constantly and ordained them later, to preach the single elements of his doctrine.  The seventy sent out later did not include the twelve apostles.  Not one of his twelve belonged to an influential or noted group, but were common men.
 Jesus prayed much and after much deliberation made his selections.  Two of the apostles had great gifts.  Peter was a great preacher and John was a great writer.  They built the church wise and well.

 The human character of Jesus: Jesus was eternally the Christ.  As such he was pre-existent and acted in the Godhead.  He must have been essentially the same as before he came to earth as he was on earth.  Being alive now he must be essentially that same as he was when he was here on earth.  Christ’s life was purposeful.  He was a man with a “steadfast” face.  He came from God with a purpose, to do the his Father’s business.  At twelve, he said, ”Wist ye not that I must be about my Father’s business?”  At the end of his life he said, ”Nevertheless not my will, but thine, be done.” In the judgement hall he said, ”To this end was I born, and for this cause came I into the world.”
 On his last journey to Jerusalem we are told that “He set his face steadfastly to go to Jerusalem."  Thus he had a purpose and was steadfast in it.
 Jesus had faith in his mission and in his work.  Apparent success or failure meant little to him.  He saw afar and knew what the end would be.  When the Israelites rejected the offer of the Kingdom, he then started to teach more in parables, as the truth was hidden to rejecters and revealed to the others.  Also he lay the foundation for the church age to fill in between the rejected age and the early church.  He knew that in the end he would win.  The cross looked like a defeat, but to him it was a sure step to certain and guaranteed victory.
 Jesus Christ was original.  He not only used the known but also was a man among men.  He was at an Oriental but he was an originator in regards to his beliefs and methods.
 He would not do as other men did and act as other men acted.  He created his own environment.
 Jesus Christ was a lover of men.  Behind his life’s purpose was a life passion-a lover of mankind.  It was greater than his love for own life and his own comfort.  Differences in class and nationalities did not exist for him.  He worked with the Israelites but it was to get them right so they might get others right.  There was no partiality with Jesus, because he wanted to reach all men.  He thought in terms of the souls of men.
 The crowning attitude of Jesus was his love to God.  This determined and directed his interest in man.  God was about him like the atmosphere he breathed.  At any moment he could look up and whisper "Father."  At twelve, "He was about my Father's business".  On the mount of transfiguration, at the Last Supper, in Gethsemane, and on the Cross he was about his Father's business.  He did not question the leadership of his father.  When he said, "Why hast thou forsaken me?" it was a cry of wonder and amazement and not a question of the will of God.
 The sinlessness of Jesus was also a crowning characteristic of his personality.  Yet he was clothed in a fallen humanity- sinless, but a fallen body.

 A few of the high points of this second year were:

 His mother and brothers then went to Capernaum and made their home there.  His sisters remain in Nazareth and married.
 The reception he received from Nazareth would force Jesus’ family to leave even though they were not in sympathy with him.
 His first Sabbath at the synagogue was a great day.  He cast out a demon from a man (Luke 4:35-38).  He healed Peter’s wife's mother. 
 A night of prayer followed and then the sermon on the mountain and the call of the disciples were next (Matt. 5:1-7:29.
 He healed a man with leprosy Matthew 8:2.  He raised the widow of Nain’s son.  He raised Jairus’ daughter. 
 John the Baptist sent a messenger to see if Jesus was the Christ.  Jesus eulogizes John greatly, "Verily I say unto you, Among them that are born of women there has not risen a greater than John the Baptist: notwithstanding he that is least in the in kingdom of heaven is greater than he” (Matt. 11:11).
 Simon, the Pharisee invited Jesus to dine with him.  A weeping woman wiped Jesus feet with precious oil.  Simon was disgusted.  The woman might have been Mary of Magdala, but no one knows who she was.
 The Sabbatarian - the first effort to take his life was over the Sabbath. 
Matthew set a feast for Jesus but the Pharisees scorned Jesus for being there. 
John the Baptist was murdered about this time.

The Third year, or the year of Opposition

 For a whole year Jesus preached his word in Galilee.  They received him as stony ground.  The seed withered away.  He lingered six months longer.  He had fed the multitude and walked on the sea.  The people clamored after him for what they could get out of him.   During this last six months many miracles were wrought.  He said to his disciples, "Will ye also go away?"  They were leaving him right and left.  He moved into the region of Tyre and Sidon where he met the Syro-Phoenician woman.  He began to move slowly toward Jerusalem.  Thus we find him in the northwest at Tyre and Sidon and next he is at Caesarea Philippi to the northeast.  Then he went to the Decapolis to the southeast of the lake.  These were flights for safety.  There were flights taken with a desire to be with his disciples.
 At Caesarea Philippi Jesus asked his disciples what the popular opinion concerning him was (Matt. 15:f.).  When he asked them Peter answered, "Thou art the Christ, the son of the living God." 
 Here we have a great commission- (the keys) that is possession of spiritual knowledge.  It is uttered to the disciples (Matt. 16:f.; Mark 8:27-9:1; Luke 9:18-27).
  We have the great instruction, which is about himself.
 We have a great decision that is to go to Jerusalem.
 The transfiguration takes place shortly hereafter either on Mount Tabor or on Mount Hermon.  It is a perfect picture of the millennium.
Jesus is physically present but is clad in glory.  Moses represents the resurrected Saints.  Elisha represents the captured Saints.  The disciples represent Christian people here on earth.  Stalker (p. 101) thinks this took place, the transfiguration, before he began his journey to Jerusalem.  Somewhere along the way we have the dispute about leadership among the disciples.  They were arguing about who would sit on the right hand and who would sit on the left-hand side of Jesus during the millennial. 
 Jesus arrived in Jerusalem for the feast of tabernacles.  Jesus brethren went up and wondered if he were going to come up.  Jesus said, "I go not up yet unto this feast."  Then later he went.  As late as this time it was said, "For neither did his brethren believe in him."  The people wondered where he was?  Some said that he was a good man.  Others said he was the devil.  He appeared suddenly in the temple and taught.  It was there that he cried, "If any man thirst, let him come unto me, and drink." At a council considering him, Nicodemus came out and defended him and broke up the council (John 7:50 f.). 
 It was at this point that the Scribes and Pharisees brought to Jesus the woman taken in adultery.  They wanted to trap him, but he said, "He that is without sin among you, let him first cast a stone at her."  He wrote on the ground, and they left starting from the oldest to youngest (John 8:1f.).  Dr. King's guess as to what Jesus wrote was "You have not committed adultery with the same woman but . . .“  The oldest were more soaked in sin than the beginners.  Jesus taught them about God and his relationship to God.  He said, "Before Abraham was, I am."  In fury they took up stones to stone him.  Their wrath made it easier for him to elude them and slip out.
 And immediately thereafter Jesus met a man born blind.  He healed him.  His parents would not commit themselves for fear of being cast out of the temple.  The man was fearless and told them without fear and they expelled him from the temple (John 9:13 f.).
 He had returned for rest or a brief visit; now he says farewell to his home forever.  There was an interval between the feast of tabernacles and the Feast of Dedication.  The Seventy were sent out ahead, and also the twelve. He was told to depart thence for Herod would kill him.  He said. “Go ye, and tell that fox, Behold, I cast out devils, and I do cures to day, and to morrow, and the third day I shall be perfected” (Luke 13:32).
 The Samaritans had rejected him.  James and John, the Sons of Thunder, wanted to call down fire out of heaven and destroy them.  But Jesus rebuked him for having a Spirit like that.  He said, "Ye know not what Spirit ye are of."
 The ten lepers were cleansed, and one returned and gave thanks. 
 On the journey up to Jerusalem many miracles were performed and several parables' were given at this time.  The parable of the rich man and Lazarus was given at this time.  The Seventy returned and rejoiced.  The parable of the prodigal son followed.
 At the Feast of Dedication, Jesus walked on Solomon's porch back and forth, to keep warm.  He was suddenly surrounded.  He declared, my father and I are one in equality, power, characteristic, and attributes. They took up stones to stone him and he returned to Bethany beyond Jordan.
 The question of divorce arose.  Moses granted divorce because of the hardness of their hearts.
 Jesus heard that Lazarus was sick.  He waited for some time and journeyed to raise him as he had gone to the land of Ephraim again and journeyed to Jericho then on to Bethany.
 As he journeyed to Jericho he met blind Bartimaeus and Zacchaeus.  The parable of the pounds is given and then he arrives at Bethany.  He stayed in the house of Simon the leper.  On this march Salome met Christ and asks for the right and left-hand seats for her sons.  A few days later the thieves had the left and right hand positions.  Christ tells of his coming death. 
It is impossible to arrange any sure order of events during the last six months of the last year.  We have made an effort to organize these events.  The tide of public sentiment turned against him.  He spent much of his time hiding between appearances.

The Parables of Christ

The Sower (Matt. 13:3-9; 18-23).
The tares: good and evil to be together until the end (Matt. 13:24-30; 36-43). 
The dragnet: good and evil to be together until the end (Matt. 13:47-50).
The treasure: the kingdom of highest good (Matt. 13:44).
The pearl of great price: entire sanctification (Matt.13: 45-46).
The mustard seed parable: the contaminating influence of evil (Matt. 13:31-32).
Leaven: the contaminating influence of evil (Matt. 13:33).
The blade, the ear, and the full corn: the development and growth of truth (Mark 4:26-29).
The Selfish neighbor: importunity in prayer (Luke11: 5).
The unjust judge: importunity in prayer (Luke 18:1-8).
The parable of the unprofitable servant (Luke 17:7-10). 
The laborers in the vineyard (Matt. 20:1-16).
The talents: we must work and grow (Matt. 25:14-30).
The pounds: we must work and grow (Luke 19:11-27).
The two debtors: much forgiveness, much of love (Luke 7:37-50).
The lost sheep: the joy of finding the lost (Luke 15:3-7).
The Lost coin: the joy of finding the lost (Luke 15:8-10). 
The lost son: the joy of finding the lost (Luke 15:11-32).
The children of the bride chamber: the joy of Christian service (Matt. 9:14-17; Luke 5:33-39; Mark 2:18-22).
The lowest seats at the feast: the humble in heart are the advanced (Luke 14:7-11).
To Pharisees and publicans: real heart repentance (Luke 18:9-14).
The great supper: excuse-making (Luke 14:16-24).
The Good Samaritan: charity and true sanctity (Luke 10:25-37).
The unjust steward: the redeeming power of charity (Luke 16:1-9).
Dives (the rich man) and Lazarus: eternal destinies are taught (Luke 16:19-21).
The unmerciful servant: forgive to be forgiven (Matt.18:23-33).
The children in the marketplace (Luke 7:31-35).
The barren fig tree: fruitlessness (Luke 13:6-9).
The two sons: two areas of society in Jerusalem (Matt. 21:28-32).
The wicked husbandmen: the rejection of the son (Matt. 21:33-41; Mark 12:1-9; Luke 20:9-17).
The wedding feast and a wedding-role: the necessity of sanctification (Matt. 22:1-14).
The faithful and unwise servant (Matt. 24:45-51).
The ten virgins: the baptism of the Spirit is necessary to participate in the rapture (Matt. 25:1-13).

 The following are classifieds parables in form:

The physician (Matt. 9:12).
The new patch on the worn garment (Luke 5:36).
The new wine in old bottles (Luke 5:37-39).
The rejected cornerstone (Matt. 21:42).
The porter (John 10:3).
The waiting servants (Matt. 25:45-46).
The good man and the thief (Matt. 24:43).
he wise and foolish builders (Matt. 7:24-27).


The water turned into wine (John 2:1-11).
The healing of the noble man's son (John 4:46-54).
The first miracle catch of fish (Luke: 1-11).
The stilling of the tempest (Matt.8: 23-27; Mark 4:35-41; Luke 8:22-25).
The demoniac in the country of the Gadarenes (Luke 8:26-33).
The raising of a Jairus’ daughter (Luke 18:41-42; 49-56; Matt. 9:18-19; 23-26; Mark 5:22-26; 35-45).
The healing of the woman with an issue of blood (Matt. 9:20-22; Mark 5:25).
The opening of the eyes of two blind men in the house (Matt. 9:27-31).
The healing of the paralytic (Matt. 9:1-8; Mark 2:1-12; Luke 5:17-26).
The cleansing of the leper (Matt. 5:1-4; Mark 1:40-45).
The healing of the centurion’s servant (Luke 7:1-16;  Matt. 8:5-13).
The demoniac in the synagogue after Capernaum (Mark 1:23-27; Luke 4:33-36).
The healing of Simon's wife’s mother (Matt. 8:14-17; Mark 1:29-31; Luke 4:38-40).
The raising of the widow's son (Luke 7:11-14).
The healing of the lame man at Bethsaida (John 5:1-16).
The miraculous feeding of the five thousand (Matt. 14:15-21; Mark 6:34-44; Luke 9:12-17; John 6:5-15).
Jesus walking on the sea (Matt. 14:22-33; Mark 645-52; John 6:14-21).
The opening of one whose eyes were blind at birth (John 9:1-38).
The restoring of the withered hand (Matt. 12:9-13; Mark 3:1-5; Luke 6:6-11).
The restoring of normalcy to the woman with the Spirit of infirmity (Luke 13:11).
The healing of the man with dropsy (Luke 14:1-6).
The cleansing of the 10 lepers (Luke 17:11-19).
The healing of the daughter of this Syro-Phoenician woman (Matt. 15:21-28; Mark 22:30).
The healing of the deaf and dumb (Mark 7:31-37).
The miraculous feeding of 4000 (Matt. 15:32-39; Mark 7:1-9).
The opening of the eyes of a blind man at Bethsaida (Mark 8:22-26).
The healing of a lunatic child (Matt. 17:14-21; Mark 9:14-29; Luke 9:37-42).
The piece of money in the fish's mouth for tribute (Matt. 17:24-27).
The raising of Lazarus from the dead (John 11:01-54).
The opening of the eyes of the two blind men near to Jericho (Matt. 20: 29-34; Mark 10:46-52).
The cursing of the barren fig tree (Matt.21:17-22; Mark 11:12-14).
The healing of Malchus' ear (Luke 22:49-51).
The second miraculous catch of fish (John 21:1-23).

The Third Year or the year of Opposition.

 Jesus’ public entry into Jerusalem and subsequent death and resurrection.

 Jesus arrived in Bethany not before six in the evening when the Sabbath began (John 12:1); The 8th of Nissan; 30 A.D., Friday, March 31. Edersheim (2: 385) says 29 A.D.
 But the sun was low and their Sabbath passed. A feast was made for Jesus in the house of Simon the Leper.  Mary, Martha, and Lazarus seemed to be the central figures.  Simon could have been Martha’s husband or might have been the father of Mary, Martha, and Lazarus.  Mary anointed Jesus feet with Indian (India) spices and then wiped his feet with her hair (Matt. 26:6; John 12:1-3; Mark 14:3).
 Judas complained bitterly concerning the spices which could have been sold for much money and given to the poor.  It could have been sold for 300 pence and John called him a thief and Judas carried the money.  Jesus sharply rebuked him in public.  This is the only time he rebuked one of his disciples in public. It was a stinging public rebuke (John 13).
 Judas then slid out and went to the home of  Caiaphas, the High Priest, and bargained with him for Jesus for 30 pieces of silver (about $15.00).  Mary thought that it was worth 300 denarii ($48.00 a year’s wage for a rural worker) to anoint his feet, while Judas thought it worth 30 pieces of silver. He got the money, placed it in his pocket and rejoined the group.

Palm Sunday: The First Day of Passion Week.

 There was a general impression that Jesus would be present at the feast and started out on foot with the company.  News arrived in Jerusalem that Jesus was coming.
 Midway he sent two disciples to get a colt upon to which to ride into the city.  Matthew refers to both an ass and its colt.  Others, to the colt alone. They spread the clothes on it and clothes and branches in the road.
 Three paths lead into Jerusalem over Olivet.  One, around the northern summit; one, over the top; and one around the southern shoulder.  The latter is the one he took.
 As Jesus journeyed around, Jerusalem came into view.  He burst into weeping.  Two facts are emphasized (Luke 19:41-44).  The importance of this dramatic hour, and the last offer to Jerusalem.
 The crowd broke out singing, “Hosanna: Blessed is the king of Israel that cometh in the name of the Lord” (John 12:13).  Jesus was fulfilling prophecy in doing so (Zach. 9:9).  Some of the Pharisees asked him to stop his disciples from singing.  Jesus said if they stopped, even the stones would cry out.
 As Jesus entered Jerusalem, all the people cried out and said, “Who is this?”  ”This is Jesus the prophet of Nazareth of Galilee” (Matt. 21:10-11).  With that answer the city was doomed.
Jesus entered the Temple, and looked on all things.  He then returned to Bethany, a distance of two miles.  Farrar suggests they slept outside that night (Mark 11:11).


 Jesus and his disciples arose the next morning and journeyed on to Jerusalem, and he was hungry.  He saw a fig tree that was barren and there was no indication of figs this year or the previous year.  It was a perfect symbol of the foliage of Jerusalem and of a hypocrite.  Jesus pronounced his judgment upon it journeying on to Jerusalem.  On entering the temple, he cleansed it for the second time, and declared that they had turned it into a den of thieves.  This naturally brought on a tense situation.
 Many lame and blind came to him and children sang: “Hosanna to the Son of David” (Matt. 21:15).
 The chief priest and scribes were sore displeased and asked Jesus what he thought of it?  He said “Out of the mouths of babes and suckling.”  He left them.

(Edersheim, II,  380-468)

 Farrar calls this the last and greatest day of Jesus public ministry. It was his farewell to the Temple and to the worshipers therein.  Edersheim places them in the following order:

I. First section of events of the day (Matt. 21:23-27; Mark 11:27-33; Luke 20:1-8; Matt. 22:15-22; Mark 12:13-17; Luke 20:20-26; Matt. 22:41-46; Luke 21:1-4; John 12:20-50).

 A. The chief priest challenged Christ authority, Jesus posited his question on the authority of John the Baptist (Matt 21:25-27).
 B. The Pharisees then sent their disciples,  the Herodians to entangle Jesus.  They propounded the paying of tribute to Caesar (Matt.22: 17-22).
 C. As the Pharisees were gathered, Jesus asked them, “What think ye of Christ?  Whose Son is he? They say unto him, The son of David. . . How then doth David in spirit call him Lord . . .” (Matt 22:44-46).
 D. Jesus sat near the treasury, and watched the people cast in their offerings.  Some cast in much as a poor widow cast in her all (Luke 21:4).
 E. The Greeks came to see Jesus, and he gave them an address on the merits of his own death and then prayed.  A voice from heaven answered, saying ”I have both glorified it, and will glorify it again (John 12:28).  The people thought it thundered, but Jesus told them the voice really came for their sakes not his.  He continued his address on his death and on the manner thereof: “And I, if I be lifted up from the earth, will draw all men unto me” (John 12:32).  He also declared himself the light of the world.  He was obliged to hide himself from his enemies.  Many of the chief priests believed on him, but did not confess him for fear of being put out of the synagogue. They loved the praises of men more than the praises of God (John 12:42-43.) 

II. Second section of the events of the day (Matt 22:23-33; Mark 12:18-27; Luke 20:27-39; Matt. 22:34-50; Mark 12:28-34; Mark 12: 35-40; Luke 20:40-47; Matt 23f.).

 A. The Sadducees came with the question of the oft-married widow.  Seven brethren married her.  Whose in the resurrection will she be?  The question was to show the impossibility of the resurrection.  Jesus told them that they neither knew the scriptures, nor the power of God. In the resurrection all physical relationships are gone, as the glorified and the spiritual remains.
 B. The Pharisees then heard that Jesus had silenced the Sadducees , and sent a lawyer of their group who asked him what was the great commandment.  Jesus informed him to love God with all the heart, soul, and mind, and added a second; to love your neighbor as yourself.  This was the summation of the whole law.
 C. Jesus then gives the people their final warning, and apparently for their benefit to his disciples. “Beware of the Scribes, which desire to walk in long robes, and love greetings in the markets, and the highest seats in the synagogues, and the chief rooms at feasts; which devour widows’ houses and for a shew sake make long prayers: the same shall receive greater damnation” (Luke 20:46-47).
 D. We then have the eight woes pronounced out on the Pharisees and Scribes.  They polished the tombs of the prophets slain by their parents and at the same time slaying others. Thus all the blood of the saints from Abel on down to that generation were required of them.   Jesus then, again uttered another lament over Jerusalem in which he used the hen and chicken figure. The 23rd chapter of Matthew is a stirring chapter.

III. The third section of events (Matt 19:30-20:16; Matt 21:28-32; Mark 12:1-12; Luke20:9-19: Matt 22:1-14).

 It is not possible to make an exact suggestion when these parables were spoken.  Luke groups them together.  The first four were uttered to a more general audience while the last three were uttered to the disciples on the mount. (They were parables of judgment, ”End time  Parables”).

 A. The parable of the laborers in the vineyard (Matt 19; 30-20:16).  Some were hired at various times, but all received the same.  There are some who shall be first who were last.
 B. Jesus had just refused to tell who he was, than uttered the parable of the two sons.  One said, “no,” then went.”  The second said, ”yes” and went not.  Which one did his father’s  will?  Lip service or heart- service?  The scribes and Pharisees said yes (lips) and went not (heart).  The publicans said no (lips) then went (heart).
 C. The evil husbandman in the vineyard, who slew and destroyed servants, then slew the son of the husbandman.  It is very pointed, for they had done that very thing, and they were going to murder that very son.
 D. The marriage supper of the King’s son and the man entering without the robe then follows.  Those bidden refused, so the wayfarers were invited.

IV. The evening of the third day in Passion Week continued (Matt 25:1-13; 25:14-30; Luke 19:11-28).  Jesus was forever quitting the temple, and the officers therein.  The disciples came to Jesus as he sat down upon the Mount of Olives.  They came to him with two questions: tell us when shall these things be? (Matt 24:3b); what shall be the sign of your coming?  Then follows Matt 24:3-51 and Mark 13:1-37.

 A. The parable of the ten virgins is an end time parable and teaches the necessity of an extra supply of oil, The Holy Spirit (Matt 25:14-30). Contains signs of the Temple destruction and also Jerusalem.

 B. A noble man went into a far country to receive a kingdom, and returned.  He called the servants and gave them ten pounds.  On his return one gained five, one gained two, and one hid it gaining nothing and had it taken from him and was cast out.


 Jesus is in his last Sabbath rest and the Sanhedrin are in unrest (Matt. 26:1-5; Mark 14:1-2; Luke 2:1-2).  The three busy days of Passion Week were past, now the fourth would be one of rest for his soul, before his great agony. He had prepared his disciples for this:

 At the opening of his ministry (John 2:19).
 As he taught Nicodemus (John 3:14).
 When the bridegroom will be taken from them (Matt. 9:15).
 Of the need of taking up his Cross (Matt 10:38).
 Of the fulfillment of the Jonah type (Matt 12:40).
 Giving his flesh for the world (John 6:51).
 Of the good shepherd giving his life for the sheep (John 10:11-15).
 Of the heir being slain of the husband (Matt 21:38). 
 He also spoke of his decease clearly:
Immediately after Peter’s great confession (Matt.16:21).
  After the descent from the Mount of transfiguration (Matt. 7:23).
On preparing to make his messianic entrance into Jerusalem (Matt 20:17-19).
“Make ready the Passover (Matt.26:17-19; Mark14:12-16; Luke 22:7-13; John13:1).

 Edersheim, 2: 79,  declares that the Passover began on the 14th day of Nisan, Therefore on our 13th day of Nisan.  The animals were killed between the two evenings.  The Passover was to commemorate the birth-night of their Nation, of their Exodus.
 The disciples asked Jesus where they would prepare for the Passover.  Jesus sent Peter and John to the city to follow a man carrying a large pitcher of water on his head, and to ask for a large upper room in which to hold the Passover.  There they were to make ready.
 The Paschal Feast and the institution of the Lord’s Supper.  When evening was come, Jesus sat down with the twelve.  When the first part of the supper was ended, Jesus taught them a lesson of humility and service by washing their feet.
 Jesus then informed them that one of them would betray him.  Each asked,  ”Is it I?”  Jesus gave the sop to point out to Peter and John who the betrayer was.
 Jesus then instituted the Last Supper, or the Lord’s Supper (Mark 14:22-25; Luke 22:17-20; Matt 26:6-9).
 The events of John 13 were uttered while sitting around the table.  John 14 was delivered while sitting also.  They then arose and stood around the table.  Then followed the address of chapters 15 and 16.  The High Priestly prayer came in the 17th chapter of John. Immediately they went to Gethsemane (John 18:1).

Luke 22:3-53; John 18: 1-18.

 1 A.M.  The betrayal (John 18:1-11) and the conveyance to the house of the High Priest probably joining the booth of Hanan. 
 Two A.M.  The preliminary examination before Ananias in the presence of Caiaphas. (John 18:13).
 3 A.M.  The examination before Caiaphas, and the Sanhedrin at an irregular called meeting at the booths (John 18:24).
 5 A.M.  The formal sentence by the Sanhedrin in their popular meeting place (Luke 26:66; Matt. 27:1 cf. Mark15:1).  The first examination before Pilate at the palace(John 18:28).  ”As it began to be day. . . .”
 5:30 A.M.  The examination before Herod, and the scourging and the first mockery by the soldiers at the palace (Luke 23:7-11).
 6:30 A.M.  The sentence of Pilate (John 19:14).
 9 A.M.  The second mockery of their king (John 19:1f.).
 9 A.M.  The crucifixion and the rejection of the stupefying drink (Mark 15:25).
 Noon.  The last charge.
 Noon to 3 P.M.  The darkness (Matt.27:45; Mark15:33; Luke 23:44).  “Egyptian darkness” (From the Dr. King’s sermon, “The seven last words of Jesus. See this web page).
 3 P.M.  The end.  He was taken down very presently by Nicodemus and Joseph of Arimathaea, and laid in Joseph’s new tomb near-by.

 Continuation of the sixth day of Passion Week. 

 Pilate delivered Jesus to the Jews to be crucified by his own soldiers.

 They journeyed to Golgotha (Calvary) outside of the city walls to the north of the Jericho road.  They met Simon the Cyrenian coming to worship.  They compelled him to carry Jesus’ cross, as Jesus could not do it (Mark 15:21).  His sons Rufus, and Alexander appear as leaders in the Roman Church.
 At the third hour of the day they crucified Jesus with a thief on either side.  Both thieves mocked at first.  Then one rebuked the other (Mark 15:25-27).  Later one prayed (Luke 23:40; Mark 27:44).
 Over Jesus’ head on the Cross was a superscription written in Hebrew, Greek, and Latin (John 19:19b).  John interprets it as follows, “Jesus of Nazareth, the king of the Jews”.  The other Gospels do not use the same words, but express the same thought.
 A group apparently four women and John were near the Cross (John 19:25; Matt. 27:56-57).  The soldiers gambled over his outer garments (Four).
 There was darkness from the sixth hour to the ninth hour. At the beginning of the darkness, Jesus uttered his cry.  The darkness lifted just at his death at 3 P.M. (Matt. 27:45; Mark 15:34).  The veil was rent (Luke 23:45).
 The soldiers came around to break the legs of the victims, to hasten death, as the Sabbath drew nigh, but Jesus was already dead (John 19:31).
 Joseph and Nicodemus took him down and buried him in Joseph’s tomb, which was nearby (John 19:38-45).  The authorities went to Pilate for a watch, and one was set (Matt. 27:61-66).  It was now late enough to be the seventh day or their Sabbath.
 The seven words from the Cross. They were probably uttered in the following order. (See Sermon “The seven last words of Jesus“ on this Website.)

 ”Father, forgive them; for they know not what they do” (Luke 23:34a).
“Verily I say unto thee, To day shalt thou be with me in paradise” (Luke 23:43).
 “Woman, behold thy son,” . . . “behold thy mother” (John 19:26b-27b).
  Darkness, “Egyptian Darkness.”
 “My God, My God, why hast thou forsaken me?“
 “I thirst” (John 19:28d).
 “It is finished” (John 19 30b).
 “Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit” (Luke 23:46b).
 The resurrection and subsequent appearances:

 Jesus arose early on Sunday morning.  Soldiers guarded an empty tomb for awhile until the angel came and they fell as dead men.  Then the angel broke the seal by rolling away the stone.  Next they waited to tell the ladies.  No one helped Jesus out.

 The various periods of Jesus appearance after the resurrection: Sunday morning near the tomb to Mary Magdalene (John 20:18).

 Near to Jerusalem to the woman returning (Matt.28:9-10.)
 Sunday near Jerusalem to Peter alone )Luke 24:34).
Sunday afternoon near Emmaus to two disciples going to Emmaus (Luke 24:3-13).
Sunday evening in Jerusalem to the Apostles, save Thomas and Judas (Luke 24:36).
Sunday evening in Jerusalem to the apostles with Thomas (John 20:26f.).  All six appearances were definitely on our Sunday or the Lord’s day.
  Maybe a Sunday later.
Late April or May: on the Sea of Galilee to seven disciples fishing (John 21:13).
Late April or May: to the eleven on a mountain in Galilee (Matt. 28:16-20).
 Late April or May at Galilee to about 500 at once (1 Cor.15:7).
 In May to James alone at Jerusalem probably (1 Cor. 15:7).
In May to all the Apostles probably at Jerusalem (Luke 24:44-49. Acts 1:3-8).
In May at the ascension on the Mount of Olives near Bethany (Mark :16-19-20; Luke 24:5-53, Acts 1:9-12).
 To Paul on the Damascus highway (Acts 9:5; 22:8).


 Thus when Jesus died his side was torn by a spear, and he departed for
heaven through the torn veil.  Then he sat down on the right hand on high.
 Through that divine veil, or his torn side came the Holy Ghost and the Church age was born. ”This he spake of the Spirit that moment” (John 7:39).
 There he sits at the right hand of the Father as our advocate until he returns the second time (Acts 1:10-11). 


 I. Make out a full bibliography on "The Life of Christ" with a paragraph evaluation of each book:

Abingdon Bible Commentary.  New York: Abingdon-Cokesbury, 1929. 

Branscomb, Harvie B.  The Teachings of Jesus.  New York: Abingdon-Cokesbury, 1931. [A good review of the teachings of Christ by this educator. ]

Clarke, Adam.  Commentary.  6 vols.  New York: Carleton & Porter, 1857.

Dummelow, J. R.  Commentary.  New York: Macmillan, 1933.

Ederrsheim, Alfred. The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah.  8th ed.  2 vols.  New York: Randolph & Co., 1886. [One of the greatest books ever written on the Life of Christ.  A great book by a great scholar widely used and appreciated by all.]

Farrar, Canon.  The Life of Christ.  Hartford, Conn.  S.S. Scranton Co., 1876.  [This Life of Christ was called one of the most remarkable as well as most fascinating religious works of its day by a leading American journal in 1875 when it came before the public. It was all of that and still is one of the greatest works on the Life of Christ.]

Fleetwood, John.  Life of Christ and His Apostles.  Philadelphia: National Publishing Co., 1874. [A good Life of Christ by a pious and learned English clergyman.]

Geikie, J. C.  Life and Words of Christ.  New York: Lovell, Coryell, & Co., n.d. [A good reliable presentation of the Life of Christ in the midst of the world in which he lived. All his sayings and discourses are given in full, for a life in which is not his own interpreter, must be defective.]
Godbey, W. B.  Life of Jesus and His Apostles.  Louisville, Ky.:  Pentecostal Publishing Co., 1904. [Personally, I appreciate any work by this great man of God.  Sound scripturally.]

Goguel, Maurice.  The Life of Jesus.  New York: Macmillan Co., 1944. [A good book full of great material relative to the Life of Christ by the author and others.]

Hastings, James, ed.  A Dictionary of Christ and the Gospels.  2 vols.  New York, 1924.

Henry, Matthew.  Commentary.  7 vols.  New York: Revell, c1935.
Kepler, Thomas S.  Contemporary Thinking About Jesus.  New York: Abingdon-Cokesbury.  1944. [Selections from the varied interpretations of the minds of our day that have studied most thoroughly the records of one "to great for any individual mind to comprehend."]

Papini, Giovanni.  Life of Christ.  New York: Harcourt, Brace & Co, 1923.
[This Life of Christ recounts "the greatest life ever lived,” from Bethlehem to Calvary, with deep and reverent understanding by this Italian author. ]

Sanday, W.  Outlines of the Life of Christ.  New York: Charles Scribner's Son's, 1912. [Only a fair work on the Life of Christ; dealing with criticism as well.]

Spence, H. D. M. and Joseph S. Exell, eds.  The Pulpit Commentary.  23 vols.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1950. [Volumes 14 through 20 are considered classic encyclopedic references in this field of study.]

Stalker, James.  The Life of Christ.  New York: Fleming H. Revell, 1909.
[This is a detailed analysis of the Life of Christ.  It is considered a classic in this field.]

Taylor, Thomas E., et. al. Studies of the Life of Christ.  New York: Jennings & Pye, 1901. [Good life of Christ outline study from Bible references.]

Winchester, Olive M.  Christ Life and Ministry.  Kansas City, Mo.: Beacon Hill Press, 1932. [A short comprehensive study of the Life of Christ.  Makes a good textbook for Christian workers.]

 II. Describe the Fourfold State of the world into which Jesus was born; name a bibliography of at least four authorities:

 Cultural Conditions: In the first place; the Greek language became the common  medium of communication throughout the territories which composed the Roman Empire.  The conquests of Alexander spread Greek culture and learning, as well as the Greek language, throughout the eastern Mediterranean world.  Few were enormously rich; many were in debasing poverty.

 Economic Conditions: Since the Romans were in power, their special contributions were world peace, stable government, and good roads; they had adequate communication and priority of the seas.  Commercial activity had reached a new height.  The Mediterranean furnishes an extensive means of active trade between surrounding provinces.

 Political Conditions: The Mediterranean world was under the domination of Imperial Rome.  Rome’s policies toward conquered regions were very enlightened.  A great amount of self-government was allowed.  Herod the Great, an Idumean--great in political power ruled as king of Judea from B.C. 37 until his death in B.C. 4.

 Religious Conditions: One of the outstanding incidents of Herod’s 
reign was the reconstruction of the Jewish temple on a magnificent scale.  The religious life of the Jews in the time of Christ centered largely in two institutions, the temple and the synagogue.  The Pharisee, Sadducees, and the Scribes bound the people down with religious rules derived from interpretations of the Law of Moses.  Few Jews were looking for the coming of the "desire of all nations.”


Ralph Earle, Know Your New Testament (Kansas City, MO: Beacon Hill Press, 1943), pp.7-16 .

Olive M. Winchester, Christ's Life and Ministry Kansas City, MO.: Beacon Hill Press, 1932), pp.13-27.

 III. Discuss in outline form the events leading up to the birth, the events surrounding the Nativity and the silent years of Jesus.  Give a bibliography of at least six authorities.

An angel appeared to Zacharias in the temple (Luke 1:5-25).
An angel appeared to Mary in her home or near to it at Nazareth in Galilee. 
Mary visited her kinsman Elizabeth (Luke 1:39-56). 
The birth of John the Baptist (Luke 1:57-80). 
The angel appeared to Joseph at Nazareth (Matt. 18-25). 
The birth of Jesus at Bethlehem (Luke 2:1-7). 
An angel appeared to the shepherds (Luke 8:20). 
The circumcision of Jesus and presentation took place in both Jerusalem and Bethlehem (Luke 2:1-39).
The wise men from the East come to Bethlehem (Matt. 2:1-12). 
The flight into Egypt, Herod’s cruelty, and return to Nazareth (Matt.2:13-23; Luke 2:39-40).
At 12 years of age Jesus went to the feast at Jerusalem with the men (Luke 2:41?52).

 IV. Relate and discuss John the Baptist in relation to Jesus Christ. Give a bibliography on the area of at least three authorities.

  In relation to person.  Both were born children of promise; they were cousins; but John was human, and Jesus was the Divine.
In relation to ministry.  John declared he was sent by God to bear witness of the light.  Jesus was the light of the world, the Messiah.  John’s ministry was in the wilderness, (localized).  But Jesus' ministry carries Him through the breadth and length of the land.  The water baptism was the character of John's ministry, and John baptized personally.  Jesus’ ministry was the announcement of the baptism with the Holy Ghost. 
In relation to message.  John's message was baptism unto repentance, but he announced the greater baptism of Jesus, the baptism with the Holy Ghost and fire. 

 V. Break the earthly ministry of Jesus into three areas with regard to time, and geography.  Discuss each area fully, and give a bibliography of six authorities.

A. The Judean Ministry (Time: eight months). 

 1. The first disciples )John 1:35-51). 
 2. The first miracle at Cana (John. 2:1-11). 
 3. The first public act of authority, the cleansing of the temple (John. 2 :12-25). 
 4. The first personal interviews - Nicodemus and the woman of Samaria. (John. 3:1-4; 42). 
 5. The first miracle of healing, nobleman's son healed (John.4:43-54). 
 6. The first conflict of authority accused of Sabbath-breaking and blasphemy (John. 5:1-47). 

B. The Galilean Ministry (time, about two years). 

 1. Visits Nazareth and is rejected (Luke 4:16-20).
 2. Capernaum: new base of operations (Mark 1:21-22).
 3. The call of the four (Mark 1:16-20).
 4. A Sabbath day's miracles (Mark 1:23-34).
 5. A preaching tour in Galilee (Mark 1:35-45).
 6. Criticisms of Jesus, healing of the paralic, question about fasting and the Sabbath (Mark 2:1-3:6).
 7. Then twelve apostles and their call (Mark 3:7-19).
 8. The Sermon on the Mount (Matt. 5:6-7).
 9. Christ t4eaches in parables (Mark 3:19-4:34).
 10. Another season of miracles (Mark 4:35-5:43; Luke 7: 11-17).
 11. The sending out of the twelve (Mark 6:1-39).
 12. The feeding of the five thousand (Mark 6:31-44).
 13. Subsequent miracles (Mark 6:45-56).
 14. Ministry in places beyond Galilee: Tyre, and Sidon, Decapolis, Dalmanutha, Bethsaida (Mark 7:1-8:26).
 15. The transfiguration (Mark 8:27-9:50).

C. The Perean Ministry (about four months).

 1. The journey to Perea, north to south (Matt. 19:1-20:6).
 2. The journeys toward Jerusalem East and West. (John 10:22-12:11).

 Write an outlined record of the last week of the earthly life of Jesus, and give a biography of at least eight authorities.

 1. Triumph Sunday (Mark 11:1-11).
 2. Authority Monday: fig tree cursed; cleansing of the temple; retirement to Bethany (Mark 11:12-19).
 3. Conflict and questions.  Tuesday (Mark 11:20-13:37).
 4. No record and no action recorded.  Wednesday, Bethany?
 5. Solemnity. Thursday. Preparation and feast (Mark 14:13-31).
 6. Suffering. Friday, Gethsemane, trial, and crucifixion (Matt. 26:62-66).


 VI. Discuss the crucifixion of Jesus, naming the seven words from the Cross in proper order.  Give a bibliography of eight authorities.

 The Crucifixion:

 The march to Golgotha (Matt. 27:31-32).
 Mockery and cruelty (Matt 27:33-56).
 Seven sayings:
  “Father, forgive them; for they know not what the do” (Luke 23:34).
  “To Day shalt thou be with me in Paradise” (Luke 23:43).
  “Woman behold thy son! . . . Behold thy mother” (John 19:26-27).
  “My God, My God, why hast thou forsaken me?” (Matt 27:46).
  “I thirst” (John 19:30).
  “It is finished” (John 19:30).
  “Into thy hands” (Luke 23:46).

 VII. Give an out line of the post resurrection appearances of Jesus and related circumstances.  Include the ascension.  Give a bibliography of ten authorities on the matter.

Post resurrection appearances”

 To the Women (Matt.28 1-10).
 To Mary in the garden (John 20:11-13).
 To Peter (Luke. 24:34). 
 To two on way to Emmaus (Mark16: 12-13; Luke 24:13-35). 
 To apostles, without Thomas (Mark. 16:14-18). 
 To apostles, with Thomas (John. 20:26-29). 
 To apostles, on shore (John 21:1-25).
 To apostles, on mountain (Matt. 28:16-20). 
 To apostles, a multitude (1 Cor. 15:6). 
 To James (1 Cor. l5:7). 
 Mount Olivet (Luke 24:50).

2. The ascension: 

The event:
 Mt.O1ivet (Luke 25:50).
 The scene (Mark.16:19-20). 
Its significance (Acts 2:33).
Its result (Acts chs. l-28). 

 VIII. Name the miracles and parables of Jesus. State your authorities. 
The Parables: 

 The four kinds of soil.
 The tares, and the dragnet.
 The mustard-seed, and the leaven.
 The unmerciful servant.
 The hidden treasure, and the pearl of great price.
 The laborers in the vineyard.
 The two sons.
 The wicked husbandman.
 The Royal marriage-feast.
 The ten virgins.
 The entrusted talents.
 Growth of the seed.
 The two debtors.
 Good Samaritan.
 The friend at midnight.
 The foolish rich man.
 The barren fig tree.
 The great supper.
 The lost sheep.
 The lost coin.
 The Prodigal Son.
 The Elder Brother.
 The prudent steward.

 The Rich man and Lazarus.
 The ploughing servant.
 The Importunate widow.
 The Pharisee and the Publican.
 The pounds.

The miracles:

 Water turned into wine.
 The healing of the nobleman's son.
 The first miraculous draught of fishes.
 The stilling of the tempest.
 The demoniacs in the country of the Gaderenes.
 The raising of Jairus' daughter.
 The healing of the woman with an issue of blood.
 The opening of the eyes of two blind in the house.
 The healing of the Paralytic.
 The cleansing of the Leper.
 The healing of the centurion's servant.
 The Demoniac in the synagogue of Capernaum.
 The healing of Simon’s wife’s mother.
 The raising of the widow's Son.
 The healing of the impotent man at Bethsaida.
 The feeding of the five thousand.
 Walking on the sea.
 The opening of the eyes of one born blind.
 The restoring of the man with a withered hand.
 The restoring of the woman with a Spirit of Infirmity.
 The healing of the man with dropsy.
 The cleansing of the ten lepers.
 The healing of the daughter of the Syro-Phoenician woman.
 The healing of one deaf and dumb.
 The miraculous feeding of the four thousand.
 The opening or the eyes of one blind at Bethsaida.
 The healing of the lunatic child.
 The tribute money in the fishes mouth.
 The raising of Lazarus.
 The opening of the eyes of two blind men near Jericho.
 The cursing of the barren fig tree.
 The healing of Malchus’ ear.
 The second miraculous draught of fishes.


Taylor, W. M.  The Parables of our Saviour.  Garden City: Doubleday, Doran & Co., 1928.

Trench, R. C.  Miracles of our Lord.  New York: D. Appleton, 1854.

Thompson, Frank C.  The New Chain Reference Bible.  Indianapolis: Kirkbride Bible Co., 1934.

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