OLd Testament Prophets
First Semester 1950-51
Dr. W. Noble King
Bethany Nazarene College
All Rights Reserved
This document consists of
notes taken by students who attended Dr. King's class at Bethany Nazarene
College. The notes therefore reflect student response to Dr. King's lectures
and do not necessarily represent fully or accurately his thought in all
respects. I (JR) received these notes from Paul Harper of Smith Center,
Kansas who took the class in 1950-5.
Introduction to the Book
Isaiah was one of the greatest
Old Testament prophets. The central theme of Isaiah is salvation
by faith. Isaiah’s name in Hebrew is Yesha –Yahu meaning salvation
–Jehovah, the eternal one is salvation.
Isaiah married and had two
sons. What they did is revelation. His wife was called a prophetess.
Deborah, Judges 4; 4, and Huldah, 2 Kings 22:14-20 are also prophetesses.
His two sons had names,
which had prophetic meaning. Shear-Jashub (a remnant shall return)
Isa. 7:3, and Mahershalalhashbaz, meaning swift spoil, speedy pray, or
swiftly or speedily.
The first son was much older
than the younger. Isa. 8:18,7:3,8:3-4.
Table of Dates for Isaiah:
745 Tiglath Pileser
740 Call of Isaiah
735 Ahaz King of Judah
734 Pekah King of Israel
who was defeated and slain by the Syrians.
732 Resin King of Syria
slain and Assyrians take Damascus.
727 Shalmanzer is king of
726 Hezekiah King of Judah
727 Sargon King of
Assyria. The fall of the Samaria and the end of the Kingdom of Israel.
711 The Siege of Ashdod
by the Assyrians.
710 The defeat of Merodach-
Baladan and the capture of Babylon by Sargon.
705 Sennacherib King of
701Great invasion of Judah
701 Nineveh taken by Babylon,
the rise of Babylon
609 Death of Josiah in a
battle with Pharoah-Necho, King of Egypt. This is the end of Judah’s independence;
the battle of Carchemish.
606 Nebuchadnezzar visits
Jerusalem and assumes authority in the name of the new Babylon Empire.
Daniel and certain other noble youths taken to Babylon as hostages. (The
597 Jehoiachin (reigns 3
months) Nebuchadnezzar invades Jerusalem with an army. He caries 10,000
into captivity including Jehoiakim, and the prophet Ezekiel. (Second captivity).
Zedekiah last king of Judah reigns for 11 years.
588 Zedekiah, in alliance
with other petty kings, rebels against Babylon.
586 Jerusalem and the temple
destroyed in the invasion by Nebuchadnezzar. Final end of the Kingdom of
Judah. Many captives were taken to Babylon. (Third captivity).
Nothing is known of Isaiah’s
heritage other than what the Bible implies, the son of Amoz. Rabbinical
tradition says that Amoz was the brother of king Amaziah. This would
make the king his uncle. Isaiah would be the court prophet.
This is only according to tradition Isa. 13:1, Isa. 1:1, 2; 1.
Two opinions are held with
regard to the length and the time of his active prophetic career.
First-: That he prophesied
between 740 and 701 B. C. He was about 20 when he started and
about 60 when he finished and that he lived long afterward. We shall
build upon this assumption.
The second opinion is that
he started his prophetic career between 759 to 700 B. C. That
he was born about 780 B.C. and died about 690 BC. This would make
him ninety at death. Tradition says that he was sawn asunder.
It is possible, for some prophets died that way. Hebrews 11:37.
Many modern writers suppose
that as high as (Ewalt) nine writers wrote Isaiah. Others hold to two,
Isaiah and Deutro- Isaiah. We're going on the good assumption that
Isaiah, wrote it all. Writing from youth to old age will explain
any differences in style. The first part of the book is a statement
facts. The second half of the book being a prophecy of Babylonian
captivity would explain the differences. This is in keeping with
the names of his sons.
Not only does he write the
book that bears his name, but he was also the historiographer of the court
during the reign of Jotham, and Hezekiah. As such he deserves a section
of the Book of Kings, 2 Chron. 26:22; 32:32.
The book of Isaiah is not
written chronologically. Indeed it appears to be a compilation of
books put together. We shall deal with them as put together by the
Spirit. Reference Pulpit Commentary Isaiah index p. 20 ff.
We shall deal with the book
under three main sections.
Section one chapters 1-35.
Section two-chapter 36-39.
Section three Chapters
P.C. Pulpit commentary,
P.H.C. Pulpit Homiletic commentary, J.R. Dummelow - Isaiah, Ellicott
– Isaiah, and the Expositor’s Bible are used as references in this course.
I. Section one: Chapters
Isaiah’s general preface-chapter
The vision that he saw was
concerning Jerusalem and Judea in the days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and
Hezekiah kings of Judah. Uzziah, Jotham and Hezekiah are good Kings
but Ahaz was bad 2 Chron. 28:1-4; 29:1-2,26:4,15:32,36.
Heaven and Earth are called
to witness on behalf of the goodness of Jehovah to Israel. Yet Israel
was ungrateful and corrupt. The rulers perverted judgment.
Their sacrifice and religious days had become Sin in themselves. The real
practice was gone. They are called of Sodom and the people of Gomorrah.
We also have a call to repentance and to purity. We have here a great
holiness text Isa. 1:18. “ Come now let us reason together saith the Lord:
though your sins be as scarlet, they shall be as white as snow; though
they be red light crimson, and they shall be as wool.” Blessings
and good are promised to them if they will return. Isaiah 1:7. This
did not take place until the end of his ministry. Expositors Bible,
Chapter 2-5: A proclamation
of Christ Kingdom.
A word concerning Judah
All nations shall flow to
Zion. In Jerusalem the Lord will teach them. The nations would be there
judged and people would be rebuked. Swords and spears would be changed
during this reign of Christ on earth. Because of a future like that Israel
should now walk in the light of the Lord Isa. 2:1-5.
Yet Israel was wicked. Soothsayers
had increased in wealth, and the people worshipped idols. All such were
to be brought low. In the day of wrath, they would toss the idols to the
moles and bats. Here is a reference to the tribulation Isa. 2:10-22.
In Jerusalem there was bread
and water. Able men in every walk of life, including the skillful in speech
were to be taken away. Incompetent men were to be their rulers. They would
be oppressive against the other people. During this time it was to be well
with the believers and ill with the rebels.
A fearful indictment or
arraignment is brought against the women. In fact I know of no more
telling picture against worldliness and Godlessness among women in the
whole world. Let us hope that the prophetess wrote those few verses
Isaiah 3:16-26. In any case it is in God's word and we had better
pay it due attention.
Seven women to take hold
of one man not to be provided for as wives, but to take away the Old Testament
reproach connected with childlessness Gen. 30:23. There was a scarcity
of men remaining because of extended warfare.
Chapter 4:1 should be included
in Chapter 3.
In the last times religious
groups want to name the name of Christ, who have not the ethics of Christ.
An example is Christian Scientist. The verdure of the earth for such
that escaped, shall be glorious and beautiful.
A cloud of smoke by day
and the shining of a flaming fire by night. This refers to the future
glory of Israel. It is also referring back to the glory in the wilderness.
It is a fine piece of imagery in the use of which Isaiah was a past master.
When Israel returned and was purged, she would be sheltered and protected.
Isaiah closes this section
with the description of a beautiful and well cared for Vineyard.
To the astonishment of the author it brought forth-wild grapes, a picture
of Israel. Its protections were to be removed; it was to be
trodden down. This was Judah, and the treading down was to be done
by a foreign power, probably by Sennacherib's army. ”Woe unto them
that joined house-to-house, that lay field to field, till there be no place,
that they may be placed alone in the midst of the earth! In mine ears said
the lord of hosts, of a truth many houses shall be desolate, even great
and fair without inhabitants. Yea, ten acres of vineyards shall yield
one bath, and the seed of an homer shall yield an ephah “ Isa5: 8-10.
This is a woe to the wealthy land grabbers. Extensive land holdings
were prohibited by Jewish law Num. 27:1-11,33:54, I Kings 21:3-4.
The results were depopulation of the land, less production. Look
as an example Russia's collective forms.
In Isa.5: 6 a hostile nation
summoned, Assyria, and carried away 200,000 – 150,000 captives to Assyria
by Sennacherib. Ensign, the word means flag. Hiss is a whistle as
a beekeeper calls bees out of a river to assemble the swarm.
This chapter sets forth
a vision given to Isaiah, his purging and his commission. In the
year that the old king died Isaiah saw things; that is when people generally
do see things. There are two counts against the old king, Uzziah.
First he did not remove all of the sacrificial high places, idolatry.
Second he tried to usurp the office of a priest and was smitten with leprosy.
2 Kings 15:537,5-7, 2 Chron. 26: 17-23. Socially, legally, and religiously,
he died when he got leprosy. He was separated from the association
of his fellows and died as a leper. His son Jotham ruled as regent
possibly under Azariah the priest until leprosy caused Uzziah’s death.
Leprosy here is used as a type of sin the Old Testament. When the
glory of the lord broke forth in the temple Isaiah was probably a boy of
20 years old. The carnal hearted Isaiah saw his heart in the light
of the glory of God, and he cried out that he was cut off. “And they
who fain would serve thee best find within the most wrong.” He knew
why he was caught off. He had an unclean Life and an unclean heart.
The Angel took a coal from off the altar of burnt offering; that altar
fire was ignited from heaven itself Lev. 9:24, 6:12-13, 2 Chron. 7:1; These
are the three classic times of celestial fire along with Isaiah 6:7. This
fire was never to be allowed to go out. Fire in the sanctified life
must be fanned so that it must not go out. The Angel placed it upon
my lips and his sin was purged.
In Malachi we have the same
heart purging. Malachi 3:3. “ And he shall purged the sons of Levi,
and purge them as gold and silver that they may offer unto the Lord an
offering in righteousness. “
At Pentecost we also have
the Holy Spirit as a purging flame, coming, cleansing, empowering as one
of double aspect of experience. Isaiah was cleansed and empowered
which is symbolic of Pentecost. The baptism of Jesus is the Baptism with
the Holy Ghost and with fire so were the disciples at Pentecost Acts 15:8-9.
The same thing happened at Cornelius’ House.
Isaiah then heard the Lord
inquiring in a general way, who would go for them? Isaiah at once volunteered.
Saying “ Here am I send me.” He was sent and told that he would have
little success. He was to preach until desolation hit the country
and city. This is about 740 B. C.
This section tells of a
few messianic prophesies in connection with the Syro-Israel war, during
the reign of Ahaz 735-732 B C.
The Assyrian Empire under
Tiglath-Pileser wished to bring all of western Asia under his sway.
Note: Assyria is located on the upper Tigris river, roughly the northern
part of modern Iraq. Medes and Persians peoples are modern Iran;
Babylon is Southern Iraq and Iran around the Persian Gulf.
Israel was partly
under Tiglath-Pileser’s rule. Resin of Syria and Pekah, a usurper
of Israel made war against Ahaz of Judah to force him to join them against
the Assyrian; or else to remove him and put up a King in Judah friendly
to them. Ahaz was uncertain to join them against Assyria or to take
on their plans. He wanted to be on the winning side. Isaiah
knew that Pekah and Resin did not have a chance. Neither did he wish
Ahaz to join Assyria, but he wanted Ahaz to rely upon God to bring him
out 2 Kings 15:19,20 also 2 Chron. 28 is a record of everything that took
When Judah, the southern
kingdom, heard of Syria and Ephraim (Israel), coming against them, they
all trembled. Isaiah was sent to king Ahaz along with his son Shear-Jashub,
with a message of hope and cheer. Israel was to be broken (Pekah)
within 65 years. The Prophecy was made in 736 B.C. and 65 years brings
us to 671 B.C. At that date Ashurbanipal, Ezra 4:2-10, who is co-
regient with his father Esarhaddon carried off the last remnant of the
children of Samaria/ Israel the Northern Kingdom. He peopled Samaria
with alien people, Ellicott. Syria was also to pass away.
For Judah to go in with
Assyria against Israel and Syria would bring disaster to the land.
To go in with Israel and Syria would bring greater disaster. Ahaz
decided to resist Israel and Syria and stay neutral with Assyria.
It was the best policy although
Judah suffered much. Jerusalem was unsuccessfully besieged and Resin
captured the port of Elath on the Gulf of Aqaba 2 Kings 16:5 reference
J.R. Dummelow and Ellicott.
The Lord offers Ahaz a sign
that all would ultimately be well. Ahaz accepted the word of the lord without
a sign. He was given a greater sign as a result. “ Behold a virgin shall
conceive and bare a son and shall call his name Emanuel” Isaiah 7:14.
“For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: and the government
shall be upon his shoulders: and his name shall be called wonderful counselor,
(in the Septuagint the meaning is an Angel, messenger, of great counsel.)
Mighty God, the everlasting Father. .” The Hebrew word virgin used here
means a young woman of marriageable age. The Hebrew word is Almah
and it could also mean a virgin, but not necessarily so. Bethulah
is the Hebrew word that only means a virgin. . Isaiah declared that
before the brief period of childhood, that is before three years passed
the land of Syria, Ephraim and even Judah would be desolated by the Assyrian
armies. It is suppose that the young woman spoke of here was known
and used as an example and did bear a son. But it has a far deeper
impact for the Son’s name was to be Emanuel. Prophetically it refers
to Mary and Jesus. The prophecy had a dual meaning in it as it was
for the present and for the future.
Isa. 10:5 – Isa. 23 have
been called the Book of burdens. It consists chiefly of a series
of denunciations and woes upon different nations; Chiefly upon the enemies
of Israel. It was probably written as a section.
We have Sennacherib of Assyria
invading all countries including Judah and up to Jerusalem. Assyria
administered the wrath of God upon the disobedient nations. Isaiah
10:5,6. Assyria was proud and insolent in executing that commission
Syria was rebuked for its
haughtiness and its own ruin is threatened. They had served God's
appointed purpose Isa. 10:12,15-19. God gives his own people a promise
of grace to bear up under chastisement 10:20-23 ff.
In times of great distress
nationally, the prophets took advantage of distress and referred to the
coming of the one who would deliver them from all evil. Isaiah said
this,” And there shall come forth a rod out from the stem of Jesse, which
shall stand for an ensign of the people; to it shall the gentiles seek:
and his rest shall be glorious. V. 11 And it shall come to pass in that
day, that the Lord shall set his hand again the second time to recover
the remnant of his people which shall be left, from Assyria and from Egypt
and from Pathros, and from Cush, and from Elam, and from Shinar, and from
Hamath, and from the islands of the sea” Isa.11: 10,11. Ezek. 37:16-22.
His divine qualifications
were set forth. A picture of the reign on earth is then drawn.
Isaiah 11:6-9. The gentiles would come to him and his own people would
be regathered together again. 11:10-12 is the recovery of the remnant.
The listed countries represent the Four Corners of the earth, North, East,
South, and West. 11:15,16 speaks of a road way for the remnant. The
tongue of the Egypt. Is the Gulf of Suez and it shall be dried up and the
Nile or Euphrates shall be divided into seven streams, that is waddis,
over which Israel may across dry shod to return to Palestine.
Moses and the children
of Israel sang songs of praise when they were delivered from Egypt by the
power of God in Exodus 15:1-21. So the Israelites shall sing when the root
and offspring of David regathers them. It was an individual matter
as well as a national matter. All would rejoice. “ Cry out and shout,
thou inhabitants of Zion: for great is the Holy One of Israel in the midst
of thee.” 12:6
Israel had several hymns
or areas of scripture or praise to use for this rejoicing 2 Sam.7: 18-29,
1 Chron. 16:8-36.
The burden of Babylon.
Babylon heads a list of the enemies of Israel. Assyria and Babylon
had been at war often long before Isaiah’s time. Sometimes Babylon
was on top and then sometimes Assyria was on top.
the crown of Babylon in 720 B.C. Until that time they had been under
separate monarchs. One led Israel into captivity, Assyria; the other led
Judah into captivity, Babylon. Isaiah saw that Babylon would be Judah's
greatest foe and thus brings Babylon first in his denunciatory list.
See Pulpit Commentary Isaiah 13.
The Medes and others were
to be stirred up against Babylon. Cyrus, the Persian, and Darius,
the Mede did this on the day of Belshazzar's feast.
Those destroyers were to
be scourges in the hand of God effecting judgments on the wicked nation.
“ And Babylon, the glory of Kingdoms, the beauty of the Chaldees’ excellency,
shall be as when God overthrew Sodom and Gomorrah V. 20. It shall never
be inhabited, neither shall it be dwelt in from generation to generation:
Neither shall the Arabian pitch tent there; neither shall the shepherds
make their fold there.
After the destruction of
Babylon, Israel is placed in her own land. Sojourners cling to them as
well. Those who servant’s Israel had been will be Israel’s servants.
This has not been fully fulfilled. It will be in the final regathering
of Israel when Christ returns. That is the period that Isaiah constantly
had his eyes upon. This hymn goes from Isa.14:14-23. This is
a hymn of regathering. There are five verses or strophes of seven
long lines each. The epilogue is verses 22,23.
Philistia was the earliest
and age long tormentor of Israel. He is the first appointed to destruction
by God. Philistia had suffered under the reign of Judah during the
reign Uzziah, and Ahaz. 2 Chron. 26:6 2 Chron. 28:18. Philistia was
later invaded by Tiglath- Pileser and made a tributary.
Tiglath-Pileser died just
before Ahaz died and they, the Jews rejoiced. Isaiah reminded them
that they would have successors as fierce he was, and the Philistines would
be destroyed. This burden was in the year that Ahaz died. Ahaz
death was in 725 BC.
The burden of Moab, Isa.
In a moment destruction
was to come and they were all to be in sackcloth. They were to weep
for their great centers; this probably refers to Sargon or Sennacherib
under the figure of a lion 15:9.
Chapter 16 deals with
the same burden but carries it further. The Moabites were descended
from Lot but were at war with Israel from the time of Saul. They
lived east of the Dead Sea and David overcame them 2 Sam. 8:9. Ahab
had exacted tribute from them 2 Kings 3:4. After Ahab died, Moab
threw off the Israelites yoke 2 Kings 1:1,3:5. The Moabite stone
comes from King Mesha of Moab.
The prophet asked Moab to
reform and be kind to God's people as the likeliest way to turn away the
wrath of God. He feared they would not do this because of pride.
It was restating an older prophecy but to be fulfilled quite soon Isa.
Damascus includes Israel
17:3. Ephraim and Aroer 17:2, These refer to small powers of several
cities together. Israel lost its last shred of independence under
Sargon reign from about 721-722 B.C. Chronologically this chapter should
be after Chapter 9. Again a remnant of Israel is to be saved Chapter
"Woe to land shadowing with
the rustling of Wings which is, beyond the rivers of Ethiopia.” P.C. and
Matthew Henry regard this as pronouncing a woe on the land of Ethiopia.
The Ethiopians were agitated by the advance of the Assyrians eastward.
She sent for help to other states. Isaiah foretells the sudden overthrow
of the Assyrians. This prophecy should be grouped with the others
in regard to Sennacherib’s reign in 760 BC Isa. 10:28; 17:13,14.
The burden of Egypt Chapter
19 and its overthrow in 37:36.
This is of indeterminate
date. It is dated from 735-690 BC. Ellicott holds that at this
time Ethiopia and Egypt were under the same ruler, Terkakah.
And the prophet foretells
the speedy collapse of the Egyptian power upon which a strong political
party in Judah in Hezekiah’s reign had depended. Sargon defeated
the Egyptians at Raphia in 720 B.C. The Prophet may refer to the anarchy
that follows that defeat.
There are three sections
to this prophesy; 1. The impending calamity of Egypt 19:1-10. 2.
Egypt’s helplessness during the crisis and after 19:11-15. 3.
The outcome of the judgment is that it swings Egypt back to God in part
In this section five
cities are mentioned in the land of Egypt with a common language, Hebrew,
and are faithful to the Lord of hosts. One of them will be called
in the future the city of the Sun or destruction. “ In that day there will
be an altar to the Lord in the midst of the land of Egypt, and a pillar
to the Lord at its border.’ V.19. One should pay careful attention
if Israel gives up Sinai, but is allowed to keep five cities in the area.
Another option would be if the Jews were allowed to live in these five
cities under Egyptian rule the Sinai.
Ashdod in Philistia was
besieged twice in the year, 713 B.C. by the Assyrians during the
reign of Sargon. Tartan is a title for the military head of the Assyrian
army713 B.C. They revolted and disposed the king that the Assyrian
had set up and set up one of their own. Philistia, Judah, Edom and
Moab sought an alliance with Egypt and Ethiopia against Assyria.
Isaiah’s mission is to discourage
Judah from joining the alliance of Ashdod against the Assyrians.
Isaiah goes in public in a loincloth for three years in Jerusalem to depict
the degradation, which this alliance would bring.
When Ashdod revolted Sargon
led the Assyrian armies against it in 711 B.C. and put down the revolt.
12 years later Sennacherib defeated Egypt and Ethiopia near Ekron.
Isaiah was thus proven right.
Chapter21 The Burden of Babylonia,
Edom and Arabia set forth.
The burden of Babylon is
set forth in 21:1 – 10. “The burden of the wilderness by the sea” is a
poetic expression for Babylon. Note: “ Wilderness by the Sea, ” In a cuneiform
inscription; south of Babylon was called the land of the Sea. Xenophon
described the whole plain of the Euphrates, which is intersected by marshes
and lakes as looking like a sea. This chapter should come before
Chapter 13 as it is possibly Isaiah’s first prediction against Babylon.
In sorrow he reviews her fall as a loss for Judah. (J.R. Dummelow, and
The Burden of Duma, Edom
and Seir 21:11-12.These are the desert homelands of Esau’s descendants.
Their danger is from the Syrians. Her future looked bright but danger
The burden of Arabia 21:13-17.
The invading Assyrians would cause their traders to hide in the forest.
Jerusalem is reprimanded
by Isaiah. It refers to Sennacherib's invasion in 701, or Sargon’s
in 711. They were merry when the enemy lay outside the gates 22:1-25:7.
They were making plans for resistance but not turning to God. 22:1-2, 5-7.
This area contains Isaiah’s only invective against an individual, Shebna,
the first minister, who favored an alliance with Egypt. The area
with regard to Shebna is interesting reading. 22:15 -25. When Sennacherib
invaded, Shebna occupied an inferior position. Eliakim held his office
in 701 BC. 36:22.
Tyre was a great mercantile
center; hence other great shipping centers are mentioned in connection
with her. Tarshish in Spain and Egypt are mentioned. In this
chapter is foretold the destruction of Tyre effectively by Nebuchadnezzar
and the Chaldeans. The Chaldean army about this time also destroyed
Jerusalem. It was a hard fight for the Chaldeans Ezek. 29:18.
Tyre was restored after 70 years and returned to the Tyrianians.
Chapters 24-27: In this section
we have world travail leading up to the restoration of all during Christ
reign on earth.
From denunciation of woe
upon Babylon, Assyria, Philistia, Moab, and Syria of Damascus, Egypt, Ethiopia,
and Arabia, Judah, and Tyre; he passes to denunciations of the world as
The land is to be
made empty and waste and to be turned upside down. The people are
to be scattered. This includes priest and people, servants and masters,
buyers and sellers, creditors and debtors. Apparently confusion is
to prevail in the tribulation. Death will come upon the majority.
He says two-thirds are to die elsewhere and this is a result of sin Isa.
Spiritually the peculiar
people occupy the leading place in swinging the world back to God Isaiah
24:23; 25:6-8; 26:1-4; 27:6,9,13. Other nations would follow their
lead and go to Jerusalem to worship the King.
The resurrection of
God's people from the dead proceeds this gathering at Jerusalem Isa. 26:19
along with Dan. 10:3 and Isa. 12:1,2.
Chapters 28-31 We have renewed
woes upon Judah and Israel.
The prophet having cast his
eyes over the whole world down through time to the regathering at the foot
of the throne of the Messiah in Jerusalem; now returns to the old times
in Judah. He warns Israel, the 10 tribes, about her wickedness.
It is possible that verses 28:6 –10 refer to Judah also. If so then
pride and drunkenness were twin sins damning both kingdoms. Foreign
conquerors were to scourge and correct both. God is to use foreign
people to correct his people. This is shown in the first 11.
God had constantly reproved
him line upon line and precept upon precept, by his prophets. But
the prophets were merely mocked. Again the inference is carried to
the tribulation. They refer to their agreement with death and hell
Isa. 28:15 speaks of the tribulation time and the agreement with the Antichrist
to go to Palestine. The hail is to sweep away all false refuges.
Only one refuge and rock 28:16,17. Jerusalem is warned and judgment
is pronounced upon her. The prophet knew that all of his warnings
would be of no avail 28:14-22. Sennacherib will reach the gates of Jerusalem
in 701 BC. Nebuchadnezzar took Jerusalem in 606,592,586 BC.
Isaiah declared that the siege would begin within a year 29:1,2.
Chapter 30, The desire for
an alliance with Egypt is scorned. Egypt will be a shame and a reproached
rather than help. Egypt would give very little aid. Hence the
money given to them would be wasted.
This chapter might have been
written earlier or later than Chapter 30. It states the worthlessness
of Egyptian chariots and horses, which they were relying upon. Isa.31:8
is a slight inference as to how the Assyrian armies would be destroyed.
It was by a sword but not of man. It was by the sword of the Lord.
Chapter 32: The Removal of
This is a brief but beautiful
picture of the millennium 32:9-12. A group women are reproved.
Possibly a small group were standing by when he was addressing the men.
This is followed by further warnings and promises.
Chapter 33: A prophecy of
judgment upon Assyria and the deliverance of Jerusalem are stated generally.
The previous negotiations
which were carried on with Sennacherib provided very little. They
proved futile 33:7. The heavy fine imposed had been paid by
Israel to Assyria 2 Kings 8:14. In spite of the payment of the tribute,
Sennacherib threatened another siege 33:18. Already he was on the
march 33:1 and spoiling as he went.
The country people moved
into the towns 33:8. In a little while, he was expected to appear
before the gates. All was horror, and grief, and confusion.
Isaiah was commissioned by God to tell of the coming confusion of the mighty
Monarch the deliverance of Jerusalem out his hand in 701 B.C. 33:34.P.C.
Chapters 34, and 35: constitutes
a complete prophecy, a distinct prophecy and only slightly are these chapters
connected with what had proceeded.
Chapter 34 contains a denunciation
against the enemies of God, although Edom only is mentioned as typical
of those enemies. Their punishment is shown in the strongest colors.
This chapter is dark and lurid and prepares the way for a loving picture
in Chapter 35. 34:133. Apparently it refers to God's day of reckoning
with the nation's who have missed used Israel. 34:8.
Chapter 35: The prophet
then plunges into a beautiful description of the millennial glory 35:1,2.
It does not refer to the church age at all. It refers to the regathering
of Israel. It is a beautiful poem of triumph. There is also
a great holiness text in 35:8 “And an highway shall be there, and a way,
and it shall be called The way of holiness; the unclean shall not pass
over it; but it shall be for those: the wayfaring men, though fools, shall
not err therein.
These two chapters form the
closing epilogue of the first great collection. The historical section
then follows and serves as a link between them and the great sections of
prophecy. Chapters 36-39 serve as an independent whole and as a separator.
Part Two: Isaiah 36-39;
The second part consists
of two sections. Chapters 36 and 37 Are the account of the threatening
emissary of Rabshakeh.
The letter of Sennacherib
to Hezekiah and the massacre of the Assyrian army correspond to 2 Kings
18 and 19. It is said that this happened in the 14th year of the
reign of Hezekiah 36:1. That is a little later than 701 BC.
However there were different ways of figuring the years in a Kings reign,
so it probably was about 701 BC.
Sargon was killed in his
palace in 704 B C. and Sennacherib succeeded him. First he put down
a rebellion in Babylon led by Merodack-Baladan. Then he turned his
attention to Hezekiah. He had three complaints against Hezekiah.
First: Hezekiah had refused
to pay tribute to him 2 Kings 18:14.
Second: Hezekiah had opened
negotiations with Babylon and Egypt 2 Kings 18:24.
Third: Apparently Hezekiah
had helped the Philistines against their king who was in favor of Assyria.
Rabshakeh is a title for
an Assyrian general who he was sent from Lachish to Jerusalem with a great
army. He was most insulting in his language. Hezekiah with
others in sackcloth went into the house of God and laid the matter before
God. Isaiah went in also and the others were sent to tell Israel
of the troubles.
Isaiah told them not to
fear, as Sennacherib would fall by the sword in his own land 37:5-7.
to the king of Syria and found him waging war in against Libnah.
They also heard that the king of Egypt was on the way to meet them.
They started out to meet his army. During this interim they sent
letters telling Hezekiah that they would return and finish him. Hezekiah
spread the letters before the Lord 37:14. As Hezekiah prayed God
sent an answer to Isaiah and Isaiah relayed it on to Hezekiah. The
message was, Sennacherib was to return by the way he came without bothering
Israel. His camp would be destroyed that night. The Angel would
kill 185,000 of the Assyrians in one night Isa. 37:36 ff. He returned
to his homeland and was killed by two of his own sons. His other
son Esarhaddon reigned in his stead.
Chapter 38 is Fourteen years
before the invasion of Sennacherib or about the same time it depends upon
the methods of reckoning.
Hezekiah was sick unto death.
Isaiah was sent to him from God to inform him that he was going to die.
He had a stomach ailment. Hezekiah prayed for his life. Isaiah
was sent back to Hezekiah with a 15-year extension to his life. They
didn't ask God's will.
The remedy for the disease
was told to Isaiah and the sign, the shadow going back ten degrees, was
given at the king's request.
Chapter 39 is parallel with
2 Kings 20:12-19. Merodach-Baladan of Babylonian was trying to get
Western aid to block Assyria. This was pleasing to Hezekiah at the
time. This is why he showed Merodach-Baladan his resources.
It displeased God. As result, all that was in his house would be
carried to Babylon. In Dr. King's opinion it would have been better
for him to have died when God wanted to take him. If such had been
the case, his record would have been unstained. Ellicott, P.
C., Expositors Bible, J.R.Dummelow,
Part Three chapters 40-66:
Isaiah is at his best
spiritually, and intellectually. Isaiah sees far past the Babylonian
captivity, to the other side and to victory. This is a prophetic
poem. In fact he sees the golden age of Israel's glory, gathered
at Jerusalem, in the presence of the Messiah, It is one continuous and
beautiful poem, in which the writer does not identify himself because there
is no need to do so.
Chapter 40:1-11 the keynote
to the first section. Verse 3 is quoted in all four Gospel accounts
“ The voice of him that cried in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of
the lord, make straight in the desert a highway for our God. “
Verse 4 contains the formula
for revival,” Every valley shall be exalted and, every mountain and hill
shall be made low: and the crooked shall be made straight, and the rough
places plain: “
The universal outlook is
more prominent in Isaiah than any other Old Testament prophet. This
section can be divided into three equal sections each composed of nine
1.40 – 48.
The refrain,“ There is no
peace saith for the wicked saith my God,” terminates the first and second
section. He does not end the last section this way.
Section one of this third
part of the Book of Isaiah covers Chapter 40 through 48 including a break
into two areas. Chapter 40 is one area and 41 through 48 are the
Chapter 40 is an address
of consolation to the people of God in their deep affliction, presumably
in Babylonian captivity with the tribulation foreshadowed. Glad tidings
are to be published and the tidings are to be introduced by a voice in
the wilderness that gives assurance that all obstruction shall be removed
from their path. The First and Second Coming of Christ are placed
side-by-side as one of revelation. The voice in the wilderness introduces
his first coming. The regathering of Israel in power and splendor by God
who holds all things in his hand introduces the Second Coming.
Chapters 41-48 are a prophecy
of the recovery of the people of God from their sins, which caused the
various periods of trouble. It is a recovery from their wanderings.
Chapter 41:1-29 tells of
a folly of worshiping Idols. It also gives encouragement for his
faithful ones to trust in him with assurance that he will give help against
their enemies 41:10-20. Two of the greatest promises in God's word
are in 41:10,13.
Verse 10 “ Fear thou
not; for I am with thee: be not dismayed; for I am thy God: I will strengthen
thee; yea, I will help the; yea, I will be uphold with the right hand,
of my righteousness.”
Verse 13” For I the
Lord thy God will hold thy right hand, saying unto thee, Fear not;
I will help thee.”
The events that bring terror
to others bring deliverance to Israel. Isaiah makes a comparison
between Jehovah and the heathen gods.
In Chapter 42:1-4: We have
a fine description of Christ, the servant of Jehovah. A reference
to Israel there may be, but the deeper reference is to Christ 42:6-7.
In Chapter 43 there are renewed
promises to Israel and comfort and consolation promised. Palestine is to
be restored by divine omnipotence. The nations are challenged to
set forth the claims of their gods against Jehovah. They can produce
nothing, but Israel has abundant evidence 43:8-13. Isaiah emphasizes
monotheism in this chapter in verse 11. Babylon is declared against.
Israel is promised restoration. Both are about to be accomplished
43:14-21. A reproach is addressed to Israel for her past sins 43:22
Chapter 44. In this
chapter we are told that the reproach of God's people shall be entirely
removed and that Jacob is the servant of Jehovah 44:1-21. We
are told that God rules history. Heathen gods are further depreciated.
Jehovah pledges the restoration of his people through his servant Cyrus,
44:28. This is done two hundred years before Cyrus is born.
Chapter 45. The conquest
of Cyrus is ordained by God for his own purposes. God used Cyrus.
God gave heathen monarchs power and then used them to punish his own people.
He raises heathen monarchs to restore his people. God’s directing
of history is a mystery 44,45:1-13. Heathen gods are further depreciated.
Great honor awaits Israel. God alone is declared to be God.
There is a great text in 45: 9 “ Woe unto him that striveth with his maker!
Let the potherd strive with the potherds of the earth. Shall the
clay say to him that fashioned it, what makest thou? Or thy work, He hath
Chapter 46: Bel, another
name for Marduk, the chief deity of the Babylonians, the Sun god and Nebo,
the god of learning and writing, who was the son of Bel, and revealer of
the son of Bel/ Marduk, are to be the brought down and are to be a burden
to those who relied on them. Their fall warns Israel to flee idols.
Chapter 47: Here we have
the fall of Babylon set forth. She would no longer be the mistress
of Kingdoms. She is no longer sitting securely but loses all and
widowhood would come.
Chapter 48: We see that the
purposes of God would be affected by Israel, but not because Israel merited
an honored position. But this is by the call of God. Israel
must recognize the call of God and obey.
Section Two of the last part
of Isaiah: Chapters 49-58.
In Chapter 49-53 we have
the account of a great deliverer who is called the Servant of Jehovah.
An appeal is made to Israel 49:5. Jehovah identifies himself with
Israel 51:17. Jehovah claims Israel his own 50: 1. An appeal
is made to Zion to rise and bedeck herself as becomes her privilege 52:1
Chapter 53 actually begins
at 52:13. It was this 53rd chapter that the Ethiopian Eunuch was
reading in his chariot when Philip approached him in Acts 8:32. This chapter
depicts the suffering Saviour dying for sin, National repentance.
It is hard to know how the Jews could not see the cross in the Holy Scriptures
of Isaiah 53. It probably should be recited. No wonder this
chapter is called the “Gospel of Isaiah!”
Chapter 54-56. We have
promises to Israel combined with exhortations, and the physical appearance
of Christ. Israel is to abound in fruitfulness and expand 54:3.
There is to be no more rebuking and punishment 54:9.
Chapter 55 is a great call
to all. “Ho everyone that thristeth, come ye to the waters, and he that
hath no money; come ye and buy, and eat; ye come buy wine and milk without
money and without price. “ 55:1.
Chapters 53 and 55 are 2
gems, which are especially beautiful. They are great expositional chapters.
Chapter 56 contains a warning
to all to be true. The time is near when all shall be blessed and
God shall be near 56:1-8.
56 -58 we have a warning
given to the destroyers, to the greedy, and to the deliberately ignorant.
The righteous were perishing but none took it to heart. There are
strong terms to describe their wickedness in this chapter. The first
D.D. ever bestowed on man was here bestowed in 56:10. “His watchmen
are blind: they are all ignorant, they are all dumb dogs, they cannot bark;
sleeping, lying down, loving to slumber. “
There is no peace saith
my God to the wicked 57:20.
Section three chapters 58-66.
58-59 are practical instructions
to the preacher. The preacher was to cry loud and spare not.
Outward service is vain 58:1-7. 58:8-12.
God desires mercy rather
than sacrifice. Those who serve in a right spirit will be wonderfully
rewarded as well as those who fully observe the Sabbath.
Fasting-58: 1-12. They fasted
in a harsh legalistic way. The only spiritual value in fasting consists
in the attitude of extreme earnestness and unselfish sacrifice that it
both betokens and engenders. There is no benefit in fasting if we
spend the time as usual in work or pleasure. We do not compel God
by our fasting, but we are thereby enabled to entreat him more humbly and
Wickedness is terrible but
Jehovah's hand is not shortened that it cannot save nor ear heavy that
he cannot hear.
Chapter 60: We have the glory
of restored Jerusalem described 60:1-3,7,10,15,18.
Chapter 61 and 62: We have
the “Servant of Jehovah” promising peace to Jerusalem 61: 1-3,4,511,62:1ff.
Chapter 63:1-7 we have a
classic description of the cross. The conqueror comes from the capital
of the enemy with garments died in blood. He got his victory by his
own t arm, and he will wreck vengeance on his foes.
Chapter 63:8- 14 contains
an address by the Jewish people to God. That address contains Thanksgiving
Chapter 65 seems to contain
God’s answer to the prayers of his people. He seems to be pleased with
it, as the first few verses will show.
Chapter 66 consists of very
solemn final threatening and gracious promises. 66:23. We have the world
gathering together at Jerusalem to worship God. It is a millennial
condition and the condition, imagery and figures in the Book of the Isaiah
are sublime. P. C. Index P. 12. Woes are pronounced
upon all sin, to the Jew and then to the gentiles. Upon repentance,
grace is promise to all. In this he is evangelical and Pauline.
The Book of Jeremiah:
Brief table of Dates:
B.C. 641- spring first year
611- spring, 31st year of Josiah.
610 -Autumn Jehoahaz.
609- spring 1st-year of Jehoiakim.
599- spring 11th year of Jehoiakim.
598-97-winter Jehoiakim, beginning of the captivity.
597- Summer Zedekiah appointed King.
596- spring 1st year of Zedekiah
586- spring 11th year of Zedekiah. Total fall of the kingdom of Judah.
Jeremiah is very difficult to arrange a chronological. Chronologically
it appears to be a jumbled mess.
Ellicott has a possible
order on page 8. The following kings ruled during the period of Jeremiah's
1. Josiah- the son of Amos
2. Jehoahaz, Shallum- a
reign of three months.
3. Jehoiakim 607-597.
4. Jehoiachin 597 a reign
of three months.
5. Zedekiah 597-586.
Ellicott page 3, Adam Clarke
Jeremiah was a priest by
birth and a prophet by the called of God. He was the son of Hilkiah
of the line of the priest. He was a native of Anathoth, a little
village in Benjamin two or three miles in a northerly direction from Jerusalem.
This village had been appointed for the descendants of Aaron, Joshua 21:7,8
Anata is its present name.
Jeremiah was called to the
prophetic office when he was about to 16,” Then said I, Ah, Lord God!
Behold, I cannot speak for I am a child. “ Jeremiah 1:6. The
age that the authorities predict differs, in fact they differ from 14 years
of age to 25 years of age.
After his call, he probably
spent most of the first five years in Anathoth. They were called
to be Prophets especially because the Spirit was with them in a special
way, not that they were sanctified before birth.
For 35 years he lived
around Jerusalem, some say 10 years. The last 23 years were spent
in Egypt. After his first five years Anathoth, he seemed to have
received the call of God to travel through the cities of Judah Jer. 11:6.Then
he returned through Anathoth where he was conspired against by his own
townsman. This was the first attempt to do so. Jer. 11:21.
In or around Jerusalem,
he proclaimed the word of the Lord. In the temple Jer. 26:1ff. He
proclaimed the word of the Lord in the gates of the city 17:19.
He proclaimed the word of the Lord in prison 22:2. , In the King's House
22:1,37:17: in the potter's house 18:1 and in the valley of Hinnom 19:2.
The last place he proclaimed the Word of the Lord was in Egypt
On page 250 of Adam Clarke's
commentary is a very interesting table concerning the prophecies of Jeremiah
under the four kings that were contemporary with Jeremiah. Those
four Kings are Josiah, Jehoiakim, Jeconias, and Zedekiah.
For 22 years during the
reign of Josiah his mission was free from special hardships, except for
the Anathoth deal. Jehoahaz seemed to have allowed him to prophesy
unopposed, but did not heed him. During the 11 years of Jehoiakim's
reign he was maltreated and in prison. Jeremiah 26.
Jehoiakim did not molest
him, nor resent his admonitions. Indignity and abuse reached their
height under Zedekiah. The princes and priest persecuted him unmercifully
38:4. It is believed that ultimately he fell martyr by the hand of
his own countrymen in Egypt.
His prophetic career
extents over 40 years at least. It was all failure. Some say
he prophesied for 50 years thus giving him over 10 years in Egypt.
He first went to Tahpanhes 43:8, then 10 years later he went to Pathros,
44:1, in upper Egypt. At a festival for the Moabitish goddess, Jeremiah
raised his voice, and tradition says he was matyred. It must be remembered
that his Egyptian sojourn is some certain in every respect.
It is interesting to observe
the contemporary Prophets with Jeremiah.
There is Nahum in 625 BC.
There is Zephaniah 642-611 B.C.
There is Huldah in the time
of Josiah 638-608 2 Kings 2214.
There is Habakkuk in 630B.C.
There is Daniel in the third
year of Jehoiakim 604.
There is Urijah during Jehoiakim’s
reign and he was slain by Jehoiakim Jer. 26:20-236: This would be 608 –
There is Ezekiel during
the fifth year of Jehoiakim’s captivity Ezek. 2.
Verification of Jeremiah's
The prophecies fulfilled
during his lifetime.
The captivity of Jehoiakim
and his queen mother Jer. 22:24-26.
The death of Hananiah, the
deceitful prophet at the time foretold by Jer. 28:15-17.
The inglorious and shameful
burial of Jehoiakim, Jere. 22:18; 36:30.
The fate of Zedekiah Jere.
32:2,3; Jere. 52:11; 2 Chron. 36:19.
The invasion of Judah by
the king of Babylon and the captivity of Judah, Jer. 20:4.
The rifling of the temple
by Nebuchadnezzar, Jer. 27:19-22.
The destruction of
Jerusalem by fire, Jer. 32:29; 37:9-10. Jer. 21:10.
The Chaldean or Babylonians’
subjugation of the Egypt, 43:10-21.
The Babylonians superiority
over all surrounding nations, 44:29,30; 27:1-8.
The prophecies fulfilled
after his death.
The termination of the Babylonian
captivity after 70 years Jer. 25:11, Dan. 9:2, The Book of Ezekiel and
The Book of Nehemiah.
The return of the Jews to
their own country, Jer. 29:10-14, Ezra, Nehemiah.
The downfall and destruction
of Babylon and the date of the event, Jer. 25:12.
The advent of the Messiah,
Jer. 23:5-8,31:31-34; 33:6-9.
We shall take up the Book
of Jeremiah inspirationally. As it is written with little attention as
to its order, or historical import.
Outline of the Book of Jeremiah.
629 B.C. or later. The opening declaration and vision and charges
against Judah. In the 13th year of Josiah’s reign, God called the
youthful Jeremiah and informed him that the eternal purpose of God for
him was that he be a prophet. His prenatal sanctification meant that
he was set apart and in the will of God for that office. Its actuality
in life depended upon Jeremiah's experience and obedience. Jeremiah
said, “ I am a child. “ But the Lord said unto me, “Say not, I am
a child: for thou shalt go to all that I shall send thee, and whatsoever
I command thee thou shalt speak. “ Jer.1: 6,7. Jeremiah was commanded
not to fear their faces, else he would be confounded before them.
The Lord then touched his life. He was to go to the nation to tear
down and to build up.
Jeremiah then had a vision
of the rod of an almond tree, signifying that his journey as a prophet
was to begin at once. He also saw a seething pot facing the North
signifying that Judah and Jerusalem were to be deceived by the nation from
the north, Assyria. In the following trouble Jerusalem was to be
made a fenced city, protected, and an iron pillar, and a brazen Wall-stability-against
the whole land and against the king.
Here we have a beautiful perspective on the part of God of reciprocated
love. That is all past. Then we have abandoned Love and violated
faith. Those who handle the law did not know God. The prophets
prophesied by Baal; Jezebel brought them in. They were guilty of
twin terrible evils: forsaking God and going after false gods.
They were reproved by their
own wickedness in spite of the fact that they had a noble beginning.
Now they were degenerated and their prophets had been slain by their own
sword. The blood of the innocent was on their own garments.
Israel had gone into idolatry and was carried away. Treacherous Judah
was following in her sister's footsteps and heading for the same end.
Spiritual adultery had been committed everywhere.
Jeremiah 3:6-6:30 in-612
We have Israel and Judah
in contrast. The northern nation was the scourge of God.
Israel and Judah in contrast.
Jer. 3:6-4:2. Israel’s, divorce was a result of her spiritual adultery.
It had failed to teach Judah a lesson. Jeremiah prophesied a prophetic
message to the north to Israel. If Israel returned in repentance,
God would take them to Zion and give them pastors after his own heart that
would feed them. For he was still married to them. He still
had an interest in them and was going to use them down in the future.
Jerusalem would then become
the throne of the Lord had all nations would be gathered unto it.
It would be the religious center of the world. In those days the House
of Israel would walk with the House of Judah. Together they shall
come out of the land of the North. Ezekiel refers to this in 37:16-21 with
his vision of the two sticks.
When the children of Israel
wept and made supplication on the high places in repentance toward God,
he would recall them. “ Return, ye backsliding children, and I will heal
your backsliding. Behold, we come unto thee; for thou art the one
Lord our God.” Jer. 3:22.
Then God said, “ If thou
wilt return, O Israel, saith the Lord, return unto me: And if thou wilt
put away thine abominations out of my sight then thou shalt not be removed”
The northern nation or people
are the scourge of God. Jer. 4:2-6:30. Judah refused to return as
the prophet uttered her doom from God. He paused and exclaimed a
cry, “ Ah, Lord God! Surely thou hast greatly deceived this people
and Jerusalem, saying, ye shall have peace; whereas the sword reacheth
unto the soul. ” Jer. 4:10.
The fierce marauding armies
as well as the Chaldeans are referred to here. The Prophet saw it in a
vision and he further exclaims his heart pain using the Hebrew word for
heart, bowels Jer. 4:19.
The destruction and desolation
were to be pals, yet there was not to be a complete destruction again.
A remnant was to return from the slaughter.
Two fine statements occur
with regard to heart purity in 4:4 and in 4:14. The key words are
circumcise, verse 4 and washed, verse 14.
4:4, “ Circumcise yourselves
to the Lord, and take away the foreskins of your heart, ye men of Judah
and inhabitants of Jerusalem: lest my fury come forth like fire and burn
that none can quench it, because of the evil of your doings. ”
4:14 “O, Jerusalem, wash
thine heart from wickedness, that thou mayest be saved. How long
shall thy vain thoughts lodge within thee?”
And there is also a great
text in 6:16.” Thus saith the Lord, stand ye in the ways, and see, and
asked for the old paths, where is the good way, and walk therein, and ye
shall find rest for your souls. But they said, we will not walk therein.”
The scourge of war was the
reward for sin. It makes this text a forceful one.
This whole section deals
mostly with false, popular religions and true religion. Reference
Expositors Bible. Ellicott places its date 600 B. C.
The possible exception is
found in 10:1-16, which should be considered separately. Chapter 26 also
belongs with this area. The fate of the temple at Shiloh appears
in both areas, Jer. 7:14; and in 26:6. We shall continue to deal
with the book chapter by chapter. The message was delivered in part
or in hold at the gate of the temple of the Lord's house. The divine
requirements are set forth in Jer. 7:3 b, 5a. “Then, will I cause
you to dwell in this place, in the land that I gave to your fathers, forever
and ever.” 7:7. They were trusting in the sacredness of the temple
for protection Jer.7: 4.
Every promise in the moral
field, or in the field of freedom is conditioned on man's attitude to it.
This truth appears in the above area.
Jer. 7:8-15: the formalism
of Jewish religion is exposed. They were in all manner of violent
sin, and, yet they thought all was fine. Shiloh was made desolate for the
same thing and so will Jerusalem be desolate.
Jer. 7:16-20, Jeremiah was
told not to pray for them, nor make intercession for them. God would
not hear. They were worshiping the queen of heaven and other gods.
Jeremiah informed them that
their fathers were not commanded to sacrifice as an end in and of itself.
Heart service alone satisfies God.
They had built high places
in Tophet; a place in the valley of Hinnom where high places were built
the people offered their sons and daughters to the god of Moloch.
They placed their children in the arms of the idol and a trip door threw
their children into the burning fire. Jer. 7:29-34. 2 Kings
23:10. References P.H. C. P.C. Ellicott.
The bones of the dead Princess
and people would be exhumed and scattered. 8:1-3. The living were unabashed
and singing. They did not even heed the warnings of Jeremiah.
In it all, they hung on to their forms of religion. We have a great
text in Jer. 8: 11 “ They have healed the hurt of the daughter of my people
slightly, saying, Peace, peace; when there is no peace. “
In Jer. 8:13-22 we have
God's message of doom to them, and the prophet’s lamentations and dismay.
In this area we have another great text Jer. 8:20 -22, “ The harvest is
passed, the summer is ended, and we are not saved. V. 21 for the hurt of
the daughter of my people am I hurt; I am black; astonishment hath taken
hold of me. V.22 Is there no balm is Gilead; is there no physician there?
Why then is not the health of the daughter of my people recovered? ”
Here Jeremiah declared that
he was black with the astonishment. It is a figure of speech.
After the prophets said
this, then follows his plaintive lamentation over sin Jer. 9:1-8.
Jehovah vindicates his judgment and explains why 9:9-16.
And Jeremiah draws a vivid
picture of calamity after calamity 9:17-22. Then their vain confidence
was corrected. Wisdom, etc. was not to be trusted in. Let man
glory only in the knowledge of the Lord.
In chapter 10:13-16 .We
have Jehovah the true and eternal God contrasted with idols.
In 10:17-25 we have Judah's
mournful distress and a prayer for God's mitigating mercy.
In Chapter 10:23-25 we have
quite interesting reading.
Jeremiah 11-12, The broken
Jeremiah refers them back
to the covenant that God and the fathers had entered into a jointly on
entering the land of Canaan Deut. 27:12-26.
The men of the city made
a secret conspiracy to turn back and serve idols. God was to send
judgment for this. They would cry to their false gods, but those
false gods would not be able to help 11:9-13.
Jeremiah's was commanded
not to pray for them or sacrifice for the unacceptable 11:14-17.
There were murders in ambush.
The men of Anathoth sought his life 11:21. Their young were to die
by the sword and their sons and daughters to die by famine 11:18-23.
Jeremiah wondered why the
way of the wicked seemed to prosper. It is an old question.
It hit Job. Job 21:7,8. It hit David Ps. 17:10. It hits
us too. The last check is not written at once, the end is not yet.
A church hypocrite prospers, and a good saint does not. The hypocrite
says, “ God knows with whom he can trust money. There is nothing
you can say about it. The wise waits for a fuller advance to a more
perfect knowledge, and talk about the will of God. We have to keep
quiet. A lot that passes for the will of God is far from it.
It is merely by his permission, not his will.
Faithless and wicked so-called
children of God will some day be abandoned to desolation. 12:7-.
Foreign oppressors and thieves
rifle land. The patient were to be restored to their own land 12:14-17.
The fall of Pride, Jeremiah
13, 602 B.C.
And Jeremiah got a clean
linen girdle and wore it. Then he hid it by the river, Euphrates,
not necessarily in the river but in the hole. It became stained and
rotten. He wore it in their sight. It was a parable against
their pride, Jer. 13:1-11.
A bottle is filled
with wine so were all to be filled with drunkenness from the king down.
This suggests a state of helplessness in which they would be dashed together,
All would be degraded
from the king and queen to all others if they would not voluntarily humble
themselves; God would do it.
The drought and its moral
implication.601 B.C., Jer. 14-17.
We are not certain of the
date as no drought historically was stated during Jeremiah's time.
Jeremiah pleads with God
over a calamitous drought, and declares that it was a testimony against
Although Jeremiah did plead,
God refused to allow the intercession to prevail. Jeremiah must have
known that he was praying up against a stone wall. God said NO!
Jeremiah then uttered a
piteous lament for the nation's woes. It was a heartbroken preacher
weeping for the doomed people who had made fun of him 14:17-22.
God’s decisively refused
the prophets heartbroken petition and gave him a reason. It was the
culmination of a national sin from Manasseh’s wicked reign 2 Kings 21:11.
Jehovah said that if intercessors like Moses and Samuel stood before him
he would say NO! Moses Exodus 32:11-1; 2 Sam.1 Sam. 7:9. Jer. 15:1ff.
Possibly Jeremiah was as great an intercessor as either one of those two.
The people were appointed to death. Four destroying forces were to
be turned loose. The sword to slay, the dogs to tear, the fowls to
devour and the beast to destroy Jer. 15:1-9.
Jeremiah expressed strong
regret that he had been born a man of contention and strife. He was not
naturally so, but he was called by God to be so. He was cursed by
all, and yet he had done nothing to merit such treatment. , God promised
him that when it was over and all were in the hands of the enemy, the enemy
would treat him well. Jer. 15:10-14.
Jeremiah prayed a
prayer of regret that he was a tormentor of the people. Sometimes
God seemed to fail him in his statements. 15:15-18.
God told him that
he would make him a fence, brazen wall, and that they would not prevail
against him. Eventually he would be redeemed out of trouble.
After the invasion hit, then they wept, wailed, and went into slavery.
Jeremiah was treated like a king 15:15-21.
Their homes that were
set up and sons and daughters that were born would be destroyed and would
become meat for the fowls and beast. Their social life was to meet
with disaster 16:1-9.
Apostates were to be punished
with exile 16:10-13. Although they were to be carried into the land
of the North and elsewhere, yet they were to be regathered 16:14-21.
In their darkest hours they received their brightest promises.
Judah's guilt was
manifest, “ The sin of Judah is written with a pen of, iron and with
a point of iron. That is their sin was not to be erased and was firmly
written on their hearts 17:12ff. They had trusted to man instead
of the Lord. Now they were about to fall into the hands of man. Jer.
The Sabbath, they did not
keep any day or anything Jer. 17:19-26.
Jeremiah was commanded to
stand in the gates where the Kings of Judah went in and out and in all
the gates of Jerusalem he was to proclaim his message to all to the end
of time. Jer. 17:19.
The rules concerning the
Sabbath had been violated completely. No burden was to be carried
through the gates of the city. If they did this then the destroying
force of fire would pass through.
The broken potter's
vessel Jer. 18:1-20. 605 B. C. Jeremiah was commanded to go to the
potter's house as the Lord wished to speak to him, Zech. 11:13, Matt. 27:7;
The 30 pieces of silver. The potter's house was on the southern slope
of the valley of Hinnom south of Jerusalem. The Potter made a vessel
and it was marred. It was marred not by the will of the potter, but
because of the nature of the clay. The Potter made another vessel;
God was going to destroy this nation then bring it back and make another.
The invasion was to destroy the vessel and then a later regathering to
make it over again properly. Jeremiah then uttered an imprecatory
prayer of great interest 18:19-23.
Jeremiah got an earthen
vessel and the leaders of the people and took them out to the valley of
Hinnom. He told them that it would become the valley of slaughter.
They would eat each other in the siege. He then broke the vessel
and told them, as the vessel had been broken so they also would be broken
Pashur, the son of Immer
the priest, heard that Jeremiah so prophesied. He went to him and
smote him or slapped him or beat him, and put him in stocks. The
next day when Pashur passed through Jerusalem, Jeremiah told him God’s
decree in regard to him Jer. 20:4-6. Jeremiah then decided to say
no more, but his message burned like a fire in his bones and he couldn't
stop. In this he was like Job 3:3. Jeremiah regretted that
he had been born Jer. 20:14 ff. These statements must be judged in
their day and possibly given as a figure of speech.
Chapter 21 God’s final offer
of deliverance-598 B.C.
The Chaldean King
deposed Jehoiakim after three months reign. Zedekiah was the brother
of Jehoiakim. Zedekiah had been placed by Nebuchadnezzar on the throne
of Judah as a vassal. Zedekiah sought help from Egypt to revolt from
the Chaldeans. Nebuchadnezzar marched against Jerusalem and took
Zedekiah sought advice from
Jeremiah and received God's word on the matter. The Pashur here is
a friend of Jeremiah’s, and was sent by Zedekiah to Jeremiah, is different
from the previous one mentioned. Zedekiah and the city were to fall.
He that stays in the city will die. He that surrenders shall live.
Zedekiah’s reliance on Jeremiah
was a forced one and God placed no special stock in it.
Chapter 22 errors and
doom of Judah’s kings. Jehoahaz and Jehoiakim and Jeconiah are mentioned
for their wickedness.
Chapter 23 599 B.C.
Denunciations against bad shepherds and false prophets 23:1,28,29.
In the midst of falsity, the righteous branch is promised Jer. 23:5.
A serious charge is brought against the false prophets, 23:14. They
are to get a terrible reward 23:15.
Chapter 24 598 BC.
Two baskets of figs which is both a parable and a prophecy. The two
baskets were set at the gate of the temple after Nebuchadnezzar had carried
away some captives. One basket was good and one basket was bad.
The good would be carried away to Babylon and the bad were left or else
fled to Egypt. Daniel and Ezekiel were among the first captured.
Chapter 25 We have the manifold
judgments of God. Jeremiah declares that he had prophesied for 23
years, 25:1-3. He had warned them along with other faithful prophets,
but they had not heeded. They were to be scattered.
Chapter 26 and 27,
598 B.C. The general topic of Chapter 26 and 27 is the persecution
of the prophets. The priest and false prophets wished to put Jeremiah
to death 26:8,11. But the Princes and people stood for him through
their spokesman Ahikam 26:16,24. Two real prophets are named as being
1. Urijah 26:20-22 who was
chased from pillar to post until captured in Egypt.
2. Micah 26:19 was killed
years before. This is not the same Micah who wrote the book of Micah
in the Bible.
Jeremiah wore a band
or yoke, as a symbol of slavery and sent word to all the surrounding nations
to do the same, as Babylon would soon capture them. God had given
all these nations into Nebuchadnezzar's hand. 27:1-12. Jeremiah utters
an impassioned appeal to all to yield to Nebuchadnezzar.
If this were taken
out the field of religion it would become Quislingism. Quisling was
a Norwegian politician who collaborated with the Nazis. We would
have done something to him in a hurry if he acted that way during our time.
Chapter 28: Hananiah,
the false prophet was as daring as sin could make him and as false as the
people would wish him to be 28:1-4. He broke the yoke from Jeremiah's
neck and said, “Within two years this would happen to all who wore Nebuchadnezzar’s
yoke.” Jeremiah told him that he lied, and that God would put a yoke of
iron on him instead of wood 28:10-15.
We have here the test of
a true prophet Jer.28: 9.Hananiah died that year as Jeremiah had said.
Jeremiah corresponded with
the exiles and told them that they would be released after 70 years 29:1-14.
They were to settle down and live normal lives and make the best of it.
It was sound advice. Daniel made use of the 70 years prophecy Daniel
Awful revenge was to be
meted out to the false prophets who deceived them Jeremiah 29:15 ff.
In spite of the present
exile, there is to be a glorious future for Israel Jer. 30: 32.
Both houses are to be saved,
that is, Israel and Judah 30:4-12.
There was to be a time of
trouble but Jacob is to be saved out of it i.e. the tribulation.
Jeremiah is commanded to
write the word of the Lord in a book 30:2,7,18,22; 31:4,12,3132.
Jeremiah was shut up in
the King's House during the siege so that he would not weaken the men of
war by his predictions. He bought a field from a cousin and sealed
the deal as a sign that they were going and also coming back 32:1-15.
Jeremiah again prayed extemporaneously
The word of the Lord again
came to him and restated the utter destruction of the whole place, yet
they would return 32:36-44.
In the same court prison
while the word of the lord came to him during the destruction of Jerusalem,
God was promising its rebuilding 33:4,6,9-14. There would be future
prosperity and peace 32:33
598 B.C. Zedekiah
was told that he was going into captivity and personally meet Nebuchadnezzar.
He was going to meet a violent death 34:34. They then put away the
illegal slaves 34:8-11. Their punishment in part for the violation
of law of personal liberty 34:8-12.
607 B.C. The
Rechabites vow of abstinence: no strong drink. Chapter 35.
Jeremiah got the Rechabites into a chamber in the House of the Lord and
offered them wine to drink in front of the people. They refused referring
to their ancient covenant Jer. 35:6. The faithfulness of the Rechabites
to their forefathers pledge is in contrast to the unfaithfulness of Israel
Chapter 36 deals with
events connected with the collection of Jeremiah’s prophecy into a volume.
Baruch did the actual writing
Jer.36: 4 ff. Both read it to several groups 36:10,14,15. It was
later read to the king and he cut it up and burned it 36:23. The
king, Zedekiah, commanded that Baruch and Jeremiah be taken but Jehovah
had hid them 36:26. God commanded them to write the book again and
they added some 36:27 ff.
During the siege the Egyptian
army came up to help them. There was a lull in the Chaldeans’ fight
against Jerusalem. During the lull Jeremiah was going to leave Jerusalem.
He is arrested at the gate on a charge of going to Chaldeans 37:13-15.
Jeremiah landed in a dungeon
for this 37:16 ff. Zedekiah sent for him secretly and asked
him for a special word from the lord. Jeremiah told him that the
Chaldeans would return and continue the siege. Jeremiah was left
in the court in semi- hiding. Ebed-melech the Ethiopian rescue Jeremiah
from the dungeon. He again appeared before the king. He told
the King to surrender to Babylon. The king said he was afraid of
the Jews that had fallen way to the Chaldeans 38:19. Jeremiah told
him that they would not hurt him. Yet Zedekiah would not go.
From 39-43:7: Jeremiah’s
history from the fall of Jerusalem to the time he went down to Egypt.
Nebuchadnezzar in person opened the siege. He was a great general.
Zedekiah and his Household were brought to Nebuchadnezzar. Nebuchadnezzar’s
siege lasted for about 18 months and misery ruled unabated. They
ate their own children. At midnight the Chaldeans entered through
the walls July 587 BC.; the 9th of Abib. All Jeremiah said would happen,
did happen. The events of this area are placed between 590-588 BC.
With the siege breaking afterward. At the same time God cared for
his prophet. There are interesting passages here. 39:6,7,16-18; 40:4,6.
Gedaliah is appointed govonor
by Nebuchadnezzar and slain by Ishmael and that raises more trouble Jeremiah
41. Jeremiah however landed in Egypt and was taken as a prisoner
along with a remnant of Judah
All the Jews who had gone down into Egypt became idolaters of Astarte,
at Migdol. The Assembly was made up of women mostly.
Against this idolatry and
Jeremiah raised his voice in denunciations and prophecy of woe for the
Baruch is not to be visibly
rewarded for the writing. His life is to be given to him as a prey.
He was a great scholar and a wonderful friend Jeremiah 45.
Chapter 46: God's judgment
to be poured out on wicked Egypt.
Chapter 47: Philistia is
Chapter 48: Moab is denounced.
Chapter 49 Amon and Edom
and others are denounced.
Chapter 50 around 595 B.C.
Israel's final redemption is set forth.
Chapter 51:1-14 the end
of the Babylon empire is set forth. The general picture of the chapter
is that of the overthrow of Babylon.
Chapter 52: We have an historical
appendix leading up to the final carrying away to Babylon in 598 B.C.
The lamentations of Jeremiah
The ancient Jews of the Alexandrian
which were 20% of the population of City. It had a great library that was
burnt by the Saracens. The Jews called this book, The book of the Dirges
that is the funeral song. It is something like that. St. Jerome
called it Lamentations hence our English title.
The Septuagint (LXX- which
means 70) placed it immediately after Jeremiah. The Septuagint was
made at Alexandria before the end of the fourth century BC. Previously
Lamentations was placed with the poetic literature (Hagiographa), Ruth,
Josephus' erroneously suppose
that it was written as a lament over the death of Josiah. He based
his belief on 2 Chronicles 35:25.
The great themes of the book are:
The siege of Jerusalem,
The capture Jerusalem,
The destruction of Jerusalem.
For vividness and
pathos the book is probably unsurpassed in all of literature.
The unity is not logical
but emotional but the unity is good. The Book rises climatically.
It is generally agreed that it was composed soon after the destruction
of Jerusalem in 586 BC. The authorship is Jeremiah. This is
probably correct, as there is nothing in the Bible to say that it was not
The structure of
It is composed of
five lyric poems. In Hebrew the first four are an acrostic that is
Chapter 1:2,4 consist of 22 Lines or verses corresponding to the number
of letters in the Hebrew alphabet. In Chapter 3 each letter is used
three times so it has 66 verses. The fifth chapter is not an acrostic,
but it does have 22 versus. The meter in which it is written is limping
verse, as the second line is shorter than the first. An example is Isa.
14:4-21, which is written in the same meter. No book in the Bible
shows greater art or skill in its composition.
The chapters considered.
Chapter 1 Zion’s
desolation and sorrow as all of Jerusalem is called Zion 1:1-11.
It is a poetic lament over Zion’s utter destruction.
In 1:12-19 we have the comfortless
condition of Zion under the frown of God.
1:20-22 We have Zion’s s
appeal to Jehovah.
Chapter 2 Is the sorry
state of Zion, the result the anger of Jehovah.
In 2:1-10 The agony
caused by the anger of the lord.
In 2:11-19 the description
of Zion’s bitter sorrow and lamentation.
In 2:20-22 Zion’s
bewilderment and appealed to Jehovah.
Chapter 3 Zion’s hoping
again in the mercy of God.
In 3:1 - 18 Zion bewails
In 3:19-39 We have
a hope of relief expressed through the mercy of God.
In 3:40-54 We have exhortation
to confess and repent.
In 3:55-66 in despair
Zion prays for vengeance on her enemies.
In Chapter 4 we have the
former glory of Zion contrasted with their present humiliation.
In 4:1-10 The terrible distress
of people and nobles.
In 4:1-16 The ignominious
fate of the prophets and priest.
In 4:17-20 The vain
hope of escape is set forth.
In 4:21-22 The doom of Edom
In Chapter 5: We have Zion’s
earnest petition for deliverance.
Chapter5: 1-18 contains
a prophetic review of Zion's condition.
In 5:19-22 the final appeal
to Jehovah to overthrow Zion’s reproach.
The Book of Ezekiel
Part one Ezekiel 1:1-24:27.
Ezekiel 1:1- 7,27.
The date is the fifth day, fourth month, of the fifth year that would be
The call of Ezekiel.
The heavens were opened and he saw visions of God. The hand of Jehovah
was upon him 1:3.
The Theophany. There was
a strong wind and a great cloud with unfolding fire surrounded with brightness.
It came out of the North. From the midst of the fire there came the
likeness of four living creatures that went straightforward. Each
had four faces. Adam Clarke thinks each had on the his right side;
the face of a man and the face of a lion, and on the left side the face
of an ox and the face of an eagle. Beneath their wings were human
hands like a man. They had straight legs like the legs of the ancient
heathen gods. They were like burning coals of fire. The living
creatures dashed fourth and returned like lightning. As they went
they seemed to go as a wheel with in a wheel. They were terrible
in appearance with eyes every where. The wheels were great and high.
Over their heads was a firmament that looked like crystals of ice, a halo.
When they moved they raised their wings, and the voice of which was like
Great Falls of water, or like the voice of the Almighty. When they
came to rest, they letdown their wings over in the firmament. Above
was the throne, terrible in glory. The appearance of a man was about
it. The appearance looked like fire and was surrounded with a rainbow
like glory. It was the glory of Jehovah. Ezekiel fell on his
face and heard a voice speaking thus, ”And said unto me, son of man, stand
on thy feet, and I will speak unto thee” Ezek. 2: 1.
It was from the north that
Assyria and Chaldea usually swept down on Israel and Judah. This
at least means that the divine wrath of Jehovah would be let loose on Judah
by human instrumentality.
The face of intelligence
is the face of man, the face of fierceness, was the face of the lion, the
face of persistance, the face of an ox and the face of foresight is the
face an eagle from which nothing could be hid. All this was to be unleashed
against Israel. In all it was to be tempered with mercy as the rainbow
appearance was there. The wheel within the wheel could refer to the
divine human Christ.
The prophet was strengthened
by the Spirit, as he was very weak after the vision. He was caused to stand
on his feet. He was then called the Son of Man. Stalker -The
life of Christ. He was told that he was being sent to Israel who
was rebellious and, impudent, and stiff-necked. He was not to fear
them. They would be around him as thorns and briars and scorpions.
He was given a little book to eat. Upon it were written lamentations,
weeping, and woes. Chapter 2ff. When he ate the book, it was
in his mouth as sweet as honey. The book was his message to them.
This is God’s call to a God called man. He was not being sent to
a people of strange speech, that could not hear, but he was being sent
to Israel. They would not hear. They refused to hear God.
His forehead was made like adamant against theirs. They tried to
stare each other down. The Spirit then took him up and set him down
with the captives by Tel-Abib. Then he sat in astonishment for seven
Ezekiel's first activity
This is a strong area against
eternal security. Here he is appointed a watchmen. The unwarned
wicked man's blood would be required at his hands; that is he would be
responsible for the unwarned man's salvation. The blood of the unwarned
righteous man who'd gone astray would be required at his hand. The
righteous man who then fell would have his former righteous deeds blotted
out. This is strong language. Ezekiel had to warn them and
thus save his own soul 3:16-21.
Certain directions are given
to him. He was commanded to go into a plateau, as God wanted to speak
to him. This he did and the glory of the lord appeared and he fell
on his face showing reverence. The Spirit set him on his feet and
told him to return to his house. He was to be bound by them and his
tongue was to cleave to the roof of his mouth. When God spoke to
him his mouth would again be opened 3:22-27.
The siege of Jerusalem is
foretold and portrayed. He is commanded to take a tile and draw Jerusalem
upon it 4:1-3. He was to lay siege to it, as a great world power
would. For 390 days he lay on his left side thus bearing their iniquity.
Then he was to turn to the right side and lay 40 days. The 390 days
are for Israel, and 40 days are for Judah. He was to eat and drink
by rushes, that is quickly during that time. It was at least an awful
picture of their captivity and the destroying of Jerusalem 4:1-5:4.
It is striking what some
of those prophets had to suffer personally in presenting the truth.
The signs are interpreted.
Jerusalem, who had done abominations in the sight of the nations, is to
be judged in the sight of the nations. They were to eat each other
during the siege and they did. Two-thirds of them were to die and
one-third of them was to be scattered. This is also picture of the
tribulation judgment and the sword was to choose them 5:5-17.
The mountains of Israel
are denounced that is their leaders. He denounced the mountains,
hills, the rivers, and valleys of Israel thus denouncing all the land of
Israel in a figure of language. A sword would destroy, and men would
be slain upon their idol’s high places. Those high places were to be destroyed
and the bones of the dead would be scattered upon them: Yet a small remnant
would be spared 6:1ff.
The final overthrow of Israel
is foretold and depicted. Then the seventh chapter tells us of the
dreadful destruction of Judah on account of the wickedness of its people
7:1-15. The polluted temple is appointed to destruction 7:20-22.
The prophet is commanded to take a chain as a type of their captivity in
which both king and people would be led to Babylon in bondage.
The fifth day, six month,
sixth year of captivity 594 BC
From Chapter 8-11:25, we
have a series of visions respecting Jerusalem.
Ezekiel sat in his house
with the elders of Israel setting before him. Then the hand of the
Lord fell upon him 8:1. He beheld an appearance as a fire.
This appearance put forth his hand and took Ezekiel by the locks of his
hair and carried him to Jerusalem. There Ezekiel saw who was going
into the temple. First there was the seat of the image of jealousy
8:3-6. It was a species of sacred animal worship 8:7-12. The
lamentation of the women was over Thammuz, who was the Arcadian sun god,
the Adonis of the Greeks. He was the husband of the goddess Ishtar in the
Chaldean calendar. 8:13-15. They worshipped of the sun, or Baal.
Those people thought that no one saw them yet God and Ezekiel were walking
unseen in their midst.
The voice that had been
speaking to Ezekiel summoned six supernatural beings from close by and
accompanied by a seventh. It was clothed as a priest and an armed
as scribe six men with swords stood beside the brazen altar, (J.R.Dummelow).
The man with the inkhorn was to go through the city and mark those who
sighed and cried because of the wickedness of Jerusalem. The six
with the death weapons were to follow and slay the others who did not get
marked by the man with the inkhorn. They started with the sun worshipers.
Jezebel who came from Cartage brought this idolatry into Israel.
Ezekiel fell on his face and prayed for mercy for them. No mercy
was granted in spite of Ezekiel's prayer. The inkhorn man, a spiritual
figure, reported the task completed for himself as a death messenger 9:1-11.
vision had accompanied him to Jerusalem. The man with the inkhorn
was a scribe and was commanded to go to the glowing interior of the wheels
within a wheel and bring coals of fire and scatter them over the city.
This was done signifying the burning of Jerusalem 10:1,2. This was
done in the final siege of Jerusalem’s punishment.
The wheels again whirled
and rose as Jehovah departed from Jerusalem. Ezekiel now knows that
the living creatures that he had seen were Cherubim 10:15,19-26.
The former slaughter was
only figurative so the wicked leaders are still alive. Ezekiel sees
25 of them. He knows them even though he was there in spirit.
Two are named and declared to be the leaders in wickedness. They
were to be slain with the sword and the city was to become a Chaldean cauldron
of a flaming mass. One man fell dead and again Ezekiel prayed 11:13.
Jehovah promises Ezekiel that he would be a sanctuary to them in foreign
lands and would regather them to their own land Ezekiel 11:19. We
have here a great text for a change of heart. “ And I will give them one
heart, and I will put a new spirit within you; and will take the stony
heart out of their flesh, and will give them an heart of flesh: that they
may walk in my statutes, and keep mine ordinances, and do them: and they
shall be my people and I will be their God.” Jehovah then departs
from over the city 11:22 ff. Ezekiel was to return to Chaldea
and he was to tell the elders what he had seen 11:24,25.
We now have two symbolic
actions and the certainty of their fulfillment 12:1-28.
By day Ezekiel is to carry
his own private things out of his house and by night he is to dig a hole
in the wall and pass through it with his face covered and shoulders bandage,
because there were bruised from carrying the goods out of Jerusalem.
Then the next day they would ask him what this meant? He was to tell
them that the day's action referred to there being carried away from Jerusalem.
The night’s action referred to Zedekiah is sneaking out at night and being
caught and all who were with them caught after the fall of Jerusalem 12:1-16.
Ezekiel was commanded to
eat bread with quaking and drink water with trembling and fearfulness to
typify the terror of the siege 12:17-20.
They were saying that the
days would be prolonged and that every vision had failed. Ezekiel
was to tell them that the days were at hand and this fulfillment of the
vision was near 12:21-28. The fulfillment was not to be delayed or deferred.
Ezekiel then utters three
threatening and discourses 13:1-14:23.
The first is against false
prophets and prophetesses 13:1-23. Woe is pronounced upon them 13:3.Here
we have the expression of daubing with untempered mortar.
The second discourse is
against the elders of Israel 14:1-11. The elders came and sat before
Ezekiel. Jehovah told Ezekiel what was in their hearts, idolatry,
They are commanded to flee idolatry or bear the consequences.
The third discourse is that
the Lord’s judgment it is inevitable 14:12-23. Here we have a reference
to Noah, Daniel, and Moses. Those three men’s goodness does not save
Jerusalem. They could save themselves only. Each stood for
himself. Here individual responsibility is brought out Ezekiel 14:20.
In all a remnant would be saved
Similitude’s and parables
etc. 15 ff.
Parable of the vine tree,
which is good for nothing but to be burned and destroyed, refers to Judah
in her godlessness 15:1-8.
Then we have the reference
to the outcast infant, referring to the abominations of Jerusalem 16: -63.
Then there is the allegory
of the Two Eagles and the vine referring to the fortunes of the royal house
of Judah 17:1-24. The Great Eagle refers to Nebuchadnezzar who carried
away the top twigs that is their leaders to a strange land 17: 1-6.
The second great eagle was the king of Egypt. The king looked to
Egypt for help against Babylon. This Zedekiah did to his own great
sorrow as well as to that of his children.
In Chapter 18 we have a proverb
concerning sour grapes. Israel tried to make believe they she is
being punished for the sins of past generations. This said Ezekiel
was not so. Everyone stood on his own and would be judged by his
own sins. This chapter forever sounds the death knell to unconditional
eternal security. A wicked man can be saved and his wickedness is
forgotten. A good man can go into sin and die spiritually and his
righteousness is forgotten. Thus God was absolutely equal going in
Judah was like a lioness
that had a whelp of some importance and Babylon captured both. This
could refer to king Shallum and king Jehoiakim 19:1-9. Again she was liked
unto a well planted and fruitful vine that landed in the barren wilderness
and shriveled to death 19:10-14.
Chapters 20-23 10th
day, 5th month, 7th year. In chapter 20, we have the story of Israel’s
rebellion from beginning to end. It is one of those masterly resumes of
God’s dealings with man and man’s rebellion against God. We then have the
proclamation of approaching judgements. The sword of the Lord was to bring
forth and slay both righteous and the wicked. The righteous suffered because
of the wicked. In informing them of this, Ezekiel was to sigh deeply 21:1-7.
The follows a Psalm of triumph for death, the sword. It is a dirge of death
21:8-17. Nebuchadnezzar’s deadly advance is then depicted (586 B.C.) 21:8-27.
The sword is also unleashed against Ammon as well as Israel 21:28-32.
The sins of Jerusalem are
then rehearsed 22:1-31. The wickedness of both priest and people is then
set forth 22:1-16. The coming judgement is set forth first, in direct terms
22:13- 16, u under the figure of a smelting furnace 22:17-22. All classes
in Jerusalem: prophets, priests, princes, and people are included in the
general condemnation with no intercessor. Here we have one of the most
fearful texts in all of the Bible Ezek.22: 23-31.
In Chapter 23, we have the
histories of Aholah and Ahoibah. These refer to Samaria and to Jerusalem
respectively. Those two cities were both seduced by Egypt 23:3. Both were
espoused to God 23:4. Both were unfaithful to him. Samaria’s first born
were the Assyrians 22:5ff. Then the Egyptians were relied upon. They were
retained by the former 23:9.10. Jerusalem was warned but did not heed the
warning. The sin and judgement of the two sisters are then described afresh
Chapter 24 the 10th day,
tenth month, ninth year 591 BC, the beginning of the siege.
Apparently this was the
day when the siege began under Nebuchadnezzar. The pot was put on
the fire. The pieces of meat were burned to pieces and removed in
pieces and the rust was burned off the pot. Jerusalem was the meat
and her sin was the rust 24:1-14.
At this point Ezekiel wife
died and he was not to mourn her. This referred to the punishment
of Jerusalem. He was not to weep or shed a tear. His silent
sorrow was like the stupor that they would be in at the destruction of
Jerusalem 24:15-27. God's price of obedience and faith is sometimes
pretty high, but his price for disobedience and lack of faith is much higher.
Part Two chapters 25-32: Prophesies of judgment concerning foreign nations.
Prophecies against the Ammonites
Prophecies against the Moabites
Prophecies against the Edomites
and Esau 25:12-14.
Prophecies against the Philistines
These nations rejoiced at
the fall and destruction of Israel. Hence they too where to be destroyed
by Nebuchadnezzar shortly thereafter. The date is probably about
The prophecy against Tyre
26:1-28. First day, first month, 11th year about 589 BC.
Tyre’s fall is predicted
26:1 ff. She, too, Laughed at the fall of Jerusalem and saw a chance
to get personal gain. Her lamentation was sounded in Chapter 27.
It was a kind of funeral dirge for the fall one of great commercial empires.
God denounces many places. For years their great cities were destroyed.
A long time passed until their cities would even be discovered or found
to be where they had been. Some are not yet discovered. . Truly
the East wind carried them away. Time is Gods co-worker. Give
God a little time and all he says will come to pass.
Tyre’s King and government
are bewailed 28:1-20. The king thought that he was a god. As
a man he apparently was no slouch 28:3-10. Yet he was a man and as
such would come down.
The prediction against Sidon
of 28:21-26. Sidon was the mother of Tyre and was to be brought down.
This Chapter closes with promises to the Jews of restoration. It
took Nebuchadnezzar 13 years to capture Tyre and he got nothing for it.
Adam Clarke says that just before Tyre was captured the inhabitants put
all their wealth in ships and sailed to Cartage. Thus Nebuchadnezzar
did not get the great wealth of Tyre as spoil of war.
Chapter 29-32 The prophecies
The judgment against Pharaoh
is in two Oracles. In Chapter 29 The great river monster was to have
hooks put in his jaws. Nebuchadnezzar was the monster. Egypt
was to be brought down for claiming that his power was his own. The
sword was to be brought against him. Egypt is to be wasted for 40
years, during which time her people would be scattered among the nations.
At the end of the 40 years Egypt would be regathered, but would be and
remain the poorest of nations; Egypt and Ethiopia would no more rule over
others. 12 day, 10th month, and 10 year, Chapter 29:1-16.
Nebuchadnezzar took Tyre
at great cost, the siege lasted for 13 years and he got nothing for it.
Egypt was to be given to him as wages for his army. It is given to
him by God. This seems strange to us but it is a statement of fact
29:16-21. First day, first month, 27 year. This appears to be the
last, that is the oldest dated prophecy of Ezekiel.
The desolation of Egypt is
portrayed in two parables of different dates in Chapter 30. The invasion
of Egypt by Nebuchadnezzar was near. Ethiopia and Egypt would be
smitten and their idols destroyed 30:1-19. 12th day, 10th month, 10th
Pharaoh's arms were to be
broken and healing medicine was not to be applied. Then Nebuchadnezzar's
arms were to be made strong 30:20-26. Seventh day, first month, 11th year.
Egypt was to be turned to
dust and the glory of Pharaoh. The fall of a great Cedar is predicted.
Chapter 31: first
day third month, ninth year.
The lamentation for Egypt
is in two oracles in Chapter 32. Egypt’s greatness was declared.
Pharaoh's troublesome nature is set forth and her fall is stated 32:1-16.
First day, twelve month, 12th year. Her peoples are bewailed by the surrounding
15th day, 12th month, 12th
Babylon seems to have been
a peculiar instrument raised up by God to punish the nations of the earth
for sin. Babylon lost her head and she, too, was punished.
Somehow God is in history, and it is his story.
Part three, chapters 33-48.
This section is largely
composed of prophesies dealing with Israel and goes from the fifth day,
10th month, 12 year to the 10th day, first month and 25th year that is
from about, 588 B.C. to 575 BC.
in chapters 1 - 24 dealt almost altogether with Judah and with the certainty
of its overthrow. When those prophecies were fulfilled at the fall
of Jerusalem his message took on a new and helpful characteristic.
The destruction of the old sinful Israel would be followed by the establishment
of a new and better Kingdom of God.
Chapter 25 - 32 deals with
the judgments concerning foreign nations.
Chapter 33-48 deals with
a new and better Kingdom prophecy.
The humiliation of foreign
nations is the subject of Chapter 25-32. This would prepare the way
for the New Kingdom, which would be set up under new conditions of worship
and fellowship with God.
This is the concluding part
of the book, chapters 33-48, which can be divided into two parts.
The first deals with the
restoration from captivity 33-39. The second part deals with the
new arrangements God is to have with Israel and also there are references
to the millennial Kingdom and references to the millennial restoration
In Chapter 33 Ezekiel’s commission
is renewed. It is much like Chapter 3:17-21 which was the original
commission and like Chapter 18:5-29. Individual responsibility is
again emphasized. In Chap 33:31-33 is a very interesting section.
Ezekiel must've had a charming manner much like Aaron who also was a charming
speaker. God said so.
In Chapter 35 Israel
is described as the flock of God. Her former Kings were evil shepherds
who sought their own good and cared not for the sheep. The flock
then became a prey to wild beast and foreign nations. God himself
would regathered them and care for the sick, wounded, and feeble, This
is fine imagery. In 34:1-16 the upper group had been divided against
the lower group. God would unite all under the ideal King of the
Davidic line. The Second Coming of Christ, who would feed them without
being troubled by foreign nations, is meant here. Ezekiel does
not see the church age, but he describes the events at the close of the
church age 34:7-31. This chapter 34 is the background of the Jewish
thinking, which gave added meaning to our Lord's parables of the lost sheep
in Matt. 18:12,13; Luke 15:3-6, and also the parable of the Good Shepherd
in John 10:13-16.
Edom’s right to its
possessions was canceled because of their sin 35:5,6,10. That is
because Edom was going to take both kingdoms possessions in Israel’s and
Judah’s helplessness. Apparently it, Edom, was to be overthrown and his
property given to Israel; that at least is the inference in chapters 35,36.
There's a great text in Ezek. 36:26,” A new hearts also I will give you,
and a new spirit will I put within you: and I will take away the stony
heart out of your flesh, and will give you an heart of flesh. And
I will put my spirit with in you, and cause you to walk in my statutes
and ye shall keep my judgments and do them. “
In Chapter 37,1-14 is a vision
of the dry bones, which depicted Israel's dead condition while scattered.
God's power to restore them again is prophesied.
In Chapter 37:15-28 is Ezekiel's
two-stick prophecy. Here we have a reunion of Israel and Judah as
one kingdom. This is figurative language. There is no such
thing as 10 lost tribes, but the figures are at once explained. The
Anglo- Israel people do not know that this chapter is in the Bible.
There were not to be two kingdoms anymore at all. Cyrus the Persian
made an edict in 538 B.C. for the Jews to return to the Holy Land.
In Chapter 38 and 39 we have
prophecies against Gog and Magog. We have the regathering of the
enemies of God who surround Jerusalem and are destroyed. These prophecies
refer to the end of the millennium not to their age, nor to the tribulation.
They refer to the same thing as Revelation 20:7-9. Here's where many
people on prophecy go astray.
The vision of the future
restoration of their laws and their arrangement is revealed. 10th day,
first month, 25th year of captivity.
Chapters 40-43 are a description
of the restored temple. Nothing like it has been built. Adam
Clarke is good on its dimensions.
Chapter 44 –46 we had the
restoration of worship in a restored to temple 44:4,5.
Chapter 47- 48. We
have waters flowing from the temple. The desert blossoms like a rose.
. This is a world stream of grace ever deepening as it flows through
the desert into the garden. This is highly figurative language.
There is a redistribution of the land among the people of Israel.
All this is yet in the future.
Modernism claims that Ezekiel
is the father of Judaism, that is he wrote from Exodus 19:1 to the end
of Leviticus. That would make the so-called Mosaic Tabernacle, Worship,
and Sacrificial system, Ezekiel’s work. This will not hold water.
There is no ground for such speculation.