OLd Testament Prophets
First Semester 1950-51
Dr. W. Noble King
Bethany Nazarene College 
All Rights Reserved

This document consists of notes taken by students who attended Dr. King's class at Bethany Nazarene College. The notes therefore reflect student response to Dr. King's lectures and do not necessarily represent fully or accurately his thought in all respects. I (JR) received these notes from Paul Harper of Smith Center, Kansas who took the class in 1950-5.                            ***....*** 

Introduction to the Book of Isaiah:
Isaiah was one of the greatest Old Testament prophets.  The central theme of Isaiah is salvation by faith.  Isaiah’s name in Hebrew is Yesha –Yahu meaning salvation –Jehovah, the eternal one is salvation.
Isaiah married and had two sons. What they did is revelation. His wife was called a prophetess.  Deborah, Judges 4; 4, and Huldah, 2 Kings 22:14-20 are also prophetesses. 
His two sons had names, which had prophetic meaning.  Shear-Jashub (a remnant shall return) Isa. 7:3, and Mahershalalhashbaz, meaning swift spoil, speedy pray, or swiftly or speedily. 
The first son was much older than the younger.  Isa. 8:18,7:3,8:3-4.

                                                        Table of Dates for Isaiah:

745 Tiglath Pileser
740 Call of Isaiah
735 Ahaz King of Judah
734 Pekah King of Israel who was defeated and slain by the Syrians.
732 Resin King of Syria slain and Assyrians take Damascus.
727 Shalmanzer is king of Assyria
726 Hezekiah King of Judah
727  Sargon King of Assyria. The fall of the Samaria and the end of the Kingdom of Israel.
711 The Siege of Ashdod by the Assyrians.
710 The defeat of Merodach- Baladan and the capture of Babylon by Sargon.
705 Sennacherib King of Assyria
701Great invasion of Judah by Sennecherib.
701 Nineveh taken by Babylon, the rise of Babylon
609 Death of Josiah in a battle with Pharoah-Necho, King of Egypt. This is the end of Judah’s independence; the battle of Carchemish.
606 Nebuchadnezzar visits Jerusalem and assumes authority in the name of the new Babylon Empire. Daniel and certain other noble youths taken to Babylon as hostages. (The first captivity)
597 Jehoiachin (reigns 3 months) Nebuchadnezzar invades Jerusalem with an army. He caries 10,000 into captivity including Jehoiakim, and the prophet Ezekiel. (Second captivity). Zedekiah last king of Judah reigns for 11 years.
588 Zedekiah, in alliance with other petty kings, rebels against Babylon.
586 Jerusalem and the temple destroyed in the invasion by Nebuchadnezzar. Final end of the Kingdom of Judah. Many captives were taken to Babylon. (Third captivity).

Nothing is known of Isaiah’s heritage other than what the Bible implies, the son of Amoz.  Rabbinical tradition says that Amoz was the brother of king Amaziah.  This would make the king his uncle.  Isaiah would be the court prophet.  This is only according to tradition Isa. 13:1, Isa. 1:1, 2; 1.

Two opinions are held with regard to the length and the time of his active prophetic career. 
First-: That he prophesied between 740 and 701 B.  C.  He was about 20 when he started and about 60 when he finished and that he lived long afterward.  We shall build upon this assumption. 
The second opinion is that he started his prophetic career between 759 to 700 B.  C.  That he was born about 780 B.C. and died about 690 BC.  This would make him ninety at death.  Tradition says that he was sawn asunder.  It is possible, for some prophets died that way.  Hebrews 11:37. 

Many modern writers suppose that as high as (Ewalt) nine writers wrote Isaiah. Others hold to two, Isaiah and Deutro- Isaiah.  We're going on the good assumption that Isaiah, wrote it all.  Writing from youth to old age will explain any differences in style.  The first part of the book is a statement facts.  The second half of the book being a prophecy of Babylonian captivity would explain the differences.  This is in keeping with the names of his sons. 
Not only does he write the book that bears his name, but he was also the historiographer of the court during the reign of Jotham, and Hezekiah.  As such he deserves a section of the Book of Kings, 2 Chron. 26:22; 32:32. 
The book of Isaiah is not written chronologically.  Indeed it appears to be a compilation of books put together.  We shall deal with them as put together by the Spirit.  Reference Pulpit Commentary Isaiah index p. 20 ff.
We shall deal with the book under three main sections. 
Section one chapters 1-35. 
Section two-chapter 36-39. 
 Section three Chapters 40-66. 
P.C. Pulpit commentary, P.H.C.  Pulpit Homiletic commentary, J.R. Dummelow - Isaiah, Ellicott – Isaiah, and the Expositor’s Bible are used as references in this course.

I. Section one: Chapters 1-35: 
Isaiah’s general preface-chapter 1. 
The vision that he saw was concerning Jerusalem and Judea in the days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah kings of Judah.  Uzziah, Jotham and Hezekiah are good Kings but Ahaz was bad 2 Chron. 28:1-4; 29:1-2,26:4,15:32,36. 
Heaven and Earth are called to witness on behalf of the goodness of Jehovah to Israel.  Yet Israel was ungrateful and corrupt.  The rulers perverted judgment.  Their sacrifice and religious days had become Sin in themselves. The real practice was gone.  They are called of Sodom and the people of Gomorrah.  We also have a call to repentance and to purity.  We have here a great holiness text Isa. 1:18. “ Come now let us reason together saith the Lord: though your sins be as scarlet, they shall be as white as snow; though they be red light crimson, and they shall be as wool.”  Blessings and good are promised to them if they will return.  Isaiah 1:7. This did not take place until the end of his ministry.  Expositors Bible, Isaiah. 
Chapter 2-5: A proclamation of Christ Kingdom.

Chapter 2:
A word concerning Judah and Jerusalem. 
All nations shall flow to Zion. In Jerusalem the Lord will teach them. The nations would be there judged and people would be rebuked. Swords and spears would be changed during this reign of Christ on earth. Because of a future like that Israel should now walk in the light of the Lord Isa. 2:1-5.
Yet Israel was wicked. Soothsayers had increased in wealth, and the people worshipped idols. All such were to be brought low. In the day of wrath, they would toss the idols to the moles and bats. Here is a reference to the tribulation Isa. 2:10-22.
In Jerusalem there was bread and water. Able men in every walk of life, including the skillful in speech were to be taken away. Incompetent men were to be their rulers. They would be oppressive against the other people. During this time it was to be well with the believers and ill with the rebels.

 Chapter 3:
A fearful indictment or arraignment is brought against the women.  In fact I know of no more telling picture against worldliness and Godlessness among women in the whole world.  Let us hope that the prophetess wrote those few verses Isaiah 3:16-26.  In any case it is in God's word and we had better pay it due attention. 

Chapter 4
Seven women to take hold of one man not to be provided for as wives, but to take away the Old Testament reproach connected with childlessness Gen. 30:23.  There was a scarcity of men remaining because of extended warfare. 

Chapter 4:1 should be included in Chapter 3. 
In the last times religious groups want to name the name of Christ, who have not the ethics of Christ.  An example is Christian Scientist.  The verdure of the earth for such that escaped, shall be glorious and beautiful. 
A cloud of smoke by day and the shining of a flaming fire by night.  This refers to the future glory of Israel.  It is also referring back to the glory in the wilderness. It is a fine piece of imagery in the use of which Isaiah was a past master.  When Israel returned and was purged, she would be sheltered and protected. 

Chapter 5:
Isaiah closes this section with the description of a beautiful and well cared for Vineyard.  To the astonishment of the author it brought forth-wild grapes, a picture of  Israel.  Its protections were to be removed; it was to be trodden down.  This was Judah, and the treading down was to be done by a foreign power, probably by Sennacherib's army.  ”Woe unto them that joined house-to-house, that lay field to field, till there be no place, that they may be placed alone in the midst of the earth! In mine ears said the lord of hosts, of a truth many houses shall be desolate, even great and fair without inhabitants.  Yea, ten acres of vineyards shall yield one bath, and the seed of an homer shall yield an ephah “ Isa5: 8-10.  This is a woe to the wealthy land grabbers.  Extensive land holdings were prohibited by Jewish law Num. 27:1-11,33:54, I Kings 21:3-4.  The results were depopulation of the land, less production.  Look as an example Russia's collective forms. 
In Isa.5: 6 a hostile nation summoned, Assyria, and carried away 200,000 – 150,000 captives to Assyria by Sennacherib.  Ensign, the word means flag. Hiss is a whistle as a beekeeper calls bees out of a river to assemble the swarm.
Chapter 6:
This chapter sets forth a vision given to Isaiah, his purging and his commission.  In the year that the old king died Isaiah saw things; that is when people generally do see things.  There are two counts against the old king, Uzziah.  First he did not remove all of the sacrificial high places, idolatry.  Second he tried to usurp the office of a priest and was smitten with leprosy. 2 Kings 15:537,5-7, 2 Chron. 26: 17-23.  Socially, legally, and religiously, he died when he got leprosy.  He was separated from the association of his fellows and died as a leper.  His son Jotham ruled as regent possibly under Azariah the priest until leprosy caused Uzziah’s death.  Leprosy here is used as a type of sin the Old Testament.  When the glory of the lord broke forth in the temple Isaiah was probably a boy of 20 years old.  The carnal hearted Isaiah saw his heart in the light of the glory of God, and he cried out that he was cut off.  “And they who fain would serve thee best find within the most wrong.”  He knew why he was caught off.  He had an unclean Life and an unclean heart.  The Angel took a coal from off the altar of burnt offering; that altar fire was ignited from heaven itself Lev. 9:24, 6:12-13, 2 Chron. 7:1; These are the three classic times of celestial fire along with Isaiah 6:7. This fire was never to be allowed to go out.  Fire in the sanctified life must be fanned so that it must not go out.  The Angel placed it upon my lips and his sin was purged. 
In Malachi we have the same heart purging.  Malachi 3:3. “ And he shall purged the sons of Levi, and purge them as gold and silver that they may offer unto the Lord an offering in righteousness. “
At Pentecost we also have the Holy Spirit as a purging flame, coming, cleansing, empowering as one of double aspect of experience.  Isaiah was cleansed and empowered which is symbolic of Pentecost. The baptism of Jesus is the Baptism with the Holy Ghost and with fire so were the disciples at Pentecost Acts 15:8-9.  The same thing happened at Cornelius’ House. 
Isaiah then heard the Lord inquiring in a general way, who would go for them? Isaiah at once volunteered.  Saying “ Here am I send me.”  He was sent and told that he would have little success.  He was to preach until desolation hit the country and city.  This is about 740 B.  C. 

Chapter 7:1-10:4
This section tells of a few messianic prophesies in connection with the Syro-Israel war, during the reign of Ahaz 735-732 B C. 
The Assyrian Empire under Tiglath-Pileser wished to bring all of western Asia under his sway.  Note: Assyria is located on the upper Tigris river, roughly the northern part of modern Iraq.  Medes and Persians peoples are modern Iran; Babylon is Southern Iraq and Iran around the Persian Gulf. 
 Israel was partly under Tiglath-Pileser’s rule.  Resin of Syria and Pekah, a usurper of Israel made war against Ahaz of Judah to force him to join them against the Assyrian; or else to remove him and put up a King in Judah friendly to them.  Ahaz was uncertain to join them against Assyria or to take on their plans.  He wanted to be on the winning side.  Isaiah knew that Pekah and Resin did not have a chance.  Neither did he wish Ahaz to join Assyria, but he wanted Ahaz to rely upon God to bring him out 2 Kings 15:19,20 also 2 Chron. 28 is a record of everything that took place here. 

When Judah, the southern kingdom, heard of Syria and Ephraim (Israel), coming against them, they all trembled.  Isaiah was sent to king Ahaz along with his son Shear-Jashub, with a message of hope and cheer.  Israel was to be broken (Pekah) within 65 years. The Prophecy was made in 736 B.C. and 65 years brings us to 671 B.C.  At that date Ashurbanipal, Ezra 4:2-10, who is co- regient with his father Esarhaddon carried off the last remnant of the children of Samaria/ Israel the Northern Kingdom.  He peopled Samaria with alien people, Ellicott.  Syria was also to pass away. 
For Judah to go in with Assyria against Israel and Syria would bring disaster to the land.  To go in with Israel and Syria would bring greater disaster.  Ahaz decided to resist Israel and Syria and stay neutral with Assyria.
It was the best policy although Judah suffered much.  Jerusalem was unsuccessfully besieged and Resin captured the port of Elath on the Gulf of Aqaba 2 Kings 16:5 reference J.R. Dummelow and Ellicott.

The Lord offers Ahaz a sign that all would ultimately be well. Ahaz accepted the word of the lord without a sign. He was given a greater sign as a result. “ Behold a virgin shall conceive and bare a son and shall call his name Emanuel” Isaiah 7:14.  “For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: and the government shall be upon his shoulders: and his name shall be called wonderful counselor, (in the Septuagint the meaning is an Angel, messenger, of great counsel.) Mighty God, the everlasting Father. .” The Hebrew word virgin used here means a young woman of marriageable age.  The Hebrew word is Almah and it could also mean a virgin, but not necessarily so.  Bethulah is the Hebrew word that only means a virgin. .  Isaiah declared that before the brief period of childhood, that is before three years passed the land of Syria, Ephraim and even Judah would be desolated by the Assyrian armies.  It is suppose that the young woman spoke of here was known and used as an example and did bear a son.  But it has a far deeper impact for the Son’s name was to be Emanuel.  Prophetically it refers to Mary and Jesus.  The prophecy had a dual meaning in it as it was for the present and for the future. 

Isa. 10:5 – Isa. 23 have been called the Book of burdens.  It consists chiefly of a series of denunciations and woes upon different nations; Chiefly upon the enemies of Israel.  It was probably written as a section. 
We have Sennacherib of Assyria invading all countries including Judah and up to Jerusalem.  Assyria administered the wrath of God upon the disobedient nations.  Isaiah 10:5,6.  Assyria was proud and insolent in executing that commission Isa.10: 7-11,13,14. 

Syria was rebuked for its haughtiness and its own ruin is threatened.  They had served God's appointed purpose Isa. 10:12,15-19.  God gives his own people a promise of grace to bear up under chastisement 10:20-23 ff. 
In times of great distress nationally, the prophets took advantage of distress and referred to the coming of the one who would deliver them from all evil.  Isaiah said this,” And there shall come forth a rod out from the stem of Jesse, which shall stand for an ensign of the people; to it shall the gentiles seek: and his rest shall be glorious. V. 11 And it shall come to pass in that day, that the Lord shall set his hand again the second time to recover the remnant of his people which shall be left, from Assyria and from Egypt and from Pathros, and from Cush, and from Elam, and from Shinar, and from Hamath, and from the islands of the sea” Isa.11: 10,11. Ezek. 37:16-22.
His divine qualifications were set forth.  A picture of the reign on earth is then drawn.  Isaiah 11:6-9. The gentiles would come to him and his own people would be regathered together again. 11:10-12 is the recovery of the remnant.  The listed countries represent the Four Corners of the earth, North, East, South, and West. 11:15,16 speaks of a road way for the remnant.  The tongue of the Egypt. Is the Gulf of Suez and it shall be dried up and the Nile or Euphrates shall be divided into seven streams, that is waddis, over which Israel may across dry shod to return to Palestine. 

 Moses and the children of Israel sang songs of praise when they were delivered from Egypt by the power of God in Exodus 15:1-21. So the Israelites shall sing when the root and offspring of David regathers them.  It was an individual matter as well as a national matter.  All would rejoice. “ Cry out and shout, thou inhabitants of Zion: for great is the Holy One of Israel in the midst of thee.” 12:6
Israel had several hymns or areas of scripture or praise to use for this rejoicing 2 Sam.7: 18-29, 1 Chron. 16:8-36.

The burden of Babylon.  Babylon heads a list of the enemies of Israel.  Assyria and Babylon had been at war often long before Isaiah’s time.  Sometimes Babylon was on top and then sometimes Assyria was on top.
Tiglath-Pileser assumed the crown of Babylon in 720 B.C.  Until that time they had been under separate monarchs. One led Israel into captivity, Assyria; the other led Judah into captivity, Babylon.  Isaiah saw that Babylon would be Judah's greatest foe and thus brings Babylon first in his denunciatory list.  See Pulpit Commentary Isaiah 13.
The Medes and others were to be stirred up against Babylon.  Cyrus, the Persian, and Darius, the Mede did this on the day of Belshazzar's feast. 
Those destroyers were to be scourges in the hand of God effecting judgments on the wicked nation. “ And Babylon, the glory of Kingdoms, the beauty of the Chaldees’ excellency, shall be as when God overthrew Sodom and Gomorrah V. 20. It shall never be inhabited, neither shall it be dwelt in from generation to generation: Neither shall the Arabian pitch tent there; neither shall the shepherds make their fold there.
  Isaiah 13:19,20. 
After the destruction of Babylon, Israel is placed in her own land. Sojourners cling to them as well.  Those who servant’s Israel had been will be Israel’s servants.  This has not been fully fulfilled.  It will be in the final regathering of Israel when Christ returns.  That is the period that Isaiah constantly had his eyes upon.  This hymn goes from Isa.14:14-23.  This is a hymn of regathering.  There are five verses or strophes of seven long lines each.  The epilogue is verses 22,23. 

Philistia was the earliest and age long tormentor of Israel.  He is the first appointed to destruction by God.  Philistia had suffered under the reign of Judah during the reign Uzziah, and Ahaz.  2 Chron. 26:6 2 Chron. 28:18. Philistia was later invaded by Tiglath- Pileser and made a tributary. 
Tiglath-Pileser died just before Ahaz died and they, the Jews rejoiced.  Isaiah reminded them that they would have successors as fierce he was, and the Philistines would be destroyed.  This burden was in the year that Ahaz died.  Ahaz death was in 725 BC. 

The burden of Moab, Isa. 15:1-9. 
 In a moment destruction was to come and they were all to be in sackcloth.  They were to weep for their great centers; this probably refers to Sargon or Sennacherib under the figure of a lion 15:9. 

 Chapter 16 deals with the same burden but carries it further.  The Moabites were descended from Lot but were at war with Israel from the time of Saul.  They lived east of the Dead Sea and David overcame them 2 Sam. 8:9.  Ahab had exacted tribute from them 2 Kings 3:4.  After Ahab died, Moab threw off the Israelites yoke 2 Kings 1:1,3:5.  The Moabite stone comes from King Mesha of Moab.

The prophet asked Moab to reform and be kind to God's people as the likeliest way to turn away the wrath of God.  He feared they would not do this because of pride.  It was restating an older prophecy but to be fulfilled quite soon Isa. 16:13,14. 

Damascus includes Israel 17:3.  Ephraim and Aroer 17:2, These refer to small powers of several cities together.  Israel lost its last shred of independence under Sargon reign from about 721-722 B.C. Chronologically this chapter should be after Chapter 9.  Again a remnant of Israel is to be saved Chapter 17:12-14. 

Chapter 18:

"Woe to land shadowing with the rustling of Wings which is, beyond the rivers of Ethiopia.” P.C. and Matthew Henry regard this as pronouncing a woe on the land of Ethiopia.  The Ethiopians were agitated by the advance of the Assyrians eastward.   She sent for help to other states.  Isaiah foretells the sudden overthrow of the Assyrians.  This prophecy should be grouped with the others in regard to Sennacherib’s reign in 760 BC Isa. 10:28; 17:13,14.

The burden of Egypt Chapter 19 and its overthrow in 37:36.

 This is of indeterminate date.  It is dated from 735-690 BC.  Ellicott holds that at this time Ethiopia and Egypt were under the same ruler, Terkakah.
And the prophet foretells the speedy collapse of the Egyptian power upon which a strong political party in Judah in Hezekiah’s reign had depended.  Sargon defeated the Egyptians at Raphia in 720 B.C. The Prophet may refer to the anarchy that follows that defeat.
There are three sections to this prophesy; 1. The impending calamity of Egypt 19:1-10.  2. Egypt’s helplessness during the crisis and after 19:11-15.  3.  The outcome of the judgment is that it swings Egypt back to God in part 19:16-25.

 In this section five cities are mentioned in the land of Egypt with a common language, Hebrew, and are faithful to the Lord of hosts.  One of them will be called in the future the city of the Sun or destruction. “ In that day there will be an altar to the Lord in the midst of the land of Egypt, and a pillar to the Lord at its border.’ V.19.  One should pay careful attention if Israel gives up Sinai, but is allowed to keep five cities in the area.  Another option would be if the Jews were allowed to live in these five cities under Egyptian rule the Sinai.

Chapter 20
Ashdod in Philistia was besieged twice in the year, 713 B.C.  by the Assyrians during the reign of Sargon.  Tartan is a title for the military head of the Assyrian army713 B.C.  They revolted and disposed the king that the Assyrian had set up and set up one of their own.  Philistia, Judah, Edom and Moab sought an alliance with Egypt and Ethiopia against Assyria. 
Isaiah’s mission is to discourage Judah from joining the alliance of Ashdod against the Assyrians.  Isaiah goes in public in a loincloth for three years in Jerusalem to depict the degradation, which this alliance would bring. 
When Ashdod revolted Sargon led the Assyrian armies against it in 711 B.C. and put down the revolt. 12 years later Sennacherib defeated Egypt and Ethiopia near Ekron.  Isaiah was thus proven right. 

Chapter21 The Burden of Babylonia, Edom and Arabia set forth.

The burden of Babylon is set forth in 21:1 – 10. “The burden of the wilderness by the sea” is a poetic expression for Babylon. Note: “ Wilderness by the Sea, ” In a cuneiform inscription; south of Babylon was called the land of the Sea. Xenophon described the whole plain of the Euphrates, which is intersected by marshes and lakes as looking like a sea.  This chapter should come before Chapter 13 as it is possibly Isaiah’s first prediction against Babylon.  In sorrow he reviews her fall as a loss for Judah. (J.R. Dummelow, and Matthew Henry)
The Burden of Duma, Edom and Seir 21:11-12.These are the desert homelands of Esau’s descendants.  Their danger is from the Syrians.  Her future looked bright but danger was near. 

The burden of Arabia 21:13-17. The invading Assyrians would cause their traders to hide in the forest. 
Jerusalem is reprimanded by Isaiah.  It refers to Sennacherib's invasion in 701, or Sargon’s in 711.  They were merry when the enemy lay outside the gates 22:1-25:7.  They were making plans for resistance but not turning to God. 22:1-2, 5-7. This area contains Isaiah’s only invective against an individual, Shebna, the first minister, who favored an alliance with Egypt.  The area with regard to Shebna is interesting reading. 22:15 -25.  When Sennacherib invaded, Shebna occupied an inferior position.  Eliakim held his office in 701 BC. 36:22.
Tyre was a great mercantile center; hence other great shipping centers are mentioned in connection with her.  Tarshish in Spain and Egypt are mentioned.  In this chapter is foretold the destruction of Tyre effectively by Nebuchadnezzar and the Chaldeans.  The Chaldean army about this time also destroyed Jerusalem.  It was a hard fight for the Chaldeans Ezek. 29:18.  Tyre was restored after 70 years and returned to the Tyrianians.

Chapters 24-27: In this section we have world travail leading up to the restoration of all during Christ reign on earth. 
From denunciation of woe upon Babylon, Assyria, Philistia, Moab, and Syria of Damascus, Egypt, Ethiopia, and Arabia, Judah, and Tyre; he passes to denunciations of the world as a unit.
 The land is to be made empty and waste and to be turned upside down.  The people are to be scattered.  This includes priest and people, servants and masters, buyers and sellers, creditors and debtors.  Apparently confusion is to prevail in the tribulation.   Death will come upon the majority. He says two-thirds are to die elsewhere and this is a result of sin Isa. 34:5,
 Spiritually the peculiar people occupy the leading place in swinging the world back to God Isaiah 24:23; 25:6-8; 26:1-4; 27:6,9,13.  Other nations would follow their lead and go to Jerusalem to worship the King.
 The resurrection of God's people from the dead proceeds this gathering at Jerusalem Isa. 26:19 along with Dan. 10:3 and Isa. 12:1,2. 

Chapters 28-31 We have renewed woes upon Judah and Israel. 

The prophet having cast his eyes over the whole world down through time to the regathering at the foot of the throne of the Messiah in Jerusalem; now returns to the old times in Judah.  He warns Israel, the 10 tribes, about her wickedness.  It is possible that verses 28:6 –10 refer to Judah also.  If so then pride and drunkenness were twin sins damning both kingdoms.  Foreign conquerors were to scourge and correct both.  God is to use foreign people to correct his people.  This is shown in the first 11. 
God had constantly reproved him line upon line and precept upon precept, by his prophets.  But the prophets were merely mocked.  Again the inference is carried to the tribulation.  They refer to their agreement with death and hell Isa. 28:15 speaks of the tribulation time and the agreement with the Antichrist to go to Palestine.  The hail is to sweep away all false refuges.  Only one refuge and rock 28:16,17.  Jerusalem is warned and judgment is pronounced upon her.  The prophet knew that all of his warnings would be of no avail 28:14-22. Sennacherib will reach the gates of Jerusalem in 701 BC.  Nebuchadnezzar took Jerusalem in 606,592,586 BC.  Isaiah declared that the siege would begin within a year 29:1,2. 
Chapter 30, The desire for an alliance with Egypt is scorned.  Egypt will be a shame and a reproached rather than help.  Egypt would give very little aid.  Hence the money given to them would be wasted.

Chapter 31:

This chapter might have been written earlier or later than Chapter 30.  It states the worthlessness of Egyptian chariots and horses, which they were relying upon. Isa.31:8 is a slight inference as to how the Assyrian armies would be destroyed.  It was by a sword but not of man. It was by the sword of the Lord.

Chapter 32: The Removal of woes.

This is a brief but beautiful picture of the millennium 32:9-12.  A group women are reproved.  Possibly a small group were standing by when he was addressing the men.  This is followed by further warnings and promises.

Chapter 33: A prophecy of judgment upon Assyria and the deliverance of Jerusalem are stated generally. 
The previous negotiations which were carried on with Sennacherib provided very little.  They proved futile 33:7.   The heavy fine imposed had been paid by Israel to Assyria 2 Kings 8:14.  In spite of the payment of the tribute, Sennacherib threatened another siege 33:18.  Already he was on the march 33:1 and spoiling as he went. 
The country people moved into the towns 33:8.  In a little while, he was expected to appear before the gates.  All was horror, and grief, and confusion.  Isaiah was commissioned by God to tell of the coming confusion of the mighty Monarch the deliverance of Jerusalem out his hand in 701 B.C. 33:34.P.C. 

Chapters 34, and 35: constitutes a complete prophecy, a distinct prophecy and only slightly are these chapters connected with what had proceeded.

Chapter 34 contains a denunciation against the enemies of God, although Edom only is mentioned as typical of those enemies.  Their punishment is shown in the strongest colors.  This chapter is dark and lurid and prepares the way for a loving picture in Chapter 35. 34:133.  Apparently it refers to God's day of reckoning with the nation's who have missed used Israel. 34:8.

 Chapter 35: The prophet then plunges into a beautiful description of the millennial glory 35:1,2. It does not refer to the church age at all.  It refers to the regathering of Israel.  It is a beautiful poem of triumph.  There is also a great holiness text in 35:8 “And an highway shall be there, and a way, and it shall be called The way of holiness; the unclean shall not pass over it; but it shall be for those: the wayfaring men, though fools, shall not err therein.

These two chapters form the closing epilogue of the first great collection.  The historical section then follows and serves as a link between them and the great sections of prophecy.  Chapters 36-39 serve as an independent whole and as a separator.

Part Two: Isaiah 36-39;
The second part consists of two sections.  Chapters 36 and 37 Are the account of the threatening emissary of Rabshakeh.
The letter of Sennacherib to Hezekiah and the massacre of the Assyrian army correspond to 2 Kings 18 and 19.  It is said that this happened in the 14th year of the reign of Hezekiah 36:1.  That is a little later than 701 BC.  However there were different ways of figuring the years in a Kings reign, so it probably was about 701 BC. 
Sargon was killed in his palace in 704 B C. and Sennacherib succeeded him.  First he put down a rebellion in Babylon led by Merodack-Baladan.  Then he turned his attention to Hezekiah.  He had three complaints against Hezekiah. 
First: Hezekiah had refused to pay tribute to him 2 Kings 18:14. 
Second: Hezekiah had opened negotiations with Babylon and Egypt 2 Kings 18:24. 
Third: Apparently Hezekiah had helped the Philistines against their king who was in favor of Assyria.
Rabshakeh is a title for an Assyrian general who he was sent from Lachish to Jerusalem with a great army.  He was most insulting in his language.  Hezekiah with others in sackcloth went into the house of God and laid the matter before God.  Isaiah went in also and the others were sent to tell Israel of the troubles. 
Isaiah told them not to fear, as Sennacherib would fall by the sword in his own land 37:5-7.
 Rabshakeh returned to the king of Syria and found him waging war in against Libnah.  They also heard that the king of Egypt was on the way to meet them.  They started out to meet his army.  During this interim they sent letters telling Hezekiah that they would return and finish him.  Hezekiah spread the letters before the Lord 37:14.  As Hezekiah prayed God sent an answer to Isaiah and Isaiah relayed it on to Hezekiah.  The message was, Sennacherib was to return by the way he came without bothering Israel.  His camp would be destroyed that night.  The Angel would kill 185,000 of the Assyrians in one night Isa. 37:36 ff.  He returned to his homeland and was killed by two of his own sons.  His other son Esarhaddon reigned in his stead. 

Chapter 38-39:

Chapter 38 is Fourteen years before the invasion of Sennacherib or about the same time it depends upon the methods of reckoning. 
Hezekiah was sick unto death.  Isaiah was sent to him from God to inform him that he was going to die.   He had a stomach ailment.  Hezekiah prayed for his life.  Isaiah was sent back to Hezekiah with a 15-year extension to his life.  They didn't ask God's will. 
The remedy for the disease was told to Isaiah and the sign, the shadow going back ten degrees, was given at the king's request. 

Chapter 39 is parallel with 2 Kings 20:12-19.  Merodach-Baladan of Babylonian was trying to get Western aid to block Assyria.  This was pleasing to Hezekiah at the time.  This is why he showed Merodach-Baladan his resources.  It displeased God.  As result, all that was in his house would be carried to Babylon.  In Dr. King's opinion it would have been better for him to have died when God wanted to take him.  If such had been the case, his record would have been unstained.  Ellicott, P.  C., Expositors Bible, J.R.Dummelow, 
Matthew Henry. 

Part Three chapters 40-66:

 Isaiah is at his best spiritually, and intellectually.  Isaiah sees far past the Babylonian captivity, to the other side and to victory.  This is a prophetic poem.  In fact he sees the golden age of Israel's glory, gathered at Jerusalem, in the presence of the Messiah, It is one continuous and beautiful poem, in which the writer does not identify himself because there is no need to do so. 

Chapter 40:1-11 the keynote to the first section.  Verse 3 is quoted in all four Gospel accounts “ The voice of him that cried in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the lord, make straight in the desert a highway for our God. “
Verse 4 contains the formula for revival,” Every valley shall be exalted and, every mountain and hill shall be made low: and the crooked shall be made straight, and the rough places plain: “
The universal outlook is more prominent in Isaiah than any other Old Testament prophet.  This section can be divided into three equal sections each composed of nine chapters.
1.40 – 48.
2. 49-57.
The refrain,“ There is no peace saith for the wicked saith my God,” terminates the first and second section.  He does not end the last section this way. 

Section one of this third part of the Book of Isaiah covers Chapter 40 through 48 including a break into two areas.  Chapter 40 is one area and 41 through 48 are the second area. 
Chapter 40 is an address of consolation to the people of God in their deep affliction, presumably in Babylonian captivity with the tribulation foreshadowed.  Glad tidings are to be published and the tidings are to be introduced by a voice in the wilderness that gives assurance that all obstruction shall be removed from their path.  The First and Second Coming of Christ are placed side-by-side as one of revelation.  The voice in the wilderness introduces his first coming. The regathering of Israel in power and splendor by God who holds all things in his hand introduces the Second Coming. 

Chapters 41-48 are a prophecy of the recovery of the people of God from their sins, which caused the various periods of trouble.  It is a recovery from their wanderings.

Chapter 41:1-29 tells of a folly of worshiping Idols.  It also gives encouragement for his faithful ones to trust in him with assurance that he will give help against their enemies 41:10-20.  Two of the greatest promises in God's word are in 41:10,13. 
 Verse 10 “ Fear thou not; for I am with thee: be not dismayed; for I am thy God: I will strengthen thee; yea, I will help the; yea, I will be uphold with the right hand, of my righteousness.”
 Verse 13” For I the Lord thy God will hold thy right hand, saying unto thee, Fear not;
I will help thee.”
The events that bring terror to others bring deliverance to Israel.  Isaiah makes a comparison between Jehovah and the heathen gods.

In Chapter 42:1-4: We have a fine description of Christ, the servant of Jehovah.  A reference to Israel there may be, but the deeper reference is to Christ 42:6-7. 

In Chapter 43 there are renewed promises to Israel and comfort and consolation promised. Palestine is to be restored by divine omnipotence.  The nations are challenged to set forth the claims of their gods against Jehovah.  They can produce nothing, but Israel has abundant evidence 43:8-13.  Isaiah emphasizes monotheism in this chapter in verse 11.  Babylon is declared against.  Israel is promised restoration.  Both are about to be accomplished 43:14-21.  A reproach is addressed to Israel for her past sins 43:22 - 28. 

Chapter 44.  In this chapter we are told that the reproach of God's people shall be entirely removed and that Jacob is the servant of Jehovah 44:1-21.   We are told that God rules history.  Heathen gods are further depreciated.  Jehovah pledges the restoration of his people through his servant Cyrus, 44:28.  This is done two hundred years before Cyrus is born.

Chapter 45.  The conquest of Cyrus is ordained by God for his own purposes.  God used Cyrus.  God gave heathen monarchs power and then used them to punish his own people.  He raises heathen monarchs to restore his people.  God’s directing of history is a mystery 44,45:1-13.  Heathen gods are further depreciated.  Great honor awaits Israel.  God alone is declared to be God.  There is a great text in 45: 9 “ Woe unto him that striveth with his maker! Let the potherd strive with the potherds of the earth.  Shall the clay say to him that fashioned it, what makest thou? Or thy work, He hath no hands?” 

Chapter 46: Bel, another name for Marduk, the chief deity of the Babylonians, the Sun god and Nebo, the god of learning and writing, who was the son of Bel, and revealer of the son of Bel/ Marduk, are to be the brought down and are to be a burden to those who relied on them.  Their fall warns Israel to flee idols.

Chapter 47: Here we have the fall of Babylon set forth.  She would no longer be the mistress of Kingdoms.  She is no longer sitting securely but loses all and widowhood would come.

Chapter 48: We see that the purposes of God would be affected by Israel, but not because Israel merited an honored position.  But this is by the call of God.  Israel must recognize the call of God and obey. 

Section Two of the last part of Isaiah: Chapters 49-58.

In Chapter 49-53 we have the account of a great deliverer who is called the Servant of Jehovah.  An appeal is made to Israel 49:5.  Jehovah identifies himself with Israel 51:17.  Jehovah claims Israel his own 50: 1.  An appeal is made to Zion to rise and bedeck herself as becomes her privilege 52:1 ff.

Chapter 53.
Chapter 53 actually begins at 52:13.  It was this 53rd chapter that the Ethiopian Eunuch was reading in his chariot when Philip approached him in Acts 8:32. This chapter depicts the suffering Saviour dying for sin, National repentance.  It is hard to know how the Jews could not see the cross in the Holy Scriptures of Isaiah 53.  It probably should be recited.  No wonder this chapter is called the “Gospel of Isaiah!”

Chapter 54-56.  We have promises to Israel combined with exhortations, and the physical appearance of Christ.  Israel is to abound in fruitfulness and expand 54:3.  There is to be no more rebuking and punishment 54:9. 

Chapter 55 is a great call to all. “Ho everyone that thristeth, come ye to the waters, and he that hath no money; come ye and buy, and eat; ye come buy wine and milk without money and without price. “  55:1.

Chapters 53 and 55 are 2 gems, which are especially beautiful. They are great expositional chapters.

Chapter 56 contains a warning to all to be true.  The time is near when all shall be blessed and God shall be near 56:1-8. 

56 -58 we have a warning given to the destroyers, to the greedy, and to the deliberately ignorant.  The righteous were perishing but none took it to heart.  There are strong terms to describe their wickedness in this chapter.  The first D.D.  ever bestowed on man was here bestowed in 56:10. “His watchmen are blind: they are all ignorant, they are all dumb dogs, they cannot bark; sleeping, lying down, loving to slumber. “
There is no peace saith my God to the wicked 57:20. 

Section three chapters 58-66. 
58-59 are practical instructions to the preacher.  The preacher was to cry loud and spare not.  Outward service is vain 58:1-7. 58:8-12. 

God desires mercy rather than sacrifice.  Those who serve in a right spirit will be wonderfully rewarded as well as those who fully observe the Sabbath. 

Fasting-58: 1-12. They fasted in a harsh legalistic way.  The only spiritual value in fasting consists in the attitude of extreme earnestness and unselfish sacrifice that it both betokens and engenders.  There is no benefit in fasting if we spend the time as usual in work or pleasure.  We do not compel God by our fasting, but we are thereby enabled to entreat him more humbly and earnestly.
Wickedness is terrible but Jehovah's hand is not shortened that it cannot save nor ear heavy that he cannot hear. 

Chapter 60: We have the glory of restored Jerusalem described 60:1-3,7,10,15,18.

Chapter 61 and 62: We have the “Servant of Jehovah” promising peace to Jerusalem 61: 1-3,4,511,62:1ff.

Chapter 63:1-7 we have a classic description of the cross.  The conqueror comes from the capital of the enemy with garments died in blood.  He got his victory by his own t arm, and he will wreck vengeance on his foes. 

Chapter 63:8- 14 contains an address by the Jewish people to God.  That address contains Thanksgiving and prayer. 

Chapter 65 seems to contain God’s answer to the prayers of his people. He seems to be pleased with it, as the first few verses will show.

Chapter 66 consists of very solemn final threatening and gracious promises. 66:23. We have the world gathering together at Jerusalem to worship God.  It is a millennial condition and the condition, imagery and figures in the Book of the Isaiah are sublime.  P.  C.  Index P. 12.  Woes are pronounced upon all sin, to the Jew and then to the gentiles.  Upon repentance, grace is promise to all.  In this he is evangelical and Pauline. 

The Book of Jeremiah:

Brief table of Dates:
B.C. 641- spring first year of Josiah.
         611- spring, 31st year of Josiah. 
         610 -Autumn Jehoahaz.
         609- spring 1st-year of Jehoiakim.
         599- spring 11th year of Jehoiakim.
         598-97-winter Jehoiakim, beginning of the captivity.
         597- Summer Zedekiah appointed King.
         596- spring 1st year of Zedekiah
         586- spring 11th year of Zedekiah. Total fall of the kingdom of Judah.
         Jeremiah is very difficult to arrange a chronological.  Chronologically it appears to be a jumbled mess. 
Ellicott has a possible order on page 8.  The following kings ruled during the period of Jeremiah's ministry. 
1. Josiah- the son of Amos 638-608 B.C.
2. Jehoahaz, Shallum- a reign of three months.
3. Jehoiakim 607-597.
4. Jehoiachin 597 a reign of three months.
5. Zedekiah 597-586.
Ellicott page 3, Adam Clarke P. 250-251.


Jeremiah was a priest by birth and a prophet by the called of God.  He was the son of Hilkiah of the line of the priest.  He was a native of Anathoth, a little village in Benjamin two or three miles in a northerly direction from Jerusalem.  This village had been appointed for the descendants of Aaron, Joshua 21:7,8
Anata is its present name.

Jeremiah was called to the prophetic office when he was about to 16,” Then said I, Ah, Lord God!  Behold, I cannot speak for I am a child.  “ Jeremiah 1:6.  The age that the authorities predict differs, in fact they differ from 14 years of age to 25 years of age. 

After his call, he probably spent most of the first five years in Anathoth.  They were called to be Prophets especially because the Spirit was with them in a special way, not that they were sanctified before birth.

  For 35 years he lived around Jerusalem, some say 10 years.  The last 23 years were spent in Egypt.  After his first five years Anathoth, he seemed to have received the call of God to travel through the cities of Judah Jer. 11:6.Then he returned through Anathoth where he was conspired against by his own townsman. This was the first attempt to do so. Jer. 11:21. 
In or around Jerusalem, he proclaimed the word of the Lord. In the temple Jer. 26:1ff.  He proclaimed the word of the Lord in the gates of the city 17:19.   He proclaimed the word of the Lord in prison 22:2. , In the King's House 22:1,37:17: in the potter's house 18:1 and in the valley of Hinnom 19:2. The last place he proclaimed the Word of the Lord was in Egypt

On page 250 of Adam Clarke's commentary is a very interesting table concerning the prophecies of Jeremiah under the four kings that were contemporary with Jeremiah.  Those four Kings are Josiah, Jehoiakim, Jeconias, and Zedekiah. 
For 22 years during the reign of Josiah his mission was free from special hardships, except for the Anathoth deal.  Jehoahaz seemed to have allowed him to prophesy unopposed, but did not heed him.  During the 11 years of Jehoiakim's reign he was maltreated and in prison. Jeremiah 26.
Jehoiakim did not molest him, nor resent his admonitions.  Indignity and abuse reached their height under Zedekiah.  The princes and priest persecuted him unmercifully 38:4.  It is believed that ultimately he fell martyr by the hand of his own countrymen in Egypt. 
 His prophetic career extents over 40 years at least.  It was all failure.  Some say he prophesied for 50 years thus giving him over 10 years in Egypt.  He first went to Tahpanhes 43:8, then 10 years later he went to Pathros, 44:1, in upper Egypt.  At a festival for the Moabitish goddess, Jeremiah raised his voice, and tradition says he was matyred.  It must be remembered that his Egyptian sojourn is some certain in every respect. 

It is interesting to observe the contemporary Prophets with Jeremiah. 
There is Nahum in 625 BC.  There is Zephaniah 642-611 B.C. 
There is Huldah in the time of Josiah 638-608 2 Kings 2214. 
There is Habakkuk in 630B.C. 
There is Daniel in the third year of Jehoiakim 604. 
There is Urijah during Jehoiakim’s reign and he was slain by Jehoiakim Jer. 26:20-236: This would be 608 – 597 B.C.
There is Ezekiel during the fifth year of Jehoiakim’s captivity Ezek. 2.
Verification of Jeremiah's prophesies:

The prophecies fulfilled during his lifetime.

The captivity of Jehoiakim and his queen mother Jer. 22:24-26. 
The death of Hananiah, the deceitful prophet at the time foretold by Jer. 28:15-17. 
The inglorious and shameful burial of Jehoiakim, Jere. 22:18; 36:30. 
The fate of Zedekiah Jere. 32:2,3; Jere. 52:11; 2 Chron. 36:19. 
The invasion of Judah by the king of Babylon and the captivity of Judah, Jer. 20:4. 
The rifling of the temple by Nebuchadnezzar, Jer. 27:19-22.
 The destruction of Jerusalem by fire, Jer. 32:29; 37:9-10.  Jer. 21:10.
The Chaldean or Babylonians’ subjugation of the Egypt, 43:10-21.
The Babylonians superiority over all surrounding nations, 44:29,30; 27:1-8. 

The prophecies fulfilled after his death. 
The termination of the Babylonian captivity after 70 years Jer. 25:11, Dan. 9:2, The Book of Ezekiel and The Book of Nehemiah. 
The return of the Jews to their own country, Jer. 29:10-14, Ezra, Nehemiah. 
The downfall and destruction of Babylon and the date of the event, Jer. 25:12. 
The advent of the Messiah, Jer. 23:5-8,31:31-34; 33:6-9. 

We shall take up the Book of Jeremiah inspirationally. As it is written with little attention as to its order, or historical import.
                                               Outline of the Book of Jeremiah. 
Jeremiah   1:18-3:6, 629 B.C. or later.  The opening declaration and vision and charges against Judah.  In the 13th year of Josiah’s reign, God called the youthful Jeremiah and informed him that the eternal purpose of God for him was that he be a prophet.  His prenatal sanctification meant that he was set apart and in the will of God for that office.  Its actuality in life depended upon Jeremiah's experience and obedience.  Jeremiah said, “ I am a child. “  But the Lord said unto me, “Say not, I am a child: for thou shalt go to all that I shall send thee, and whatsoever I command thee thou shalt speak. “ Jer.1: 6,7.  Jeremiah was commanded not to fear their faces, else he would be confounded before them.  The Lord then touched his life.  He was to go to the nation to tear down and to build up. 
Jeremiah then had a vision of the rod of an almond tree, signifying that his journey as a prophet was to begin at once.  He also saw a seething pot facing the North signifying that Judah and Jerusalem were to be deceived by the nation from the north, Assyria.  In the following trouble Jerusalem was to be made a fenced city, protected, and an iron pillar, and a brazen Wall-stability-against the whole land and against the king.

 Jeremiah 2:1-33.  Here we have a beautiful perspective on the part of God of reciprocated love.  That is all past.  Then we have abandoned Love and violated faith.  Those who handle the law did not know God.  The prophets prophesied by Baal; Jezebel brought them in.  They were guilty of twin terrible evils: forsaking God and going after false gods. 
They were reproved by their own wickedness in spite of the fact that they had a noble beginning.  Now they were degenerated and their prophets had been slain by their own sword.  The blood of the innocent was on their own garments.  Israel had gone into idolatry and was carried away.  Treacherous Judah was following in her sister's footsteps and heading for the same end.  Spiritual adultery had been committed everywhere.

Jeremiah 3:6-6:30 in-612 B.C. 
We have Israel and Judah in contrast. The northern nation was the scourge of God. 

Israel and Judah in contrast.  Jer. 3:6-4:2.  Israel’s, divorce was a result of her spiritual adultery. It had failed to teach Judah a lesson.  Jeremiah prophesied a prophetic message to the north to Israel.  If Israel returned in repentance, God would take them to Zion and give them pastors after his own heart that would feed them.  For he was still married to them.  He still had an interest in them and was going to use them down in the future. 
Jerusalem would then become the throne of the Lord had all nations would be gathered unto it.  It would be the religious center of the world. In those days the House of Israel would walk with the House of Judah.  Together they shall come out of the land of the North. Ezekiel refers to this in 37:16-21 with his vision of the two sticks. 
When the children of Israel wept and made supplication on the high places in repentance toward God, he would recall them. “ Return, ye backsliding children, and I will heal your backsliding.  Behold, we come unto thee; for thou art the one Lord our God.”  Jer. 3:22. 
Then God said, “ If thou wilt return, O Israel, saith the Lord, return unto me: And if thou wilt put away thine abominations out of my sight then thou shalt not be removed” Jer.4: 1.
The northern nation or people are the scourge of God. Jer. 4:2-6:30.  Judah refused to return as the prophet uttered her doom from God.  He paused and exclaimed a cry, “ Ah, Lord God!  Surely thou hast greatly deceived this people and Jerusalem, saying, ye shall have peace; whereas the sword reacheth unto the soul. ” Jer. 4:10.
The fierce marauding armies as well as the Chaldeans are referred to here. The Prophet saw it in a vision and he further exclaims his heart pain using the Hebrew word for heart, bowels Jer. 4:19. 
The destruction and desolation were to be pals, yet there was not to be a complete destruction again.  A remnant was to return from the slaughter. 
Two fine statements occur with regard to heart purity in 4:4 and in 4:14.  The key words are circumcise, verse 4 and washed, verse 14. 
4:4, “ Circumcise yourselves to the Lord, and take away the foreskins of your heart, ye men of Judah and inhabitants of Jerusalem: lest my fury come forth like fire and burn that none can quench it, because of the evil of your doings.  ”
4:14 “O, Jerusalem, wash thine heart from wickedness, that thou mayest be saved.  How long shall thy vain thoughts lodge within thee?”
And there is also a great text in 6:16.” Thus saith the Lord, stand ye in the ways, and see, and asked for the old paths, where is the good way, and walk therein, and ye shall find rest for your souls.  But they said, we will not walk therein.”
The scourge of war was the reward for sin. It makes this text a forceful one. 

Jeremiah 7:1-10:25: 
This whole section deals mostly with false, popular religions and true religion.  Reference Expositors Bible.  Ellicott places its date 600 B.  C. 
The possible exception is found in 10:1-16, which should be considered separately. Chapter 26 also belongs with this area.  The fate of the temple at Shiloh appears in both areas, Jer. 7:14; and in 26:6.  We shall continue to deal with the book chapter by chapter.  The message was delivered in part or in hold at the gate of the temple of the Lord's house.  The divine requirements are set forth in Jer. 7:3 b, 5a.  “Then, will I cause you to dwell in this place, in the land that I gave to your fathers, forever and ever.” 7:7.  They were trusting in the sacredness of the temple for protection Jer.7: 4. 
Every promise in the moral field, or in the field of freedom is conditioned on man's attitude to it.  This truth appears in the above area. 
Jer. 7:8-15: the formalism of Jewish religion is exposed.  They were in all manner of violent sin, and, yet they thought all was fine. Shiloh was made desolate for the same thing and so will Jerusalem be desolate. 
Jer. 7:16-20, Jeremiah was told not to pray for them, nor make intercession for them.  God would not hear.  They were worshiping the queen of heaven and other gods. 
Jeremiah informed them that their fathers were not commanded to sacrifice as an end in and of itself.  Heart service alone satisfies God. 
They had built high places in Tophet; a place in the valley of Hinnom where high places were built the people offered their sons and daughters to the god of Moloch.  They placed their children in the arms of the idol and a trip door threw their children into the burning fire.  Jer. 7:29-34.  2 Kings 23:10.  References P.H. C. P.C. Ellicott.
The bones of the dead Princess and people would be exhumed and scattered. 8:1-3. The living were unabashed and singing.  They did not even heed the warnings of Jeremiah.  In it all, they hung on to their forms of religion.  We have a great text in Jer. 8: 11 “ They have healed the hurt of the daughter of my people slightly, saying, Peace, peace; when there is no peace. “
In Jer. 8:13-22 we have God's message of doom to them, and the prophet’s lamentations and dismay.  In this area we have another great text Jer. 8:20 -22, “ The harvest is passed, the summer is ended, and we are not saved. V. 21 for the hurt of the daughter of my people am I hurt; I am black; astonishment hath taken hold of me. V.22 Is there no balm is Gilead; is there no physician there? Why then is not the health of the daughter of my people recovered? ”
Here Jeremiah declared that he was black with the astonishment.  It is a figure of speech.
After the prophets said this, then follows his plaintive lamentation over sin Jer. 9:1-8.  Jehovah vindicates his judgment and explains why 9:9-16. 
And Jeremiah draws a vivid picture of calamity after calamity 9:17-22.  Then their vain confidence was corrected.  Wisdom, etc. was not to be trusted in.  Let man glory only in the knowledge of the Lord. 
In chapter 10:13-16 .We have Jehovah the true and eternal God contrasted with idols. 
In 10:17-25 we have Judah's mournful distress and a prayer for God's mitigating mercy. 
In Chapter 10:23-25 we have quite interesting reading. 

Jeremiah 11-12, The broken covenant.608 B.C.
Jeremiah refers them back to the covenant that God and the fathers had entered into a jointly on entering the land of Canaan Deut. 27:12-26.
The men of the city made a secret conspiracy to turn back and serve idols.  God was to send judgment for this.  They would cry to their false gods, but those false gods would not be able to help 11:9-13. 
Jeremiah's was commanded not to pray for them or sacrifice for the unacceptable 11:14-17.
There were murders in ambush.  The men of Anathoth sought his life 11:21.  Their young were to die by the sword and their sons and daughters to die by famine 11:18-23.
Jeremiah wondered why the way of the wicked seemed to prosper.  It is an old question.  It hit Job.  Job 21:7,8.  It hit David Ps. 17:10.  It hits us too.  The last check is not written at once, the end is not yet.  A church hypocrite prospers, and a good saint does not.  The hypocrite says, “ God knows with whom he can trust money.  There is nothing you can say about it.  The wise waits for a fuller advance to a more perfect knowledge, and talk about the will of God.  We have to keep quiet.  A lot that passes for the will of God is far from it.  It is merely by his permission, not his will. 
Faithless and wicked so-called children of God will some day be abandoned to desolation. 12:7-.  13. 
Foreign oppressors and thieves rifle land.  The patient were to be restored to their own land 12:14-17. 

The fall of Pride, Jeremiah 13, 602 B.C.
And Jeremiah got a clean linen girdle and wore it.  Then he hid it by the river, Euphrates, not necessarily in the river but in the hole.  It became stained and rotten.  He wore it in their sight.  It was a parable against their pride, Jer. 13:1-11. 
 A bottle is filled with wine so were all to be filled with drunkenness from the king down.  This suggests a state of helplessness in which they would be dashed together, everyone. 13:12-7.
 All would be degraded from the king and queen to all others if they would not voluntarily humble themselves; God would do it.

The drought and its moral implication.601 B.C., Jer. 14-17. 
We are not certain of the date as no drought historically was stated during Jeremiah's time. 
Jeremiah pleads with God over a calamitous drought, and declares that it was a testimony against God.
Although Jeremiah did plead, God refused to allow the intercession to prevail.  Jeremiah must have known that he was praying up against a stone wall.  God said NO!  Jer. 14:10-16.
Jeremiah then uttered a piteous lament for the nation's woes.  It was a heartbroken preacher weeping for the doomed people who had made fun of him 14:17-22. 
 God’s decisively refused the prophets heartbroken petition and gave him a reason.  It was the culmination of a national sin from Manasseh’s wicked reign 2 Kings 21:11.  Jehovah said that if intercessors like Moses and Samuel stood before him he would say NO! Moses Exodus 32:11-1; 2 Sam.1 Sam. 7:9.  Jer. 15:1ff.  Possibly Jeremiah was as great an intercessor as either one of those two.  The people were appointed to death.  Four destroying forces were to be turned loose.  The sword to slay, the dogs to tear, the fowls to devour and the beast to destroy Jer. 15:1-9. 

Jeremiah expressed strong regret that he had been born a man of contention and strife. He was not naturally so, but he was called by God to be so.  He was cursed by all, and yet he had done nothing to merit such treatment. , God promised him that when it was over and all were in the hands of the enemy, the enemy would treat him well.  Jer. 15:10-14.
  Jeremiah prayed a prayer of regret that he was a tormentor of the people.  Sometimes God seemed to fail him in his statements. 15:15-18.
  God told him that he would make him a fence, brazen wall, and that they would not prevail against him.  Eventually he would be redeemed out of trouble.  After the invasion hit, then they wept, wailed, and went into slavery.  Jeremiah was treated like a king 15:15-21.
 Their homes that were set up and sons and daughters that were born would be destroyed and would become meat for the fowls and beast.  Their social life was to meet with disaster 16:1-9. 
Apostates were to be punished with exile 16:10-13.  Although they were to be carried into the land of the North and elsewhere, yet they were to be regathered 16:14-21.  In their darkest hours they received their brightest promises. 
 Judah's guilt was manifest,  “ The sin of Judah is written with a pen of, iron and with a point of iron.  That is their sin was not to be erased and was firmly written on their hearts 17:12ff.  They had trusted to man instead of the Lord.  Now they were about to fall into the hands of man. Jer. 17:12-18. 

The Sabbath, they did not keep any day or anything Jer. 17:19-26.
Jeremiah was commanded to stand in the gates where the Kings of Judah went in and out and in all the gates of Jerusalem he was to proclaim his message to all to the end of time.  Jer. 17:19. 
The rules concerning the Sabbath had been violated completely.  No burden was to be carried through the gates of the city.  If they did this then the destroying force of fire would pass through.

   The broken potter's vessel Jer. 18:1-20. 605 B. C.  Jeremiah was commanded to go to the potter's house as the Lord wished to speak to him, Zech. 11:13, Matt. 27:7; The 30 pieces of silver.  The potter's house was on the southern slope of the valley of Hinnom south of Jerusalem.  The Potter made a vessel and it was marred.  It was marred not by the will of the potter, but because of the nature of the clay.  The Potter made another vessel; God was going to destroy this nation then bring it back and make another.  The invasion was to destroy the vessel and then a later regathering to make it over again properly.  Jeremiah then uttered an imprecatory prayer of great interest 18:19-23. 
 Jeremiah got an earthen vessel and the leaders of the people and took them out to the valley of Hinnom.  He told them that it would become the valley of slaughter.  They would eat each other in the siege.  He then broke the vessel and told them, as the vessel had been broken so they also would be broken 19:1-15.
Pashur, the son of Immer the priest, heard that Jeremiah so prophesied.  He went to him and smote him or slapped him or beat him, and put him in stocks.  The next day when Pashur passed through Jerusalem, Jeremiah told him God’s decree in regard to him Jer. 20:4-6.  Jeremiah then decided to say no more, but his message burned like a fire in his bones and he couldn't stop.  In this he was like Job 3:3.  Jeremiah regretted that he had been born Jer. 20:14 ff.  These statements must be judged in their day and possibly given as a figure of speech. 

Chapter 21 God’s final offer of deliverance-598 B.C. 
 The Chaldean King deposed Jehoiakim after three months reign.  Zedekiah was the brother of Jehoiakim. Zedekiah had been placed by Nebuchadnezzar on the throne of Judah as a vassal.  Zedekiah sought help from Egypt to revolt from the Chaldeans.  Nebuchadnezzar marched against Jerusalem and took it. 
Zedekiah sought advice from Jeremiah and received God's word on the matter.  The Pashur here is a friend of Jeremiah’s, and was sent by Zedekiah to Jeremiah, is different from the previous one mentioned.  Zedekiah and the city were to fall.  He that stays in the city will die.  He that surrenders shall live. 
Zedekiah’s reliance on Jeremiah was a forced one and God placed no special stock in it. 

 Chapter 22 errors and doom of Judah’s kings.  Jehoahaz and Jehoiakim and Jeconiah are mentioned for their wickedness. 

 Chapter 23 599 B.C. Denunciations against bad shepherds and false prophets 23:1,28,29.   In the midst of falsity, the righteous branch is promised Jer. 23:5.  A serious charge is brought against the false prophets, 23:14.  They are to get a terrible reward 23:15. 

Chapter 24 598 BC.  Two baskets of figs which is both a parable and a prophecy.  The two baskets were set at the gate of the temple after Nebuchadnezzar had carried away some captives.  One basket was good and one basket was bad.  The good would be carried away to Babylon and the bad were left or else fled to Egypt.  Daniel and Ezekiel were among the first captured. 

Chapter 25 We have the manifold judgments of God.  Jeremiah declares that he had prophesied for 23 years, 25:1-3.  He had warned them along with other faithful prophets, but they had not heeded.  They were to be scattered.

 Chapter 26 and 27, 598 B.C.  The general topic of Chapter 26 and 27 is the persecution of the prophets.  The priest and false prophets wished to put Jeremiah to death 26:8,11.  But the Princes and people stood for him through their spokesman Ahikam 26:16,24.  Two real prophets are named as being slain. 
1. Urijah 26:20-22 who was chased from pillar to post until captured in Egypt. 
2. Micah 26:19 was killed years before.  This is not the same Micah who wrote the book of Micah in the Bible. 
 Jeremiah wore a band or yoke, as a symbol of slavery and sent word to all the surrounding nations to do the same, as Babylon would soon capture them.  God had given all these nations into Nebuchadnezzar's hand. 27:1-12.  Jeremiah utters an impassioned appeal to all to yield to Nebuchadnezzar. 

 If this were taken out the field of religion it would become Quislingism.  Quisling was a Norwegian politician who collaborated with the Nazis.  We would have done something to him in a hurry if he acted that way during our time.

 Chapter 28: Hananiah, the false prophet was as daring as sin could make him and as false as the people would wish him to be 28:1-4.  He broke the yoke from Jeremiah's neck and said, “Within two years this would happen to all who wore Nebuchadnezzar’s yoke.” Jeremiah told him that he lied, and that God would put a yoke of iron on him instead of wood 28:10-15.
We have here the test of a true prophet Jer.28: 9.Hananiah died that year as Jeremiah had said.

Jeremiah corresponded with the exiles and told them that they would be released after 70 years 29:1-14.   They were to settle down and live normal lives and make the best of it.  It was sound advice.  Daniel made use of the 70 years prophecy Daniel 9:2.
Awful revenge was to be meted out to the false prophets who deceived them Jeremiah 29:15 ff.
In spite of the present exile, there is to be a glorious future for Israel Jer. 30: 32.
Both houses are to be saved, that is, Israel and Judah 30:4-12. 
There was to be a time of trouble but Jacob is to be saved out of it i.e. the tribulation. 
Jeremiah is commanded to write the word of the Lord in a book 30:2,7,18,22; 31:4,12,3132. 
Jeremiah was shut up in the King's House during the siege so that he would not weaken the men of war by his predictions.  He bought a field from a cousin and sealed the deal as a sign that they were going and also coming back 32:1-15. 
Jeremiah again prayed extemporaneously 32:16-26 
The word of the Lord again came to him and restated the utter destruction of the whole place, yet they would return 32:36-44. 
In the same court prison while the word of the lord came to him during the destruction of Jerusalem, God was promising its rebuilding 33:4,6,9-14.  There would be future prosperity and peace 32:33
  598 B.C.  Zedekiah was told that he was going into captivity and personally meet Nebuchadnezzar.  He was going to meet a violent death 34:34.  They then put away the illegal slaves 34:8-11.  Their punishment in part for the violation of law of personal liberty 34:8-12.
 607 B.C.  The Rechabites vow of abstinence: no strong drink.  Chapter 35.  Jeremiah got the Rechabites into a chamber in the House of the Lord and offered them wine to drink in front of the people.  They refused referring to their ancient covenant Jer. 35:6.  The faithfulness of the Rechabites to their forefathers pledge is in contrast to the unfaithfulness of Israel to God. 
 Chapter 36 deals with events connected with the collection of Jeremiah’s prophecy into a volume. 
Baruch did the actual writing Jer.36: 4 ff. Both read it to several groups 36:10,14,15.  It was later read to the king and he cut it up and burned it 36:23.  The king, Zedekiah, commanded that Baruch and Jeremiah be taken but Jehovah had hid them 36:26.  God commanded them to write the book again and they added some 36:27 ff.
During the siege the Egyptian army came up to help them.  There was a lull in the Chaldeans’ fight against Jerusalem.  During the lull Jeremiah was going to leave Jerusalem.  He is arrested at the gate on a charge of going to Chaldeans 37:13-15.
Jeremiah landed in a dungeon for this  37:16 ff.  Zedekiah sent for him secretly and asked him for a special word from the lord.  Jeremiah told him that the Chaldeans would return and continue the siege.  Jeremiah was left in the court in semi- hiding.  Ebed-melech the Ethiopian rescue Jeremiah from the dungeon.  He again appeared before the king.  He told the King to surrender to Babylon.  The king said he was afraid of the Jews that had fallen way to the Chaldeans 38:19.  Jeremiah told him that they would not hurt him.  Yet Zedekiah would not go.
  From 39-43:7: Jeremiah’s history from the fall of Jerusalem to the time he went down to Egypt.  Nebuchadnezzar in person opened the siege.  He was a great general.  Zedekiah and his Household were brought to Nebuchadnezzar.  Nebuchadnezzar’s siege lasted for about 18 months and misery ruled unabated.  They ate their own children.  At midnight the Chaldeans entered through the walls July 587 BC.; the 9th of Abib. All Jeremiah said would happen, did happen. The events of this area are placed between 590-588 BC.  With the siege breaking afterward.  At the same time God cared for his prophet.  There are interesting passages here. 39:6,7,16-18; 40:4,6.
Gedaliah is appointed govonor by Nebuchadnezzar and slain by Ishmael and that raises more trouble Jeremiah 41.  Jeremiah however landed in Egypt and was taken as a prisoner along with a remnant of Judah
 Jeremiah 43.   All the Jews who had gone down into Egypt became idolaters of Astarte, at Migdol. The Assembly was made up of women mostly.
Against this idolatry and Jeremiah raised his voice in denunciations and prophecy of woe for the last time.

Baruch is not to be visibly rewarded for the writing.  His life is to be given to him as a prey.  He was a great scholar and a wonderful friend Jeremiah 45. 
Chapter 46: God's judgment to be poured out on wicked Egypt. 
Chapter 47: Philistia is denounced. 
Chapter 48: Moab is denounced. 
Chapter 49 Amon and Edom and others are denounced. 
Chapter 50 around 595 B.C. Israel's final redemption is set forth. 
Chapter 51:1-14 the end of the Babylon empire is set forth.  The general picture of the chapter is that of the overthrow of Babylon. 
Chapter 52: We have an historical appendix leading up to the final carrying away to Babylon in 598 B.C. 

                                                     The lamentations of Jeremiah

The ancient Jews of the Alexandrian which were 20% of the population of City. It had a great library that was burnt by the Saracens. The Jews called this book, The book of the Dirges that is the funeral song.  It is something like that.  St. Jerome called it Lamentations hence our English title. 
The Septuagint (LXX- which means 70) placed it immediately after Jeremiah.  The Septuagint was made at Alexandria before the end of the fourth century BC.  Previously Lamentations was placed with the poetic literature (Hagiographa), Ruth, Esther etc.
Josephus' erroneously suppose that it was written as a lament over the death of Josiah.  He based his belief on 2 Chronicles 35:25.
         The great themes of the book are:
The siege of Jerusalem, 
The capture Jerusalem, 
The destruction of Jerusalem.
  For vividness and pathos the book is probably unsurpassed in all of literature.
 The unity is not logical but emotional but the unity is good.  The Book rises climatically.  It is generally agreed that it was composed soon after the destruction of Jerusalem in 586 BC.  The authorship is Jeremiah.  This is probably correct, as there is nothing in the Bible to say that it was not Jeremiah.
  The structure of the book 
 It is composed of five lyric poems.  In Hebrew the first four are an acrostic that is Chapter 1:2,4 consist of 22 Lines or verses corresponding to the number of letters in the Hebrew alphabet.  In Chapter 3 each letter is used three times so it has 66 verses.  The fifth chapter is not an acrostic, but it does have 22 versus.  The meter in which it is written is limping verse, as the second line is shorter than the first. An example is Isa. 14:4-21, which is written in the same meter.  No book in the Bible shows greater art or skill in its composition. 
The chapters considered.
  Chapter 1 Zion’s desolation and sorrow as all of Jerusalem is called Zion 1:1-11.  It is a poetic lament over Zion’s utter destruction.
In 1:12-19 we have the comfortless condition of Zion under the frown of God. 
1:20-22 We have Zion’s s appeal to Jehovah. 
Chapter 2  Is the sorry state of Zion, the result the anger of Jehovah. 

 In 2:1-10 The agony caused by the anger of the lord. 
 In 2:11-19 the description of Zion’s bitter sorrow and lamentation. 
 In 2:20-22 Zion’s bewilderment and appealed to Jehovah.

 Chapter 3 Zion’s hoping again in the mercy of God. 
In 3:1 - 18 Zion bewails her calamity. 
In  3:19-39 We have a hope of relief expressed through the mercy of God. 
In 3:40-54 We have exhortation to confess and repent. 
In  3:55-66 in despair Zion prays for vengeance on her enemies. 
 Chapter 4:
In Chapter 4 we have the former glory of Zion contrasted with their present humiliation. 
In 4:1-10 The terrible distress of people and nobles. 
In 4:1-16 The ignominious fate of the prophets and priest. 
In  4:17-20 The vain hope of escape is set forth. 
In 4:21-22 The doom of Edom set forth.

In Chapter 5: We have Zion’s earnest petition for deliverance. 
Chapter5: 1-18 contains a prophetic review of Zion's condition. 
In 5:19-22 the final appeal to Jehovah to overthrow Zion’s reproach.

                                                                   The Book of Ezekiel

 Part one Ezekiel 1:1-24:27.

 Ezekiel 1:1- 7,27.  The date is the fifth day, fourth month, of the fifth year that would be B.C. 595. 
The call of Ezekiel.  The heavens were opened and he saw visions of God.  The hand of Jehovah was upon him 1:3. 
The Theophany. There was a strong wind and a great cloud with unfolding fire surrounded with brightness.  It came out of the North.  From the midst of the fire there came the likeness of four living creatures that went straightforward.  Each had four faces.  Adam Clarke thinks each had on the his right side; the face of a man and the face of a lion, and on the left side the face of an ox and the face of an eagle.  Beneath their wings were human hands like a man.  They had straight legs like the legs of the ancient heathen gods.  They were like burning coals of fire.  The living creatures dashed fourth and returned like lightning.  As they went they seemed to go as a wheel with in a wheel.  They were terrible in appearance with eyes every where.  The wheels were great and high.  Over their heads was a firmament that looked like crystals of ice, a halo.  When they moved they raised their wings, and the voice of which was like Great Falls of water, or like the voice of the Almighty.  When they came to rest, they letdown their wings over in the firmament.  Above was the throne, terrible in glory.  The appearance of a man was about it.  The appearance looked like fire and was surrounded with a rainbow like glory.  It was the glory of Jehovah.  Ezekiel fell on his face and heard a voice speaking thus, ”And said unto me, son of man, stand on thy feet, and I will speak unto thee”  Ezek. 2: 1. 
It was from the north that Assyria and Chaldea usually swept down on Israel and Judah.  This at least means that the divine wrath of Jehovah would be let loose on Judah by human instrumentality. 
 The face of intelligence is the face of man, the face of fierceness, was the face of the lion, the face of persistance, the face of an ox and the face of foresight is the face an eagle from which nothing could be hid. All this was to be unleashed against Israel.  In all it was to be tempered with mercy as the rainbow appearance was there.  The wheel within the wheel could refer to the divine human Christ. 

The prophet was strengthened by the Spirit, as he was very weak after the vision. He was caused to stand on his feet.  He was then called the Son of Man.  Stalker -The life of Christ.  He was told that he was being sent to Israel who was rebellious and, impudent, and stiff-necked.  He was not to fear them. They would be around him as thorns and briars and scorpions.  He was given a little book to eat.  Upon it were written lamentations, weeping, and woes.  Chapter 2ff.  When he ate the book, it was in his mouth as sweet as honey.  The book was his message to them.  This is God’s call to a God called man.  He was not being sent to a people of strange speech, that could not hear, but he was being sent to Israel.  They would not hear.  They refused to hear God.  His forehead was made like adamant against theirs.  They tried to stare each other down.  The Spirit then took him up and set him down with the captives by Tel-Abib.  Then he sat in astonishment for seven days 3:1-15.

Ezekiel's first activity 3:16-5:17. 
This is a strong area against eternal security.  Here he is appointed a watchmen.  The unwarned wicked man's blood would be required at his hands; that is he would be responsible for the unwarned man's salvation.  The blood of the unwarned righteous man who'd gone astray would be required at his hand.  The righteous man who then fell would have his former righteous deeds blotted out.  This is strong language.  Ezekiel had to warn them and thus save his own soul 3:16-21. 
Certain directions are given to him.  He was commanded to go into a plateau, as God wanted to speak to him.  This he did and the glory of the lord appeared and he fell on his face showing reverence.  The Spirit set him on his feet and told him to return to his house.  He was to be bound by them and his tongue was to cleave to the roof of his mouth.  When God spoke to him his mouth would again be opened 3:22-27. 

The siege of Jerusalem is foretold and portrayed.  He is commanded to take a tile and draw Jerusalem upon it 4:1-3.  He was to lay siege to it, as a great world power would.  For 390 days he lay on his left side thus bearing their iniquity.  Then he was to turn to the right side and lay 40 days.  The 390 days are for Israel, and 40 days are for Judah.  He was to eat and drink by rushes, that is quickly during that time.  It was at least an awful picture of their captivity and the destroying of Jerusalem 4:1-5:4. 
It is striking what some of those prophets had to suffer personally in presenting the truth.

The signs are interpreted.  Jerusalem, who had done abominations in the sight of the nations, is to be judged in the sight of the nations.  They were to eat each other during the siege and they did.  Two-thirds of them were to die and one-third of them was to be scattered.  This is also picture of the tribulation judgment and the sword was to choose them 5:5-17. 

 The mountains of Israel are denounced that is their leaders.  He denounced the mountains, hills, the rivers, and valleys of Israel thus denouncing all the land of Israel in a figure of language.  A sword would destroy, and men would be slain upon their idol’s high places. Those high places were to be destroyed and the bones of the dead would be scattered upon them: Yet a small remnant would be spared 6:1ff.
The final overthrow of Israel is foretold and depicted.  Then the seventh chapter tells us of the dreadful destruction of Judah on account of the wickedness of its people 7:1-15.  The polluted temple is appointed to destruction 7:20-22.  The prophet is commanded to take a chain as a type of their captivity in which both king and people would be led to Babylon in bondage. 

Ezekiel 8:1-19:14. 

The fifth day, six month, sixth year of captivity 594 BC

From Chapter 8-11:25, we have a series of visions respecting Jerusalem. 
Ezekiel sat in his house with the elders of Israel setting before him.  Then the hand of the Lord fell upon him 8:1.  He beheld an appearance as a fire.  This appearance put forth his hand and took Ezekiel by the locks of his hair and carried him to Jerusalem.  There Ezekiel saw who was going into the temple.  First there was the seat of the image of jealousy 8:3-6.  It was a species of sacred animal worship 8:7-12.  The lamentation of the women was over Thammuz, who was the Arcadian sun god, the Adonis of the Greeks. He was the husband of the goddess Ishtar in the Chaldean calendar. 8:13-15.  They worshipped of the sun, or Baal.  Those people thought that no one saw them yet God and Ezekiel were walking unseen in their midst. 
The voice that had been speaking to Ezekiel summoned six supernatural beings from close by and accompanied by a seventh.  It was clothed as a priest and an armed as scribe six men with swords stood beside the brazen altar, (J.R.Dummelow).  The man with the inkhorn was to go through the city and mark those who sighed and cried because of the wickedness of Jerusalem.  The six with the death weapons were to follow and slay the others who did not get marked by the man with the inkhorn.  They started with the sun worshipers.  Jezebel who came from Cartage brought this idolatry into Israel.  Ezekiel fell on his face and prayed for mercy for them.  No mercy was granted in spite of Ezekiel's prayer.  The inkhorn man, a spiritual figure, reported the task completed for himself as a death messenger 9:1-11.
 Ezekiel’s original vision had accompanied him to Jerusalem.  The man with the inkhorn was a scribe and was commanded to go to the glowing interior of the wheels within a wheel and bring coals of fire and scatter them over the city.  This was done signifying the burning of Jerusalem 10:1,2.  This was done in the final siege of Jerusalem’s punishment. 
The wheels again whirled and rose as Jehovah departed from Jerusalem.  Ezekiel now knows that the living creatures that he had seen were Cherubim 10:15,19-26. 
The former slaughter was only figurative so the wicked leaders are still alive.  Ezekiel sees 25 of them.  He knows them even though he was there in spirit.  Two are named and declared to be the leaders in wickedness.  They were to be slain with the sword and the city was to become a Chaldean cauldron of a flaming mass.  One man fell dead and again Ezekiel prayed 11:13.  Jehovah promises Ezekiel that he would be a sanctuary to them in foreign lands and would regather them to their own land Ezekiel 11:19.  We have here a great text for a change of heart. “ And I will give them one heart, and I will put a new spirit within you; and will take the stony heart out of their flesh, and will give them an heart of flesh: that they may walk in my statutes, and keep mine ordinances, and do them: and they shall be my people and I will be their God.”  Jehovah then departs from over the city 11:22 ff.   Ezekiel was to return to Chaldea and he was to tell the elders what he had seen 11:24,25.

We now have two symbolic actions and the certainty of their fulfillment 12:1-28. 
By day Ezekiel is to carry his own private things out of his house and by night he is to dig a hole in the wall and pass through it with his face covered and shoulders bandage, because there were bruised from carrying the goods out of Jerusalem.  Then the next day they would ask him what this meant?  He was to tell them that the day's action referred to there being carried away from Jerusalem.  The night’s action referred to Zedekiah is sneaking out at night and being caught and all who were with them caught after the fall of Jerusalem 12:1-16. 

Ezekiel was commanded to eat bread with quaking and drink water with trembling and fearfulness to typify the terror of the siege 12:17-20. 
They were saying that the days would be prolonged and that every vision had failed.   Ezekiel was to tell them that the days were at hand and this fulfillment of the vision was near 12:21-28. The fulfillment was not to be delayed or deferred. 
Ezekiel then utters three threatening and discourses 13:1-14:23. 
The first is against false prophets and prophetesses 13:1-23. Woe is pronounced upon them 13:3.Here we have the expression of daubing with untempered mortar. 
The second discourse is against the elders of Israel 14:1-11.  The elders came and sat before Ezekiel.  Jehovah told Ezekiel what was in their hearts, idolatry, They are commanded to flee idolatry or bear the consequences. 
The third discourse is that the Lord’s judgment it is inevitable 14:12-23.  Here we have a reference to Noah, Daniel, and Moses.  Those three men’s goodness does not save Jerusalem.  They could save themselves only.  Each stood for himself.  Here individual responsibility is brought out Ezekiel 14:20.  In all a remnant would be saved

Similitude’s and parables etc. 15 ff.
Parable of the vine tree, which is good for nothing but to be burned and destroyed, refers to Judah in her godlessness 15:1-8.
 Then we have the reference to the outcast infant, referring to the abominations of Jerusalem 16: -63. 
Then there is the allegory of the Two Eagles and the vine referring to the fortunes of the royal house of Judah 17:1-24.  The Great Eagle refers to Nebuchadnezzar who carried away the top twigs that is their leaders to a strange land 17: 1-6.  The second great eagle was the king of Egypt.  The king looked to Egypt for help against Babylon.  This Zedekiah did to his own great sorrow as well as to that of his children.

In Chapter 18 we have a proverb concerning sour grapes.  Israel tried to make believe they she is being punished for the sins of past generations.  This said Ezekiel was not so.  Everyone stood on his own and would be judged by his own sins.  This chapter forever sounds the death knell to unconditional eternal security.  A wicked man can be saved and his wickedness is forgotten.  A good man can go into sin and die spiritually and his righteousness is forgotten.  Thus God was absolutely equal going in both directions. 
Judah was like a lioness that had a whelp of some importance and Babylon captured both.  This could refer to king Shallum and king Jehoiakim 19:1-9. Again she was liked unto a well planted and fruitful vine that landed in the barren wilderness and shriveled to death 19:10-14.

 Chapters 20-23 10th day, 5th month, 7th year. In chapter 20, we have the story of Israel’s rebellion from beginning to end. It is one of those masterly resumes of God’s dealings with man and man’s rebellion against God. We then have the proclamation of approaching judgements. The sword of the Lord was to bring forth and slay both righteous and the wicked. The righteous suffered because of the wicked. In informing them of this, Ezekiel was to sigh deeply 21:1-7. The follows a Psalm of triumph for death, the sword. It is a dirge of death 21:8-17. Nebuchadnezzar’s deadly advance is then depicted (586 B.C.) 21:8-27. The sword is also unleashed against Ammon as well as Israel 21:28-32.
The sins of Jerusalem are then rehearsed 22:1-31. The wickedness of both priest and people is then set forth 22:1-16. The coming judgement is set forth first, in direct terms 22:13- 16, u under the figure of a smelting furnace 22:17-22. All classes in Jerusalem: prophets, priests, princes, and people are included in the general condemnation with no intercessor. Here we have one of the most fearful texts in all of the Bible Ezek.22: 23-31.
In Chapter 23, we have the histories of Aholah and Ahoibah. These refer to Samaria and to Jerusalem respectively. Those two cities were both seduced by Egypt 23:3. Both were espoused to God 23:4. Both were unfaithful to him. Samaria’s first born were the Assyrians 22:5ff. Then the Egyptians were relied upon. They were retained by the former 23:9.10. Jerusalem was warned but did not heed the warning. The sin and judgement of the two sisters are then described afresh in 23:36-49.

Chapter 24 the 10th day, tenth month, ninth year 591 BC, the beginning of the siege. 
Apparently this was the day when the siege began under Nebuchadnezzar.  The pot was put on the fire.  The pieces of meat were burned to pieces and removed in pieces and the rust was burned off the pot.  Jerusalem was the meat and her sin was the rust 24:1-14.

At this point Ezekiel wife died and he was not to mourn her.  This referred to the punishment of Jerusalem.  He was not to weep or shed a tear.  His silent sorrow was like the stupor that they would be in at the destruction of Jerusalem 24:15-27.  God's price of obedience and faith is sometimes pretty high, but his price for disobedience and lack of faith is much higher. 

                              Part Two chapters 25-32: Prophesies of judgment concerning foreign nations.

Prophecies against the Ammonites 25:1-7. 
Prophecies against the Moabites 25:8-11. 
Prophecies against the Edomites and Esau 25:12-14. 
Prophecies against the Philistines 25:15-17. 
These nations rejoiced at the fall and destruction of Israel.  Hence they too where to be destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar shortly thereafter.  The date is probably about 589 B.C.

The prophecy against Tyre 26:1-28.  First day, first month, 11th year about 589 BC.
Tyre’s fall is predicted 26:1 ff.  She, too, Laughed at the fall of Jerusalem and saw a chance to get personal gain.  Her lamentation was sounded in Chapter 27.  It was a kind of funeral dirge for the fall one of great commercial empires.  God denounces many places.  For years their great cities were destroyed.  A long time passed until their cities would even be discovered or found to be where they had been.  Some are not yet discovered. .  Truly the East wind carried them away.  Time is Gods co-worker.  Give God a little time and all he says will come to pass.

Tyre’s King and government are bewailed 28:1-20.  The king thought that he was a god.  As a man he apparently was no slouch 28:3-10.  Yet he was a man and as such would come down.

The prediction against Sidon of 28:21-26.  Sidon was the mother of Tyre and was to be brought down. This Chapter closes with promises to the Jews of restoration.  It took Nebuchadnezzar 13 years to capture Tyre and he got nothing for it.  Adam Clarke says that just before Tyre was captured the inhabitants put all their wealth in ships and sailed to Cartage.  Thus Nebuchadnezzar did not get the great wealth of Tyre as spoil of war.

Chapter 29-32 The prophecies against Egypt.

The judgment against Pharaoh is in two Oracles.  In Chapter 29 The great river monster was to have hooks put in his jaws.  Nebuchadnezzar was the monster.  Egypt was to be brought down for claiming that his power was his own.  The sword was to be brought against him.  Egypt is to be wasted for 40 years, during which time her people would be scattered among the nations.  At the end of the 40 years Egypt would be regathered, but would be and remain the poorest of nations; Egypt and Ethiopia would no more rule over others. 12 day, 10th month, and 10 year, Chapter 29:1-16.

Nebuchadnezzar took Tyre at great cost, the siege lasted for 13 years and he got nothing for it.   Egypt was to be given to him as wages for his army.  It is given to him by God.  This seems strange to us but it is a statement of fact 29:16-21. First day, first month, 27 year.  This appears to be the last, that is the oldest dated prophecy of Ezekiel.

The desolation of Egypt is portrayed in two parables of different dates in Chapter 30.  The invasion of Egypt by Nebuchadnezzar was near.  Ethiopia and Egypt would be smitten and their idols destroyed 30:1-19. 12th day, 10th month, 10th  year.

Pharaoh's arms were to be broken and healing medicine was not to be applied.  Then Nebuchadnezzar's arms were to be made strong 30:20-26. Seventh day, first month, 11th year.

Egypt was to be turned to dust and the glory of Pharaoh. The fall of a great Cedar is predicted.

  Chapter 31: first day third month, ninth year. 
The lamentation for Egypt is in two oracles in Chapter 32.  Egypt’s greatness was declared.  Pharaoh's troublesome nature is set forth and her fall is stated 32:1-16. First day, twelve month, 12th year. Her peoples are bewailed by the surrounding peoples 32:17-32. 

15th day, 12th month, 12th year. 
Babylon seems to have been a peculiar instrument raised up by God to punish the nations of the earth for sin.  Babylon lost her head and she, too, was punished.  Somehow God is in history, and it is his story. 

Part three, chapters 33-48. 
This section is largely composed of prophesies dealing with Israel and goes from the fifth day, 10th month, 12 year to the 10th day, first month and 25th year that is from about, 588 B.C. to 575 BC. 

 Ezekiel prophesies in chapters 1 - 24 dealt almost altogether with Judah and with the certainty of its overthrow.  When those prophecies were fulfilled at the fall of Jerusalem his message took on a new and helpful characteristic.  The destruction of the old sinful Israel would be followed by the establishment of a new and better Kingdom of God. 

Chapter 25 - 32 deals with the judgments concerning foreign nations.
Chapter 33-48 deals with a new and better Kingdom prophecy. 

The humiliation of foreign nations is the subject of Chapter 25-32.  This would prepare the way for the New Kingdom, which would be set up under new conditions of worship and fellowship with God.
This is the concluding part of the book, chapters 33-48, which can be divided into two parts. 
The first deals with the restoration from captivity 33-39.  The second part deals with the new arrangements God is to have with Israel and also there are references to the millennial Kingdom and references to the millennial restoration chapters 40-48.

In Chapter 33 Ezekiel’s commission is renewed.  It is much like Chapter 3:17-21 which was the original commission and like Chapter 18:5-29.  Individual responsibility is again emphasized.  In Chap 33:31-33 is a very interesting section.  Ezekiel must've had a charming manner much like Aaron who also was a charming speaker.  God said so.

 In Chapter 35 Israel is described as the flock of God.  Her former Kings were evil shepherds who sought their own good and cared not for the sheep.  The flock then became a prey to wild beast and foreign nations.  God himself would regathered them and care for the sick, wounded, and feeble, This is fine imagery.  In 34:1-16 the upper group had been divided against the lower group.  God would unite all under the ideal King of the Davidic line. The Second Coming of Christ, who would feed them without being troubled by foreign nations, is meant here.   Ezekiel does not see the church age, but he describes the events at the close of the church age 34:7-31.  This chapter 34 is the background of the Jewish thinking, which gave added meaning to our Lord's parables of the lost sheep in Matt. 18:12,13; Luke 15:3-6, and also the parable of the Good Shepherd in John 10:13-16.

 Edom’s right to its possessions was canceled because of their sin 35:5,6,10.  That is because Edom was going to take both kingdoms possessions in Israel’s and Judah’s helplessness. Apparently it, Edom, was to be overthrown and his property given to Israel; that at least is the inference in chapters 35,36.  There's a great text in Ezek. 36:26,” A new hearts also I will give you, and a new spirit will I put within you: and I will take away the stony heart out of your flesh, and will give you an heart of flesh.  And I will put my spirit with in you, and cause you to walk in my statutes and ye shall keep my judgments and do them. “

In Chapter 37,1-14 is a vision of the dry bones, which depicted Israel's dead condition while scattered.  God's power to restore them again is prophesied. 

In Chapter 37:15-28 is Ezekiel's two-stick prophecy.  Here we have a reunion of Israel and Judah as one kingdom.  This is figurative language.  There is no such thing as 10 lost tribes, but the figures are at once explained.  The Anglo- Israel people do not know that this chapter is in the Bible.  There were not to be two kingdoms anymore at all.  Cyrus the Persian made an edict in 538 B.C. for the Jews to return to the Holy Land. 

In Chapter 38 and 39 we have prophecies against Gog and Magog.  We have the regathering of the enemies of God who surround Jerusalem and are destroyed.  These prophecies refer to the end of the millennium not to their age, nor to the tribulation.   They refer to the same thing as Revelation 20:7-9.  Here's where many people on prophecy go astray.

Chapter 40-48. 
The vision of the future restoration of their laws and their arrangement is revealed. 10th day, first month, 25th year of captivity. 

Chapters 40-43 are a description of the restored temple.  Nothing like it has been built.  Adam Clarke is good on its dimensions. 
Chapter 44 –46 we had the restoration of worship in a restored to temple 44:4,5.

Chapter 47- 48.  We have waters flowing from the temple.  The desert blossoms like a rose.  .  This is a world stream of grace ever deepening as it flows through the desert into the garden.  This is highly figurative language.  There is a redistribution of the land among the people of Israel.  All this is yet in the future. 
Modernism claims that Ezekiel is the father of Judaism, that is he wrote from Exodus 19:1 to the end of Leviticus.  That would make the so-called Mosaic Tabernacle, Worship, and Sacrificial system, Ezekiel’s work.  This will not hold water.  There is no ground for such speculation. 


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