Dr. W.Noble King
I. The Pentateuch
All Rights Reserved
This document consists of
notes taken by students who attended Dr. King's class at Bethany Nazarene
College. The notes therefore reflect student response to Dr. King's lectures
and do not necessarily represent fully or accurately his thought in all
1. Outside reading -750
pages.279 allowed for Biblical area.
2. Three examinations
3. One term paper—3000 words
4. Class expression—unannounced
5. Class attendance and
B. Mosaic Authorship:
C. The Mosaic authorship
of the Pentateuch is sustained by Jesus Christ and his Apostles. In fact
it is incredible for Jesus to have spoken as he did if this were not true.
(Matt 19:7;Mark 12:19Luke 16:31;John5:46-47;Luke 24:27:44) With regard
to the inspired writers: (John 1:45,Acts 15:21;Rom.10:5;Heb 13:12-13).
D. The Mosaic authorship
was universally recognized by the Jewish Sects and parties-by Pharisees,
Sadducees, Essenes, and by Alexanderians , and Palestinian Jews,
as well as by the Samaritans. (Ref. Pulpit Commentary P.7-17.)
Modernist or Liberal view-that
the Pentateuch was compiled and rewritten by adding into it from other
and Elohimistic used (4),P-Preistly, (5.)D-Dueteronomy, written in Josiah"s
II. The Body
1. The beginnings (Gen.1:1-2).
a) The creation of the universe
Creation of the Cosmos (
(1) In the beginning God
created (Bara) caused to be (Gen. 1:1,21,27). This is undated. (Bereshith)
- at the beginning of time. Gen1:1 - from nothing; Gen.1:21 - animal life;
Gen.1:27 - soul or spirit of man. Gen.2:7 - the body of man. Psa.33:15;
Isa.44:9 - make graven image. (ASAH) - to make-Gen.8:6, Noah made.
b) Creation was at first
formless and void, from that which was without form and void, form was
called into being.
2. The six days work:
a) Gen.1:3-31, Light was
called into being and separated from the darkness, darkness called night
and light called day (Gen.1:3-5) (First day).
b) Firmament made dividing
waters from the waters. It was called heaven(V.6-8) (second day).
c) The seas were formed
and dry land appeared. The gathering together of the waters was called
seas and the dry land earth. vegetation was then created with seed within
itself(v.9-13 third day).
d) lights were formed for
signs, seasons ,days, and years. A greater light to rule the day and a
lesser light to rule the night, and stars also; they were given their respective
place(v. 14-19 day four.)
e) Life in the water and
whales and fowls in the air were called into being. they were blessed and
caused to multiply.(v.20-23 day 5).
f) The beast of the earth
and creeping things were created after their kind (v.24,25) an was then
created in God’s image and given dominion over all(v.26-31).(day 6).
3. The seventh day was then
observed by God for rest (Gen. 2:1-3). Man was not definitely commanded
to observe it. The first command for man to do so is in Exodus 13:3-4,
Duet. 16:3;Exod.23:1534:18,Duet 16:1. This is referred to as Redemption
Sabbath. This is a revolving day. It might be implied that man also kept
the day that God rested on after creation, but it is not stated.
B. The paradisaical state
of man (Gen.2:4-25).
The first account of creation
is a full account of fact; the second is an introduction to the moral
action of man. Such facts as are necessary to that end are stated and so
arranged as to best present the moral actions of man. Man is upright
and holy and free and walking and talking with God .He had restrictions
or he has restrictions with regard to the forbidden tree. "Thou shalt
not eat of it, for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely
C. Adam named all creatures.
God caused him to sleep a deep sleep, and then He took a rib (Heb. meaning,
took from) and therefrom made He a woman and brought her to the man. Adam
called her woman because she was taken out of man (A rib, "the crookedest
part of man") (Gen. 2:21-23).
D. The institution of marriage
then formed. the man is to leave the home of his father and mother and
cleave to his wife, evidently not in her original home but start one of
their own.(vs.24,25 )
E. The History of the fall
1. The serpent appears and
talks with Eve and deceives her and gets her to eat of the forbidden fruit
against God’s stated and known command (vs.1-50).
2. Eve gave to her husband
and he did eat. Their eyes were opened and conscious guilt settled down
upon them and they hid from God.( vs.6-8).
3. God sought Adam and
Eve and called after them. They came out. God questioned them and they
confessed to him and God passed judgment on the serpent, then upon the
woman and upon the man.
4. The prefiqured
cross was set up in the midst of judgment ( vs. 15 21 ).
5. The man and the woman
were then driven out of the garden, lest that in that fallen state they
should eat of the tree of life. (vs.22-24).
F. The record of Cain and
Abel ( Gen 4:1-13 )
1. Cain is first mentioned.
He denied the blood ( First modernist )and hated his brother and later
slew him. He was branded as an outcast by God, from God and from man(v.1
ff) (They represent Christ acceptors and Christ rejecters). And are figurative
of end of time.
2. Abel is mentioned after
Cain. He recognized the blood and his sacrifice was accepted. Later on
Abel was slain by his brother (v.1f))
G. Racial development (Gen.
1. Cain dwelt in the East
in Nod and raised a family and built a city and named it after his oldest
son .In Cain’s line were cattle raisers, (Art and sciences in Cain’s line)
Musicians ,artificers in brass and iron. The first polygamist appeared
in the person of Lamech (vs.16-24).
2. Seth was born( takes
Abel’s place in the messianic line) as Adam and Eve’s third named son(v.26)
He married and begat a son named Enos. "Then men began to call upon
the name of the Lord," or "To call themselves by the name of the Lord"-marginal
III. The Generations of
1. The First genealogical
table is like tomb stone inscriptions in a grave yard (Ch. 5."grave yard
chapter ").There is one bright spot there ,namely Enoch’s rapture.
B. The degeneracy of the
antediluvian’s ( Gen.6:1-8)This degeneracy was augmented by the intermarriage
of the Sethites and Cainites .
1. a)The beginnings (1:-2:3).
b) The generation Of heaven and earth (2:4-4)
c). The generation of Adam (5:1-6:6).
d.) The generation of Noah (6:9-9:29)
e).The generation of the sons of Noah (10:1 -11)
f).The generation of Shem (11:10-26)
g) The generation of Terah (11:25-26
h).The generation of Ishmael (25:12-18)
I).The generation of Isaac (25:19 -35:29).
J). The generation of Esau (36:1-37:1)
K).The generation of Jacob (37:2-50:26).
IV. The Generations of Noah.
1. Noah was a just man and
perfect in his generation and he walked with God. God commanded him to
build an ark to the saving of his house during the flood. The ark was to
be 300 cubits by 50 by 30. (v.15) It had one window and one door and three
stories. Animals and food were to be taken within (v.21).
2. .Noah and his house were
called into the ark. that is himself ,his wife their sons and their wives,
clean beast by seven, male and female, unclean by two, of birds by seven,
male and female. Seven days after the Noahic family entered the ark the
flood came upon the earth.(Gen.7:1-10).
(1) The flood started in
the 600th year,2nd month, and 7th day of Noah’s life .It rained forty days
and forty nights ,and the waters prevailed upon the earth 120 days (Gen.7:11-24).
(2) On the 7th month,17th
day, the ark rested on mountain Ararat .On the 1st day of the tenth month
the mountain tops were visible. Forty days later Noah released a raven
that went to and fro until the water drier up. He released a dove and the
dove returned. Seven days later he sent the dove forth again. In
the evening she returned with an olive leaf in her mouth. Seven days later
he released the dove but she did not return again.(Gen.8:1-12).
(3) In year 601,the first
month, the first day Noah removed the covering of the ark and the ground
was dry. It was completely dry on the 17th day of the second month; God
then told Noah to leave the ark (Gen.8:13-19).
(4) Noah built an alter
and sacrificed and the Lord was pleased and promised that not again
would the world be flooded ,and seed time and harvest, summer and winter
day and night should not cease (vs.20-22).
3. The Noahic Covenant(
(1) His family was blessed
and commanded to increase and multiply and have dominion and eat of the
herds and flocks and herbs. Whosoever shed man’s blood, by man was to be
destroyed The rainbow was to be regarded as a token of the covenant of
the continuation of the race (vs.1-17).
(2) Noah’s sons were Shem
, Ham, and Japheth . Noah drank wine and was drunkened later when he awoke
from his wine he pronounced a curse upon Ham. Shem and Japheth were blessed
because of their conduct while Noah was drunken. Noah lived 352 years after
the flood and died at the age of 950 years (vs.18-29).
V. The Generations and Locations
of the Sons of Noah (Gen 10:1-11;9)
1. The ethnological register
(Gen 10:1) Shem Ham and Japheth are thus named in order of their evident
importance, but in this ethnological register they are evidently given
in the order of their birth which is Japheth ,Ham and Shem.
(1) Japheth’s ethnology
(2) Ham’s ethnology (vs.6-20)
(3) Shem’s ethnology(vs.21-31).
2. The confusion of Languages
at Babel(Gen.11:1-9).From Babel the general separation took place as well
as ordination of languages.
VI. The Generations of Shem
are given at some length
leading up to the presentation of the of families, from which Abraham appeared.(Gen.
1. It is said that Shem
was 100 years old and begat Arphaxad ,2 years after the flood. If Shem
was the youngest of the three ,then Noah’s three sons would have been 98
years old or older at the time of the flood (Gen11:10).
2. It is said Shem lived
500 years after Arphaxad .He then would have been 600 years at death after
3. From Noah to Abraham
there are 11 generations named. They are Noah, Shem, Arphaxad, Salah, Eber,
Peleg Reu, Serug, Nahor, Terah, Abraham (Gen.11:10-26).
VII. The Generations of
1. Terah begat Abram, Nahor
,and Haran begat Lot ,and Haran died in Ur of Chaldees before his father
2. Abram married Sarai (Iscah),daughter
of Haran. Nahor married Milcah ;Thus Haran’s two daughters married his
two brothers ,or the two nieces who were sisters ,or the two nieces
married their two uncles, which were brothers. A daughter of the same house,
was called the sister of all the men of that same house, thus Sarai was
Abram’s Sister. (Gen11:29)
3. The migration of the
Terahites from Ur to Haran (v.31) Terah gathered his family together
(Abram, Sarai, and Lot.) and started to go for Canaan, evidently in obedience
to Abram’s call. They stopped at Haran until Terah died (his age 205) (Gen
VIII. The History Of Abraham
the Terahite (Gen.12;1- 17:27)
1. God had called Abram
to leave his country, his kindred ,and his father’s house and go to an
unknown destination. This evidently took place in Ur and possibly explains
why they left Ur to journey to Canaan .But God had only called Abram (Gen.12:1)
A nation was to be started from him that was to be blessed and to
bless to the world (vs.2-3).
2. Abram and his family
entered Canaan and came to rest at Sichem .He took all the family property
that the family had had in Haran. He was 75 years old when he left Haran.
The Lord appeared to him and promised the land to his seed. Abram built
an alter there also and continued to journey toward the South. (vs. 4-9)
3. As there was a famine
in Canaan Abram descended to Egypt. He told Sarai to claim to be his real
sister so that they would not kill him for her. This she did, but the plot
was discovered and rebuked by Pharaoh (vs.10-20).
4. Abram returns to Canaan
and pitched on the mountain east of Bethel, with Bethel on the west and
Ai on the east, and there he called upon the name of the Lord (Gen 13:1-4).
5. Abram and Lot separated.
Lot choose the plains of Jordan and journeys east toward Sodom. Abram journeyed
in the land of Canaan (vs.5-12). After Lot separated from Abram, God appeared
again to Abram and promised him all the land of Canaan and that his
seed would be numerous(vs.14-16).Abram removed his tent and came and dwelt
in the plains of Mamre and built an alter there(vs.16-18).
6. The battle and the pursuit
of the kings(Ch.14),and the later meeting with Melchizedek. The Sodom combination
was defeated and Abram pursued after the victors and reconqured the spoil
and the persons. Melchizedek King of Salem (peace) brought forth bread
and wine and blessed Abram. Abram gave him tithes of all.( Gen.14:20),Abram
is here called an Hebrew and he paid tithes to Melchizedek
7. Abram believed God and
was taken into a covenant with him. He is promised a son, and numerous
descendants. The blood covenant was then entered into and God told him
that his descendants were to be four generations in a strange land.(?400
years; or four generations from father to son).They were then returned
to Canaan as the iniquity of the Amorites would then be full.
The land was to be his from the river of Egypt (not Nile), to the river
8. Abram marries Hagar as
Sarah suggested ten years after he entered Canaan.(Sarah’s big heart-not
to be a nuisance in God’s will).As Hagar was near maternity she despised
childless Sarah. Abram left the matter in the hands of Sarah and as a result
Hagar had to flee from Sarah. The Angel of the Lord (Jesus) told her to
return to Sarah and be obedient. He also promised her numerous descendant.
Hagar gave birth to Ishmael when Abram was 86 years old (Ch.16:1-16).
9. The covenant or sign
of circumcision was then given (Ch.17:9-14).
(1)When Abram was 99 the lord again appeared unto him and called him to
perfection, His name was changed to Abraham (Ch.17:1-5).
(2) The covenant of
circumcision was then set forth. Every male was top be circumcised .The
Land of Canaan was again promised to him (vs.6-14).
(3) Sarai’s name was changed to Sarah as a son was also promised to Abram
by Sarah. His name was to be Isaac and the covenant promises were to descend
to him. Isaac was to be his heir.(vs.15-19)
(4) Ishmael was also blessed and to become a people and a great nation.(vs.20-22).
(5)The covenant of Circumcision was then put into force. embraced every
male of the Abrahamic household.(vs.23-27).
IX. Abrahamic House:
Abraham is then visited
by Jehovah at Mamre.(Ch.18:1-33).
1. Three men visit him.
(at least 2 of the Trinity). He hastens to welcome them and offers them
the hospitalities that he had. They received him( Gen.18:1-8).
2. The promise of Isaac
is restated Sarah laughed when she heard it (of joy) , then denied that
she did laugh. ( Gen.18:9-15).
3. Two of the men then move
toward Sodom and one remains with Abraham. Abraham is then told that Sodom
and the surrounding cities are to be destroyed. Abraham then intercedes
six times and brought the figures down from 50 to 10,and then stopped .Abraham
and the Angel part and Sodom and the cities are doomed.( Gen.18;16-33).
X. Sodom and the Cities
were soon thereafter destroyed (Gen.19:1-28)
1. Two of the three angels
that appeared to Abraham journeyed on to Sodom to rescue Lot and his family
and they did so ( Gen.19:1-22).
2. The cities were then
destroyed by fire and brimstone from God out of Heaven. ( Gen.19:2-25)
3. Lot’s Wife left the city
with the others but she disobeyed and looked back and became a pillar of
Salt ( Gen.19:26).
4. The next morning Abraham
viewed the smoking ruins from the hill tops of Canaan ( Gen.19:27-29).
5. Lot then dwelt at Zoar.
His two daughters there brought Moab and Ben-Ammi (by Incest) into the
world .These two later became the progenitors of the Moabites and the Ammonites.
XI. Abraham then journeyed
toward the South between Kadesh and Shur, and dwelt at Gerar( Gen.20;1-18).
1. Abraham again denied
the fact (to Abimelech) that Sarah was his wife .Again he said that she
was his sister. ( Gen.20;1-7).
2. Abimelech loaded Abraham
with gifts of livestock and money and sent him away ( vs.8-16).
3. Abraham then interceded
for Abimelech and the evil was removed and they were restored to their
normal state of health (vs.17-18).
XII. Isaac is born . Abraham
rejoices at his birth. The Child was called Isaac and was circumcised the
8th day ( Gen.21:1-8).
XIII. Ishmael mocked
Isaac at the feast of weaning.
This ultimately Led to the
( Old Man) expulsion of Hagar and Ishmael from the home( Gen.21:9-14).
1. Hagar and Ishmael wandered
in the wilderness ,are in danger. God came and supplied their need, and
declared that Ishmael too would become a great nation, or people .His hand
was to be against every hand and every hand was to be against his.
2. He dwelt in the wilderness
of Paran and his mother took him a wife from Egypt. (v.21).
XIV. At Beersheba Abimelech
and his chief Captain Phicol enter into a covenant relationship of peace
with Abraham as they realize that God was with Abraham. ( Gen.21:22-34)
1. Abraham also reproved
Abimelech with regard to the well of water that he had taken from Abraham’s
2. Abimelech and his chief
captain arose and returned to the land of the Philistines from whence they
had come, and Abraham planted a grove and an alter in the midst of it and
called upon the name of the everlasting Lord. (vs.32-34).
XV. Abraham then Journeyed
to Moriah (Gen.22)
To offer up Isaac as a sacrifice on Mt. Moriah.
1. God called on Abraham
to take his son Isaac, who was his only son and to offer him as a sacrifice
on Mt. Moriah.(Vs.1-2).
2. Abraham took two young
men and his son and journeyed. On the third day they arrived at the mount
designated. There Abraham prepared to sacrifice his son (v.3-10).
3. The angel then spoke
from heaven and forbade Abraham to sacrifice his son He declared that he
now knew that Abraham would withhold nothing from God. The Lord then sware
by himself that he would abundantly bless Abraham, "And I will multiply
thy seed as the Stars of the heaven." "His seed would be a blessing
to all the families of the earth. (vs.11-18).
4. Abraham then returned
with his son to Beersheba and or some time dwelt there. He also learned
that his brother , Nahor , had quite a large family, one of which was Bethuel
, who was the father of Rebekah (vs.19-24).
5. Sarah died being 127
years old (Abraham 131). Abraham then bought the field of Machpelah from
Ephron the Hittite who journeyed with the children of Heth, and he bought
it with 400 shekels of silver. The same as Hebron. There they buried Sarah(
XVI. Abraham then
commissions Eliezer to find a wife for Isaac (Gen.24:1-67.)
1. Eliezer arose and took
ten camels etc. and departed for Mesopotamia unto the city of Nahor. (Vs.1-10)
2. Eliezer met Rebekah at
the well of water without the city and was invited by her brother to her
father’s house (vs 11-28).
3. Eliezer then recites
the whole story of Abraham’s Canaan history, also the death of Sarah and
the desire of Abraham that Isaac should have a wife. He told them of the
signs at the well ,and of how Rebekah measured up to them. They agreed
XVII. Abraham then entered
into a second marriage.(Gen 25)
This time the woman was
Keturah. By her he had six sons. These he later sent into the East country
from the presence of Isaac his son of promise (25:1-6).
XVIII. Abraham then died
at the age of 175.
Isaac and Ishmael buried
him in the cave of Machpelah (25;7-10).
XIX. Generations of Ishmael
1. Ishmael was the son of
Abraham by Hagar. He was the father of 12 sons of whom all became
great (vs 12_16 ).
2. Ishmael himself lived
to be 137 years old and then died, and was gathered to his people.(vs.16-180.
XX. Generations of Isaac.
1. When Isaac was 40 he
married Rebekah. When he was 60 his two sons were born, namely Esau and
Jacob. Esau was a cunning hunter. Jacob was a sissy, a plain man dwelling
in tents (vs 19-34).
2. There was a famine in
the land and Isaac went to Abimelech King of the Philistines, unto Gerar
.The Lord appeared to him and reaffirmed the Abrahamic promise and told
him not to go down to Egypt.(Gen.26:1-6).
3. In Gerar , Isaac also
declared that his wife was his sister. His deception was discovered and
rebuked by Abimelech ( Gen.26:7-11).
4. Isaac sowed in that land
and became wealthy. He had flocks herds and a great store of servants.
The Philistines envied him and requested that he depart from them. ( Gen.26:12-17)
5. Isaac dug again his father’s
wells and also dug others for himself. He then left the valley of Gerar
and journeyed to Beersheba. The Lord then appeared to him and reaffirmed
to him the divine protection. Isaac built an alter there and called upon
the name of the Lord. The Abrahamic promise was reaffirmed to him (Ch.26:18-26).
6. Abimelech and his chiefs
interviewed Isaac and entered a covenant of peace with him (vs.26-33)
7. Esau married Judith an
Hittite when he was forty .This was a grief of mind to his parents (vs
8. When Isaac was old and
practically blind, he sent for Esau and told him to bring venison so that
he could eat and bless him. Jacob and Rebekah heard him and defrauded him
out of the blessing (Gen. 27:1-40).
9. Jacob then had to flee
from Esau to Laban in Haran. This he did. The whole scheme was carried
through by Rebekah. (Gen.27:41-28:1).
10. Jacob then reached Laban
in Padan-aram after meeting God at Bethel. At Bethel the Abrahamic promise
was reaffirmed to him. The place was called Luz at first but Jacob renamed
it Bethel.(Gen. 28:Vs 2-3,7,10,22).Esau then realizing that the Canaanitish
woman did not please his parents, married yet more of them.(vs8-9)
11. Jacob then arrived at
Haran and met Rachel and helped water the sheep. She then escorted
him to her home (Gen 29:1-14).
12. Jacob served Laban 7
years for Rachel but was given Leah instead, He served another 7 years
for Rachel and this time he got her (gen 29:15-30)
13. Jacob’s children
born to these women (Gen 29:31-Ch 30:24;35:16-18).
14. Jacob then entered into
another contract with Laban This time he served him for so many cattle—14
years for the two daughters and 7 years for the cattle.(Gen.30:25-43).
15. Jacob then fled from
Laban but was overtaken at Mt. Gilead. They set up a pillar and ate bread
and promised that neither would cross to do the other harm. Jacob also
sacrificed in the Mt. (Gen.31:1-55).Jacob called the place Mizpah.
16. As Jacob journeyed the
Angel of the lord met him. He also heard that Esau was approaching with
400 men. He feared and prayed.(Gen.32:1-12) One of the greatest prayer
meetings in the Bible.(Sanctified here) His nature was changed.
17. Jacob then sent messengers
to Esau with the following presents of appeasement (1)She-goats 200 , (2)
He-goats 20. (3)Ewes 200 (4) Rams 20 (5) Milch
Camels 30 (6)Colt camels 30 (7)Milch Cows 40 (8) Bulls
10 (9)She-asses 20 (10) She asses (foals) 580 some
sucking animals not mentioned.
18. Jacob wrestled with
an angel (Christ). The hollow of his thigh was put out of joint. He prevailed,
his name was changed to Israel .He was no longer Jacob , the heel grasper.
Jacob named the place Peniel. (Gen.32:24-32).
19. Jacob was then reconciled
with Esau his brother. He presented his gifts. It was at first refused
then later accepted .Both men said that he had enough Esau wanted to accompany
Jacob ,but Jacob declined the offer and said that he was going to Seir,
but went to Succoth instead ( DR King’s illustration of Jael killing
Sisera; Judges 4:17;5:24;She had to do it to save her name .That is more
than some Nazarenes do today.).He reached the village of Shechem in the
land of Canaan and bought a field from Hamor father of Shechem,
for 100 pieces of silver, and then erected a pillar or alter and
worshipped. He called the place Elelohe Israel.
20. As Jacob had pitched
near Shechem , Dinah went out to and visited the daughters of the land,
and Shechem took her and defiled her. Simeon and Levi slew all the grown
males of the city,( Gen:34:25).and took their sister and all the little
ones and women of the town to themselves and went their way.(Gen 34:1-3).
21. Jacob revisited Bethuel
near Shechem In fact God told him to go to Bethel. He built an alter there
and called the place El-Bethel .Deborah, Rebecca’s nurse died there
and was buried at Bethel. God blessed Jacob again and reaffirmed his new
name as Israel and also reaffirmed the Abrahamic promise and covenant .He
set up an alter to mark the place where God talked to him and named it
22. On the Journey from
Bethel to Ephrath ,Rachel brought forth Benoni (Benjamin)Then she died
. She was buried close to Ephrath (Bethlehem) and Jacob set a pillar
upon her grave.
23. Jacob then returned
to Mamre to the city of Arbah to his Father Isaac (Gen.35:20-27).
XXI. Isaac died at the age
And his sons Esau and Jacob
XXII. The Generations of
Esau (Gen 36:1; 37:1).
Esau had three wives:
1. Adah an Hittite
2. Aholibamah an Hivite
3. Bashemath an Ishemaelite
He had a large family of
dukes and men of importance long before Isreal amounted to anything .Esau
left Canaan from the face of Jacob (Gen. 36:6) and dwelt in Seir.
He is Edom (8).Jacob dwelt in Canaan (Gen. 37:1).
of Jacob (Gen.37:2-50:26).
1. Jacob’s sons were in
many respects very wicked. When Joseph was 17 (Gen.37:28). He was sold
unto the Midianites-Ishmaelites , and taken down into Egypt and sold to
Potipher in Egypt (v.36). He had dreams. Here are two of them as follows.:
(1) Sheaves bowing to his sheaves(v.7). (2)sun moon and stars bowing
to him (same as father, mother, sons) (vs. 9-10).He was also his father’s
favorite son as evident by the coat of many colors (Gen.37:2-36).
2. Not only were the sons
of Jacob wicked in dealing with others and with regard to the truth but
morally wicked as well (Gen.38:1-30)(.Judah and Tamar ).
3. Joseph’s fortunes varied
while he was in Egypt. He was bought by Potipher and Egyptian captain of
the guard of Pharaoh. Potipher placed him in charge of all his house. Potipher’s
wife lies about Joseph and he lands in prison .But" God was with him."
The keeper of the prison made Joseph the overseer of the whole prison.(v.22).(Gen.39:1-23.).
4. Pharaoh’s chief
butler and chief baker offended him and he cast them into prison where
Joseph was. There ,they both dreamed a dream. (1)The chief butler dreamed
of a vine with three branches . It appeared to bud and bring forth a
cluster of grapes .In his dream he pressed the grapes into Pharaoh’s cup
in his presence and gave the cup into Pharaoh’s hand; he was to be restored
to his former office in three days..(2)The chief baker dreamed that there
were three white baskets on his head .On the top most basket were all manner
of baked meats and the birds ate therefrom. Joseph interpreted the dream
of the three basket as three days in which his head was to be cut off and
the birds were to eat his flesh .It was so (Gen.40:1-23).
5. At the end of two full
years , Pharaoh dreamed a two fold dream. (1)Seven well fed Kine came out
of the river and pastured on a near by meadow. Seven ill favored or lean
Kine came out up out of the river and devoured the former fine
Kine. (2) Seven ears of corn on one stalk came out rank and
good, then seven blasted by the east wind (desert wind) came up and devoured
the good ears. ,When Pharaoh awoke the magicians and wise men failed to
tell the dreams ,and Joseph was sent for. He interrupted the dream as seven
years of great plenty, to be followed by seven years of famine.(Gen 41:1-32).
6. Joseph advised the selection
of a man discreet and wise to gather up a fifth part of each year and to
lay it in store for the years of the famine (Gen 41:33-36) (1) Pharaoh
harkened to Joseph in the matter and further appointed Joseph in the matter.
He made him Lord of all, responsible to the throne of Egypt alone.(Gen
41;37-44). (2) Pharaoh renamed Joseph Zaphnath-paaneah and gave him
Asenath, the daughter of Potipherah priest of On , to wife. Joseph was
30 years old when he stood before Pharaoh (Gen 41:45-49). (3).To Joseph
were born sons before the years of famine came, Manasseh and Ephraim
the seven years of bounty ended and famine came (Gen.41;49-57).
7. The Egyptians then came
to Pharaoh through Joseph and (Joseph - type of Christ positive ;Isaac-
type of Christ Negative. )Then the other surrounding countries came. This
included Joseph’s brothers (Gen 42:1:45:28). (1) Joseph’s brothers
came and were known by Joseph, but they did not know him. They bowed to
him and he remembered his dream of them. He accused them of being spies.
He put them in prison for three days and then kept one , Simeon in prison
until Benjamin came .Their past was staring them in the face, neither forgotten
nor buried ,but alive and haunting. They returned to their father in the
land of Canaan and told him all and how they found their money in their
sack’s mouth. Jacob complained and declared that all was against him. Joseph
gone ,Simeon gone ,and now they wanted Benjamin. Jacob is still partial
to Rachel’s children. His partiality has split his home and he has
not gotten over it.(Gen, 42:1-38). (2). Isreal asked them to go again but
they refused unless Benjamin is sent with them. Judah acts as the spokesman.
Jacob then gave consent and sent Benjamin and also sent a present to the
man. They took double money also, for the money returned in the mouth of
the sacks, and they took Benjamin also. They were taken into Joseph’s house
and they feared. Joseph asked them of their welfare and of their father,
they again bowed and made obeisance to him . Joseph sees his brother Benjamin
again .Bread was set at the table according to their age, and Benjamin’s
mess was five times as great as the others (Gen.43:1-34).Their sacks were
again filled and the money returned in them and the silver cup used by
Joseph was placed in Benjamin’s sack. The steward overtook them and found
the cup in Benjamin’s sack and all returned to Joseph’s house(Gen.4:1-15).Judah
then stepped forth and pleaded in a remarkable manner. He reviewed the
case and offered to stay in place of Benjamin (Gen.44:16-34).
8. Joseph then revealed
himself and uncovered his identity and forgave them and asked them to come
to the land of Egypt and settle in Goshen. They journeyed down seventy
souls and their household.(Gen 45:1-46:34). (1) Joseph then
informed Pharaoh that his brethren had settled in Goshen. He presented
five of them to Pharaoh. Jacob informed Pharaoh that he was 130 years and
then blessed him(Gen.47:1-12). (2)Jacob and his family were
then settled in Goshen in the land of Egypt,(or Rameses). Joseph nourished
from the store of Egypt (Gen 47:13-14). Joseph then gathered up all the
money of the land of Egypt by selling the Egyptian’s corn. After the money
failed ,he gathered their cattle. When the livestock failed , Joseph exchanged
their land for corn. He did not take the land of the priest. He then
removed the people to the cities and sustained them. (Gen.47;15-22).
(3) Joseph then gave them seed to sow their land, and the fifth part of
the increase was Pharaoh’s. The priest were again exempted (Gen.47;23-26).
(4) Isreal dwelt in the land of Goshen and increased and multiplied greatly.
Jacob lived 17 years in Egypt making the total years of his life 147.He
made his people promise to bury him with his fathers in the land of Canaan
9. The last days of Jacob
(1)Joseph was informed that his father was sick. he took his two sons with
him and went to his father. Jacob blessed the younger, Ephraim, above the
older Manasseh. This displeased Joseph but Jacob declared that it was so.
Jacob also gave to Joseph the ground that he had taken from the Amorites
that he had taken with the sword and the bow.(Gen 48:22b;34;26-30) Joshua
17:14). (2) Jacob then blessed his sons individually and characterized
them individually as a last prophetic utterance (Gen 49;:1-28).
a) Rueben---unstable as
water and shall not excel (vs.3,4).
b) Simeon and Levi---are
instruments of cruelty (vs.5-7).
c) Judah---praised by his
d) Zebulun---is to dwell
at the haven of the sea.(v.13).
e) Issachar---is strong
but couching between two burdens and became a servant unto the tribute,(vs.14-15).
f) Dan--- shall judge and
he shall be a serpent and an adder by the way.(vs 16-17).
g) Gad---shall be overcome
but shall overcome at last.(v.19).
h) Asher---is to be wealthy.(v.20).
i) Naphtali---is a hind
let loose; he giveth goodly words.(v.21).
j) Joseph ---is a fruitful
k) Benjamin---shall ravin
as a wolf (v.27).
(3) The charge concerning his burial(Gen.49:29-Ch.50:14).Jacob was embalmed
by the physicians of Egypt .After forty days(for those embalmed) and then
three score and ten (70 days),Joseph and a great company went up and buried
Jacob in the cave of Machpelah. All Jacob’s sons seem to have gone up to
attend the funeral .They then returned to Egypt and a long night of darkness
B. Joseph’s brothers
then feared Joseph after their father died. Joseph then put
them to rest with regard to it They then fell down on their faces before
him thinking that he would make them pay for selling him. He did not. Joseph
lived to be 110 years old. Joseph also saw his children to the third generation.
When he died he was laid in a coffin in Egypt (Gen.50:15-26)..
XXIV. Notes closing the
book of Genesis.
1. Japheth---white race
2. Shem ---Hebrew race
3. Ham ---black race
4. Nimrod was an outstanding
figure in early time. He was a mighty hunter of his fellow man (slayer
of the image of God). Built Babylon , Ninaveh ,and was a leader in the
then civilization of the world. He was the first mass murder. First army
5. There are at least four
outstanding covenants mentioned in the Book of Genesis..
(1) Edenic covenant ---innocence
(2) Adamic covenant— Adam
after the fall (Gen 3-5).
(3) Noahic covenant – (Gen.
(4) Abrahamic covenant—(Gen
12 ff). In a sense this covenant is still in vogue. In another sense it
is temporarily suspended (II kings 25;II Chron. 36)
6. The development of Isreal
from a family up to a nation.(Gen.12-Exodus 1).The family being welded
together as nation in the fires of Egypt.(Gen 46-Exdous 1). Birthday of
the Nation of Isreal at the Base of the Mt. (Sinai?)
7. Outline of the Book.
(1) Creation (Ch. 1-2)
(2) Fall (Ch 3-5).
(3) Flood (Ch.6-9)
(4) Babel (Ch.10-11)
(5) Abraham (Ch12-25)
(6) Isaac (Ch 21-28).
(7) Jacob(Ch 25-50).
8. Cain’s rebellion represents
man made religion. First Unitarian and modernist.
9. Able’s religion represents
salvation by the blood.
10. Seth represents all
who call upon the name of the Lord
11. Abraham is a type of
12. Isaac is a type of the
13. Servant (Eliezer) is
a type of the Holy Spirit
14. Rebekah is a type of
the bride of Christ.
Key word in Abraham’s life
Key word in Isaac’s life
Key word in Jacob’s
Key sentence in Joseph’s
life---suffering and glorying from prison to the throne.
15. From the beginning God
was selecting and building from that selection a Messianic line to be completed
by the revelation of Jesus the Christ. A mushroom can grow in a night,
but it takes Centuries to grow an oak.
A. Exodus has two major
sections: 1. Historical and 2.Didactic.
II. Historical narratives
of the fortunes of Isreal from the death of Joseph to the arrival
of the Nation at the front of Mt. Sinai (Ch 1-19).
A. The oppression
of Israel in Egypt (Ch.1).
1. The prologue (Ch 1:1-6).
The book of Exodus is connected with Genesis by the conjunction "Now".
Many Bible books are connected in this way. In fact the Bible is one book.
In a sense all of history is one vast whole marching on to a certain consummation
in the will of God. (Gen. beginnings ,Ex. departure or outgoing). Joshua,
Judges, Samuel, Kings Nehemiah, Esther, are connected with conjunctions.
Seventy direct descendants of Jacob went down. Joseph and his two sons
were down there already. This would mean that from several hundred
to several thousands went down (Ex.1:1b).The stated seventy were made up
as follows. Jacob 1: His sons 12,His daughter ,Dinah, 1, His grandsons
51,His granddaughter , Serah 1, His great grandsons 4, A total of 70 souls.
There were many other daughters and daughters-in- laws, and women and small
children as well as servants (Gen.46:7, 26) (Gen 46 5-27) . Women were
not generally mentioned unless they did something off the accepted path
such as Dinah. When they left Egypt possibly 215 years later , there were
600,000 men capable of bearing arms( Not counting the tribe of Levi).This
would call for a total population of three million at least.
2. The oppression (Ex.1:7-22).
A new dynasty took over and a new king arose that refused to recognize
that Joseph had made any contribution to Egypt. The Israelites had been
friendly to the former dynasty now this new dynasty is suspicious of them.
The new king feared an alliance between Isreal and any invaders. Hence
he intended to grind them down. That failed so he introduced the murder
of all male babies. The taskmasters were first placed over them and they
built Pithom and Raamese and some canals, and did field work as well. The
midwives, Shiphrah ,and Puah were then asked to kill all male babies
at birth. They got out of it by appearing on the scene a little too late.
The king then commanded his own people to cast all male babies into the
river Nile. Pharaoh started with oppression and wound up with murder.
86 years later the plan backfired and the Egyptians lost their first born.
Raamese II is regarded as the Pharaoh of the oppression. His son Merimptah
, the Pharaoh of the Exodus. Merimptah , however left a monument
stating, that he invaded Palestine and destroyed the Israelites. Hence
the oppression might have been much earlier. ( Pharaoh—means Crocodile.)
B. The birth, rescue , choice,
and flight of Moses.( Ex.2:2)
1. The birth of Moses (vs
1-2). Amram and Jochebed were both of the house of Levi. They had
three children; Miriam (Mary), Aaron, and Moses. Moses was hid for three
months and then placed in an ark, or box made of flags or bulrushes or
papyri and dubbed with pitch( bitumen) (Ex.2:3).Jochebed was not necessarily
a daughter of Levi and thus the aunt of Amram , but rather a daughter
of the house of Levi or a cousin of Amram.
2. The rescue of Moses(Ex.
2:3-10). Miriam watched under the direction of her mother who was not far
away. Pharaoh’s daughter came down to bathe herself in a sacred stream
;possibly as a religious ceremony. She rescued the child ,guessed
who he was, and must have known who Miriam was at first sight, and who
the woman was who was called as a nurse. Jochebed returned him to the palace
when directed, and Moses was possibly adopted as the son of the childless
princess. We have a good example of ignoring the historical order to set
the stage for the birth of Moses (Ex. 2:1-2).
3. Josephus writes Moses
up as a great general in the Egyptian army and the conqueror of Abyssinia
. St. Stephen agrees with this in principle (Acts 7:22,R.V.)
4. The choice of Moses and
the immediate results.(Ex. 2:11-22).When Moses was forty he decided to
cast his lot with his own people. Apparently the princess did not keep
him in ignorance of his real identity. He broke with the court before he
left for his own people. He slew an Egyptian who was beating a Hebrew and
had to flee to Median to save his life. It was a hasty act to say the least
and cost him much (Hebrews 11:24-25).In Median he defended Reuel’s daughters
and watered their sheep. He was invited home with them and Reuel gave him
one of his seven daughters to wife ( a worthless one). Moses was a liberator
and delighted to defend the weak. The Midianites were descendants of Keturah
and were more Godly than the Israelites.
5. About forty years later
the Pharaoh of the oppression died and the Israelites sighed in bondage.
God decided to act (Ex.2:23-25).
C. Call and commission of
Moses and the return to Egypt ( Ex. 3 &4.)
1. The burning bush( Ex.3:1-12).
Moses was with the sheep beside the Mt. of God which was Horeb. The second
person of the Trinity spoke to him from a flaming Acacia bush. The speaker
declared himself to be the God of his fathers. He said, (A.) "I have
seen." (B.)"I have heard" (C.) " I have known" (D.) "I have come."(E.)
I "will bring them out and into a good land."
2. Moses was to be the one
to lead them out. Forty years before he had wanted to do it, but now he
hesitated. Moses plead four excuses.(Note) Moses a hasty man out Petered
Peter.(1) Personally unfit (Ex. 3:11-12). (2) Israelites would not know
who sent me (Ex.3:13-22). (3)Israelites would not believe who sent me (Ex.
4:1-9) (4)Did not possess the gift of persuasive eloquence
(Ex. 4:10-17) God brushed all four aside but gave him Aaron as his mouth
3. The new name Jehovah.
God had been revealed as Elohim or the God of Power. Now he is revealed
as a personal being (Elyeh). "I am" is the name God gives himself. Eternally
now it referred to (1) An existence different from all other existence’s
(Isa. 45:6).(2) An existence out of time and with which time has nothing
to do (John 8:58).(3) An independent and unconditioned existence from which
all other life is derived and which it is dependent ;"Who only hath immorality"
, that is in His own right, and ours is derived. In the next verse (Ex.
3:15) the "I Am" is modified into "Yahveh" We further modify it into Jehovah.
This is done by substitution; the Third person for the first. God used
the First in v.14. He used the Third as given in v.15.(LORD in block
letters really means Jehovah).
4. God commissioned Moses
to lead the Israelites out of Egypt , bring them to the Mt. of God. His
rod was a symbol of power and thus became the rod of God. His leprous hand
was healed and was a symbol of divine power over men (Ex.3;10,12;4;2ff).He
was to perform like signs in the presence of Isreal, and greater in the
presence of Pharaoh (Royal Crocodile) (Ex. 4:8,19).
5. Moses returns to Egypt
(Ex 4:18-31).Moses ask leave of Jethro (Ex .4:18).God informs him that
the men are dead that sought his life (4:19). He was to tell Pharaoh that
if he would not let Isreal go ."I’ll slay the first born" (V. 23)Moses
took his wife and two sons and started to return. His wife apparently observed
the law of circumcision and God made Moses deathly sick. She there
complained with a deathly taunt (Ex.4:20,21,24-26).Jehovah then told Aaron
to go out and meet Moses , and Moses told Aaron all the acts and
words of God. They arrived in Egypt and Aaron gathered the people together
and told them all . And also performed the signs in their presence(Ex.4:27-31).
D. The first interview between
Moses and Pharaoh and its results (Ex 5:1-6:13).
1. Moses and Aaron visit
the court (At Zoan) (Ps.78:12.43)."The men are dead who sought your
life" (Ex.5:1-3).The request was to let the Israelites go into the desert
to sacrifice to "God" Jehovah of Isreal for three days.
2. Pharaoh refused the request,
and increased the burden (Ex. 5:2,4,9,). He refused to regard Jehovah as
having any authority over him. He ruled Isreal. " Why should I obey God?
" The same day he increased the burdens. They had to gather their own straw
or stubble (probably four feet long)(Ex. 5:7,8).The first result of Moses
effort was to bring the people into worse bondage than they were
before. ( Note): There were three grades of officers: (1) Lords of service
(Ex.1:11).(2).Taskmasters (Ex5:6a ,10) (3). Officers(Ex5;6b).The
former first two were probably Egyptians, and the third Hebrews. They counted
and piled the bricks. Both were beaten(Ellicott).
3. The Jewish officers under
the taskmasters were beaten. The officers and people went to Pharaoh and
lodged a complaint. Pharaoh accused them of idleness. On their way back
they reproached Moses and Aaron. Moses went to God and lodged a strong
complaint ( Ex. 5:15-23).
4. God then told Moses that
he would take over and to tell the people that he would bring them out
with power and victory and bring them into the land of promise. The
people harkened not unto God for anguish of spirit and cruel bondage (Ex.6:1-10).
God gave Moses a further charge for Pharaoh and for the Israelites (Ex.6:11-13).
E. The genealogy of
Moses and Aaron (Ex.6:14-27). The Semitic people made much of the lineage
of these people, hence the genealogy of Moses and Aaron and Levites in
general. "Generations of Rueben (Ex. 6:14),Of Simeon(v.15), of Levi from
whom descended Gershon ,Kohath, and Merari (v.16). The sons of Gershon
(v.17), The sons of Kohath (v.18) The sons of Merari (v.19).The marriage
of Amram and Jochebed (v,20).Birth of Miriam, Aaron ,and Moses then
followed. Aaron married Elisheba . Aaron’s sons were Nadab, Abihu,
Eleazar, Ithamar. The marriage of Eleazar and one of the daughters of Putiel
and the birth of Phinehas (Ex. 6:25) (Note):Levi’s three sons were probably
born before he left Canaan for Egypt. He died at the age of 137.Amram died
at 137 also(Ex.6:16-18). (Moses father).
F. The effects of Moses
to overcome the obstinacy (stubbornness ) of Pharaoh, and the first
nine plagues (Ex.7:1-11-11:10).And Moses and Aaron were to go to Pharaoh
(Ex.7:2). Signs and wonders and judgment were to be performed (Ex. 3:20;4:8,9,30;7:4).Egypt
was a leading nation in the world at that time, and she was at the height
of her glory. Her gods were discredited and polytheism was discredited
all over the world. Jehovah was exalted the world over. Every plague had
the defeat of a god in it, and a victory for Jehovah in it (Ex. 7:5) (Ellicott).
Pharaoh asked for a sign. Aaron cast down Moses rod, and it became a serpent.
The Egyptians did the same, and their rods became serpents; and Aaron’s
rod swallowed them up.(Two of those men are named, Jannes and Jambres II
Tim. 3:8). "Pharaoh’s heart hardened itself."(Pharaoh’s heart is in the
nominative case and is the actor) (Ellicott). (Note): The term enchantment
leads us to believe that they were only tricksters , and God took
over as he did with the witch of Endor: to her and their confusion. She
was terror stricken and astonished.(Moses would be 80 or more and Aaron
would be 83 or more).
1. Plague one (Ex.7:14-25).Aaron
took Moses rod and stretched his hand over the waters of the Nile, and
they became blood and the fish died and the water was undrinkable (Ex.7;15,19).The
enchanters did likewise. This plague covered all the waters in Egypt. It
lasted seven days. Pharaoh hardened his heart.
2. Plague two (Ex.8:1-15).
Frogs. The frog species came up. Moses commanded Aaron to stretch forth
his hand with the rod over the waters of Egypt and frogs came up. They
were into houses ,ovens, drinking water, on beds, and everywhere. They
were hideous to the eye and grating to the ears, and repulsive to the touch.
The frog was worshipped by them (Ex.t8:5).The magicians repeated the act.
Pharaoh promised to let them go if he got rid of the frogs. Moses said,"
Glory over me" (Ex.8:9).That is (I submit to thy will).Moses prayed and
the frogs died. They were as big a menace dead as alive. Pharaoh again
hardened his heart.
3. Plague three (Ex.8:16-19).
Lice. God told Moses to tell Aaron to stretch out his arm with he
rod and smite the dust of the earth. Aaron did so and beat the dust. The
magicians declared it the hand of God and did not try to imitate
it. The first three plagues were upon Egyptian and Israelite alike. Apparently
Isreal was willing to obey Moses and leave Egypt. Aaron was the actor in
the first three. God did it, Moses did it and Aaron did it. (Trinity).
4. Plague four (Ex.8:20-32).
Flies. (LXX. Septuagint ) calls it dog flies. The Hebrew merely refers
to swarms. It could have also been a form of beetles. Goshen was spared
(Ex.8:22).A days notice was given(Ex.8:23).The rod raising is not mentioned
at all. God apparently just did it. Pharaoh said." Sacrifice in the land"
(second repentance and first compromise) (EX.8:25). If they did so the
Egyptians would be offended. Hence a three days journey into the wilderness
was necessary (Ex 8:26-27).Pharaoh conceded ,but said they were not to
go very far. (Second compromise).Moses prayed that on the next day the
flies would depart and they did. Pharaoh hardened his heart and broke
the promise (Ex.8:30).
5. Plague five(Ex.9:1-7).
The Murrain cattle plague. It struck with a days notice but with
no rod raising. It hit flocks and herds and horses recently brought in
and prized very highly (barn stock apparently was saved).It did not strike
Goshen. This did not move Pharaoh much.
6. Plague six (Ex.9:8-12).Boils.
Moses and Aaron stood in the sight of Pharaoh and apparently Moses sprinkled
dust into the air. This dust became boils on man and beast
(1) The Magicians were smitten
and fled before Moses and Aaron. Their deception became plain to all (II.
(2) This Jannes and Jambres
were evidently the acting magicians, acting in imitation of Moses and Aaron.
They were publicly reproved for the were publicly smitten.
(3) (Pharaoh had moved twice
before. Now in a special way his heart was hardened by God. This is the
inevitable result in any walk of life.
7. Plague seven (Ex.9: 13-35).Fire
and hail. A speech was made and fire and hail were announced a day ahead.
Moses stretched forth his had with the rod in it and fire and hail came.
Judgment was tempered with mercy for those who stayed inside and stabled
their stock and weathered the storm. God declares that he had spared Pharaoh’s
life to show his power throughout the earth (Ex.9:16).Pharaoh said that
he and his people had sinned and that it was enough(Ex.9:26-27). Moses
stepped out into the storm and stretched forth his hand and the storm ceased
(Ex.9:29,33).Moses appeared to be the speaker and the actor ,but it could
have been Aaron.(Note) Very light hail and thunder are not unknown
in Egypt. By the state of the crops it would be about the end of January.
8. Plague eight (Ex.10:1-20).Locust
(type of grasshopper).Moses and Aaron entered Pharaoh’s presence
and announced that there would be locust tomorrow. They would enter all
houses and eat all that was spared from the other plagues. Moses and Aaron
walked out of the presence of Pharaoh (Ex.10:6) Pharaoh’s servants begged
him to let them go, are else Egypt would be totally destroyed . Moses and
Aaron were recalled and asked who would go? "All". Pharaoh was willing
to let the men go and all the others stay behind to assure the return of
the men (Compromise no. 3). They were then driven out from Pharaoh’s
presence (Ex 10:11)."Moses stretched forth his rod over the
Land of Egypt," And the east wind blew all day and night and brought in
the locust. They darkened the sun and covered the earth. Pharaoh hastily
called for them and again confessed his sin and prayed that this death
would be removed. Moses entreated the Lord and the Lord sent a strong west
wind and drove them away.
9. Plague nine (Ex.10:21-29).
Darkness. This plague like the third and the sixth was sent without warning.
God informed Moses to stretch forth his hand toward the heaven; He did
so and there was darkness that could be felt for three days. (Note): In
Dr. king’s sermon on the seven words from the cross he states that the
darkness at the cross was "EGYPTIAN DARKNESS" implying that it was a darkness
that could be felt. J.R.) The South or Southwest winds occasionally brought
sand that hid the sun; that is not meant here. Light would apparently
burn in Goshen but not in Egypt. Pharaoh recalled them but told them to
go but to leave flocks and herds (compromise #4). Moses said that
every hoof would be taken. Pharaoh thrust them out and said he would
see them no more (Ex 10:27-29). Chapter 11 is somewhat parenthetical
and much of it was told to Moses by God before plague nine. Moses informed
them that death was to strike the first born of man and beast in
Egypt, but not a dog(v.7) would move its tongue against an Hebrew. It is
not said to whom it was spoke but evidently to Isreal. (Note): Moses
told the people to borrow (ask for) jewels and silver and gold.
G. The institution of the
1. Here is the birthday
of the nation (Judges19:30;I Kings 6:1).This was to be the first month
of their ecclesiastical year (Abib) (EX13:4; 23:15; 34;18 Deut.16:1). Abib
is also called Nisan after the Babylonian Captivity (Neh.2:1); (Esther
3:7), Our end of March and beginning of April. Their civil year began
seven months after Abib and was called in Babylonia ,Tishri. It was
at or near the autumnal equinox. In the Old Testament it is called Ethanim
(I Kings 8;2).
2. (Pulpit Hom. Com.,
Exp. P.227 )
3. A lamb ,either of sheep
or of goats was to be selected on the 10th day of the 7th month (six months
and ten days into their civil year) , and kept under observation for four
days. It was to be killed between the two evenings (Between 3 P.M. and
5 P.M., according to Josephus a little later) by the whole congregation.
The innards were to be taken out, cleaned, and returned , and then the
whole lamb or kid was to be roasted with fire. Nothing was to remain, and
the uneatable parts were to be burned with fire. It was to be wholly consumed
(Note): No uncircumcised home could eat of the Passover (Ex.12:48-49).
4. The blood was to be sprinkled
upon the door post, and the flesh to be eaten by groups within each house,
large enough to consume a whole lamb. Two small families would go together
and every large one would help make a smaller one (Ex 12:8ff). This male
offering of the first year was wholly consumed. Christ was wholly given
without the camp.
5. Apparently anyone of
the congregation could kill it. In this sense they were all priest. They
were to eat it with their loins girded, shoes on, staff in hand, and eat
it in haste. Being killed between the two evenings, the Passover
would have been observed on their 15th day. That is eaten after sunset,
and then the death of the first born at midnight and the departure thereafter
,all on the 15th day or first day. (of the week?)
6. No one was to go out
of doors until the death angel had passed over. At midnight, the weirdest
hour of the night, the tragedy took place. From the king on his throne
to the captive in the dungeon, man and beast, the first born male died.
Not an unsprinkled house escaped and not a blood sprinkled house was visited
by death.(Ellicott, Adam Clarke, and P.C.).
H. Plague ten and its consequences
1. God smote at midnight,
and Pharaoh and his servants arose and there was a great cry throughout
all the land. Moses and Aaron were called for, and they were asked to get
out in haste with all their possessions, else the Egyptians would all
2. Both men and women now
asked for jewels etc. As wages for slave labor(Ex.12:34-36). Apparently
they got much. Here it says that they were 430 years in Egypt. The Septuagint
says 430 years from the immigration into Canaan of Abraham until they left
Egypt. If this is as it appears there would be a gap between Jacob and
Amram. Paul apparently agrees with the Septuagint (Gal.3:17).
3. Six hundred thousand
men over 20 years besides a mixed multitude (Egyptians) by marriage or
servants or sympathizers) , and they journeyed from Raamese to Succoth.(Note):
From Raamese to Succoth to Etham to Pihahiroth.
I. The departure from Egypt
and the journey to Pihahiroth (Ex.13:1-14:4).God claimed all the first
born males and beast, and those who were spared in Egypt as the death angel
passed (Ex.13:1).The first born of the animals were to be sacrificed or
redeemed by substitution. The first born of men were to act as priest.(Ex
13:12-13).The first born of man had to be redeemed also (Ex. 13:13:Num.8:16;18:15,16).This
was the rite performed by Joseph and Mary for Jesus, and recorded in Luke
2:22,23.The first born male of unclean animals had to be destroyer or redeemed
by a clean animal (Ex.13:2, 12,13).
1. The most direct route
to Canaan from Raamses (In the Eastern delta where the host was mustered
would have been Northeastward along the coast. It would have been
150-200 miles through the heart of the Philistine country. God said that
they would be afraid so he led them Southeastward into the peninsula of
Sinai, a two year trip to Canaan instead of 11 days. Fear necessitated
this trip (Ex.13:17-22).(Dunlow has a good discussion; marshes , bogs,
lakes were all around there).
2. The cloud by day and
a pillar of fire by night appeared and is declared to be the presence of
Jehovah by day and by night.(Ex.13:21-22).The bones of Joseph were also
carried up with them (Ex.13:19).
3. They then swung
partly around and encamped before Pihahiroth between Migdol and the
sea , before Baal-Zephon (Ex.14:2). They appeared to have been entangled
in the wilderness (Ex.14:13) (draw a Chart of the journey).
J. The pursuit of Pharaoh.
The passing over the Red Sea, and the destruction of the Egyptians (Ex.
1. It was told to the king
of Egypt that the people had fled or had gotten out with a high hand. Pharaoh
hardened his heart and gathered his army together and pursued them.(Ex.14:5-9).
2. When Isreal saw them
they were afraid and cried unto Jehovah and taunted Moses for having brought
them there. Moses informed them to fear not but stand still and see the
salvation of the Lord. The Egyptians were to be seen by them nevermore.
Moses was commanded to lift up his rod over the sea. It went back
by a strong East wind all that night. The Israelites crossed and the Egyptians
followed, but the waters came back and destroyed them all (Ex.14:10-31).(First
K. The song of triumph sung
by Moses and Miriam (Ex.15:1-21).This is a song of triumph over the Egyptians.
It evidently was written by Moses and sang by Miriam and the people at
the red Sea. ( Ellicott; Chorus seems to have been written by Miriam).
L. The Journey of the Israelites
from the Red Sea to Rephidim , the Victory over the Amalekites (Ex15:22-17:6).
(To the wilderness of Shur).
1. The head of the Gulf
of Suez is called Etham. It was on an elevated wilderness area. The northern
part was called Shur and the Southern part Sin (to Marah). They reached
Marah, and the waters were bitter. Moses cast in a tree and the waters
were usable. They complained about the water (Second complaint). They came
to Elim; There were 12 fountains of good water and 70 trees; a fountain
for each tribe and a tree for each elder (Ex.16:8).They complained about
the food (Third complaint).God sent the manna and the quails They were
to gather day by day, and for two days on the sixth day. Manna in the morning
and flesh in the evening.(Ex. 16:8 ;John 6:31,32).Some gathered for two
days and some went out to gather on the Sabbath, but none was found.(Ex.16:27,28).
Apparently the grace of God can not be stored up. A small amount of manna
was laid before the Lord. (Note): (In Ex. 16 we are told they
were out of Egypt one month and there had been five camping places between
Raamese and Sin; hence there must have been many resting places.)
Water became a problem ,and they chided with Moses. Moses took his rod
and smote the rock of Horeb and water flowed out (Ex.17:3-7 ; I Cor.10:4).(Fourth
2. Ellicott says that the
Amalekites were descendants of Amalek, the grandson of Esau (Gen.36:12-15).
Balaam speaks of them as "The first of the nation," possibly meaning
the earliest of the nations in the Sinaic Peninsula . Isreal was passing
through their pasture land at Rephidim. Joshua defeated them with instructions
and help from Moses. By this attack Amalek sealed his doom forever (Ex.
17:8-16 ; I Sam.15:2).
M. Jethro’s visit to Moses
(Ex .18:1-27).Jethro was head of the house of which Moses wife was a daughter;
Hence he was Moses’ father in law tribually if not actually. He was
a priest and evidently held the sacrifice himself in the presence
of Moses and Aaron (Ex. 18:12).Jethro gave Moses some valuable advice about
administration , about judging the rights of the people (Ex.18:13-27).He
also brought Moses’ wife and two sons back to him. Moses had evidently
sent them back when things got hot.
N. They depart from
Rephidim and came to the wilderness of Sinai.(It was two miles long and
a half a mile wide and enclosed between two black and yellow
granite precipitous ,with a huge mountain rising straight in front 7500
or more feet. From the top of this God spoke to them).Moses was to bring
the people to this Mt. Sinai , 150 miles from Egypt. They stayed at the
base of the mount for 11 months (Num.10:11-12).
III. Section Two The Didactic
section of Exodus (Ex.19:1:40:38).
A. The date of the charter
by which Israel was incorporated is said to be the third month after leaving
Egypt (Ex. 19:1).Fifty days after they left Egypt the law was given at
Sinai. The feast of Pentecost was observed fifty days after the Passover.
The Holy Spirit was poured out fifty days after the death of Christ.
1. Moses then started to
go up to God on the Mount. Either half way up or fully up God spoke to
him and sent him back to the people with a covenant. He would be their
God and they would be his peculiar people and a kingdom of priest and a
Holy nation. Moses called the seventy elders and they readily ratified
the covenant. Moses was the mediator, and returned their discussion to
2. A three days notice was
given that God would reveal himself to Moses in a thick cloud and give
the people the law. They were to sanctify themselves ceremonially by washing
their persons , clothes and etc. This ceremonial cleansing referred to
heart cleansing necessary to draw near to God. Bounds were set around
the mount. Man or beast that passed the bounds were to be slain.
a) On the third day the
whole mount was wrapped in flame and smoke and trembled supernaturally.
It was an awesome sight and sound when God came down. From the top of it
the trumpet sounded louder and louder; Moses trembled and quaked greatly
(Heb.12:21).Moses led the elders to the base of the bounds of the mount.
It appears that Moses went up or part way up and was told to return and
warn the people not to break through the bounds.
B. The Decalogue (Ex.20:1-21).The
ten commandments were spoken to "All the assembly of Isreal" by God out
of the midst of the fire of the cloud and of the thick darkness (Duet.
5:22) They are called ten words.(Ex. 34:28;Deut. 4:13; 10:4). They
were later written by the finger of God on stone and placed in the ark
as a basis of God’s covenant with them ( Ellicott) (Ex.31:18 ).On witnessing
Israel’s apostasy Moses broke those slabs (two) containing the ten
words. They were then replaced by two other slabs hewn by Moses , but the
writing was apparently written by God (Ex. 20:1-19).Duet.5:6-21 R.V.) At
least two versions of the ten words appear ( Ex. 20:1-19;Duet 5:6-21)
(Note) : The two broken slabs show that the ten commandments were
broken. They were rewritten but remained broken on unbroken slabs and placed
under the blood stained mercy seat.
C. The Book of The Covenant
(Ex.20:22). After the ten words were uttered the people fell away and asked
Moses to be their mediator and take the messages of God and relay them
to them (Ex.20:19;Deut 5:30;Heb.12:21). (Note): Moses drew near to the
base of the Mount (Ex.20:21) and went up at least to the darkness.
1. THE COVENANT CONTAINS:
2. Laws concerning religion
(Ex.20:22-26) An alter of earth was to be made, if stone the stones were
to be unhewn. No steps to lead up to them. Later with the proper Preistly
dress that prohibition was lifted.
3. Laws concerning the rights
of persons (Ex. 21:1-22:15).The rights of Hebrew slaves (Ex.21:1-6). Rights
of a daughter sold as a slave (Ex 21:7-11).Concerning injuries to persons
(Ex. 21:12-32)).Concerning property rights (Ex 21:33-36). Concerning theft
(Ex.22:1-5).Concerning fire and dishonesty (Ex 22:6-15).
4. Miscellaneous Laws (Ex
.22:16-23:33). Concerning immorality (Ex.22:16-19).Concerning idol worship
(Ex.22:20;Deut 13:1-10).Concerning oppression (Ex .22:1-28 Lev.25:35;Deut
15:7;Ps.15:5;Prov. 28:8;Neh.5:7-11;Ezek.18:13;22:12).They could not charge
interest to an Israelite as only the poverty stricken borrowed (Duet. 23:20).
Concerning unrighteous dealings ( EX. 23:1-9) Concerning Sabbatical year
(Ex 23:10-13).Concerning the three feast (Ex 23:14-19). A. Feast of Unleavened
Bread v. 14-21 of Abib or Nisan (Passover)(Ex.2:15-20;13:4-7). B. Feast
of Harvest . Fifty days after (Pentecost)The law limited the feast
to one day. C. Feast of Ingathering (feast of tabernacles).Lev. 23:34;Duet.16:13-16;31;10;IIChro.
8:13;Ezra 3:4;Zech 14:16-19).This feast lasted for a week from15 to 21
of Tishri (Oct.).
5. Concerning the possession
of the land (Ex.23:20-30). An angel was to go before with power to forgive
and power to punish. The enemy was to be destroyed and finally driven out.
"The little by little." refers to character development (Ex.23:30).Everything
Canaanitish was to be destroyed and removed. They did not obey this and
it was the chief cause for their overthrow.( Josh.16:10;17:12-13;Jud.1:19-36;I
Kings 11:1-10;14:22;24;II Kings 12:3;17:6-20). (Note): Their borders
were to be the Red Sea, Mediterranean Sea ,The Euphrates. (Ex 23:30 ff.)
Solomon touched all three points, but it is questionable if he reached
the limit (Gen.15:18;Duet 11:24;I Kings 4:21). (Note):The Canaanites and
all the others were to be expelled (Ex.23:30;34:12-17;Num.25:16-18;33:50-56;Duet
D. The Acceptance of the
Covenant and the ascent of Moses into the Mount.
1. Moses was commanded to
take Aaron, Nadab, Abihu and 70 elders of Isreal (not judges) (Ex
24:1). They sacrificed and ratified the covenant with blood. The people
unanimously ratified it.
2. The group went a little
farther and ate and drank and saw God in some revealed form. Moses went
up to the Mount to meet God and took Joshua part way with him. He received
from God the tables of stone with the law and the commandments "Which I
have written." Moses remained on the mount 40 days and 40 nights with God
(Ex.24:15-18). (Note): Joshua remained part way up until Moses returned.
E. Instructions given to
Moses as to the structure of the tabernacle and the consecration and attire
of the priest (Ex25:31).
1. Moses was commanded
to take an offering from the people of metals, of textiles ,and of skins
to make a tabernacle so that God would dwell among them (Ex.25:1-9).
2. The ark was to be made
of Acacia wood (a very hard wood) (Ex 25:10-22).Length 2.5 cubits- 3’9"
. Breadth and Height 1.5 cubits- 2’3". It was to be overlaid with pure
gold. A crown or rim of gold was to encircle the top. Two rings of gold
were to be on each side, Through them staves , overlaid with gold were
to be pushed, by these it was to be carried. The staves were to be
permanent fixtures. A mercy seat of the length and breadth of the ark was
to be made of pure gold and placed on the top of the ark.(The only lid
it had).Two Cherubims (Kneeling) of one piece with the mercy seat were
to be made of pure gold. Their faces were to be inward and their wings
to tip overhead-upon the mercy seat. Beneath the faces and the wings of
the two Cherubims, God was to speak to Moses and also make expiation for
the people. Within this ark were to be placed the testimony, the table
of stone, and Aaron’s rod that budded and a pot of Manna. The ark itself
was to be placed within the Holy of Holies.
3. The table was also to
be made of Acacia wood. (Ex.25:23-30).The length 2 cubits, breath 1 cubit
,and height 1.5 cubits. It was to be overlaid with pure gold. A crown or
rim of gold was to encircle it. Rings and staves of Acacia wood overlaid
with gold were to be made so that the table could be carried. Its dishes
spoons and bowls were to be made of gold.
4. A candlestick of pure
gold was to be made (Chandelier) (Ex. 25:31-40).Three branches were to
curve upward and outward on both sides to the same height. The three branches
on each side had three cups apparently composed of a knop and an almond
flower each. There were four sides on the central shaft.
5. The tabernacle proper
or the Mishcan was to be 30 cubits long (45 feet)10 cubits wide and 10
cubits high. Apparently the depth it was sunk in the ground was counted
in the height. It was divided in two by a heavy veil. The west
end was a cube of ten feet. The East end was 20 cubits long and 10 X 10.
The west was the Holy of Holies and the East was the Holy place.
(1) Over this Mishcan
were placed curtains of fine twined linen of blue, purple and scarlet upon
which were the Cherubims . A tent of goat’s hair was then cast over
all in the form of an awning.
(2) A covering of ram’s
skin died red was placed over the ridge pole or where the ridge pole would
be. Over those skins were placed another covering of seal skins.
(3) Boards were to be hewn
from Acacia wood. And set on end for the frame work and placed with gold
on the inside. There was a veil door to the East.
(4) An alter of Acacia wood
was to be made 5 cubits long, 5 cubits wide and 3 cubits high. Four horns
were to be made, one at each corner of one piece with the frame work. It
was to be overlaid with brass. Its pots, shovels, basins, flesh hooks,
and fire pans were to be made of brass. There was an approach to the south
side and a ledge about half way up (around the alter) for the priest to
walk around. There was a metal curtain around it evidently to prevent the
priest from touching it as they officiated. Staves overlaid with brass
were made to carry it.
6. 6. Court
of the Tabernacle.
(1) The pillared and curtained
enclosure 100 cubits long and 50 cubits wide was to form a court. The curtain
was made of fine twined linen hung on pillars and sockets of brass and
silver. The height was to be 5 cubits (Ex 27:17-18).
(2) There was to be a gate
to the East midway of 20 cubits, it was a fancied embroidered gate of blue,
scarlet and purple fine twined linen ( Ex.27:16).
(3) Apparently the lamps
were to be kept burning with pure beaten oil. In Eli’s day they apparently
were permitted to have gone out (Ex.27:20-21).
7. 7. Aaron
and his sons ( Nadab, Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar-(Nadab and Abihu
died before the Lord Lev.10) constituted the priesthood. The priesthood
was continued through Eleazar and Ithamar (I Chron. 24 :1-6; Num.25:11).
(1) The priest were to be
garmented in Holy garments. Garments symbolic of truth and holiness. High
priest garments were more elaborate. On his shoulders, he carried bronze
pads with the names of the 12 tribes on them. On his breast he had Urim
and Thummin (Lights and Perfection) from these God spoke. How no man now
knows as Aaron and his sons were hollowed by blood ( Ex.29:1-5ff).
(2) When Aaron went
into the presence of the Lord he carried the names of the Israelites on
his shoulders and on his heart and carried their needs into the Divine
8. An alter to burn incense
upon was to be erected. It too was of Acacia wood. Length and breath were
1 cubit and 2 cubits high. It was to be overlaid with gold and was to stand
outside the veil during the year. And then it was to be moved into the
Holy of Holies for the great day of atonement (Ex. 39:38;40:26;Num.4:11;Heb.9:3-4).The
lamps were to be trimmed and replenished morning and evening. And the incense
on the alter was to be replenished morning and evening. Thus it burned
continually. This alter had two staves as the others did to carry it about
9. Great wisdom and skill
were given to certain people to build and design and construct all these
10. The Sabbath was given
as a sign and was to be kept. The death sentence was inflicted for its
disregard (Ex. 31:12,14 ,18).
F. The infraction of the
covenant just given by the idolatry of the calf. The removal of it
through the intercession of Moses (Ex.32:-34).
1. When Moses delayed to
come down, the people asked Aaron to make gods before them. Aaron
collected all their personal gold that they were wearing and made a golden
calf (Ex.32:1-6). And built an alter before it. He punished them for their
desire, but yielded just the same.
2. God informed Moses what
they had done, evidently while he was in the mount and told him to get
down (Ex.32:6-7).It was then that God offered to make a new nation of Moses’
descendants. But Moses refused to stand aside. There is the peak of the
devotion of Moses to God.(Best sign or type of the sanctified heart , Ex.32:9-14).
3. Moses then went down
with the two tablets in hand. Apparently the battle of intercession took
place on the top of the mount (Ex.32:14-15).The two tablets were written
on both sides and the hewing and the writing were both the
work of God (vs.15-17).
4. Somewhere on the way
down he picked up Joshua , but nothing is said of the 70 elders. As they
neared the camp they heard the noise of the idolater’s worshippers and
then they saw it. Moses’ wrath waxed hot ( only place divine wrath was
exercised by a human being except Jesus in the temple when obeying
God). He broke the tables of stone and ground the calf to powder and cast
the dust into the water and made them drink of the water. He then chided
with Aaron, and Aaron excused himself by saying the people were stiff-necked
and hard hearted. The people would have probably done it with or without
Aaron’s consent. Apparently God was not so hard on Aaron as Moses was (Ex.
5. It is at this point that
the Levites redeemed themselves and turned a previous curse into a blessing
by showing zeal above friendship and ties of relatives for the cause of
God (Ex 32:26-29).Apparently it was the leaders that were slain.
6. Moses prayed and the
second time and begged to be blotted out rather than have the people perish.
God informed him that the transgressors were blotted out from the land
of the living(Ex.32:30-35). Verse 35 refers back to the slaughter by the
7. An angel was to go before
them. Moses took the tent of meeting and pitched it far without the camp
to indicate the removal of the presence of God due to their rebellion (Ex.
33:7 R.V.). When Moses went out to it , the cloud descended on it and all
the people stood at their tents’ door and watched. Joshua abode much in
this tent. God spoke face to face with Moses and showed him his glory and
his goodness by putting him in the cleft of the rock as his goodness (creation)
passed by (Ex.33:14-23).
8. Moses hewed the second
piece of stone and took them up and God wrote the Ten commandments on them.
(fifth trip up).This time Moses went up all alone for forty days and forty
nights (Ex.34:1 ff.).The covenant was reinstated and renewed as it had
been broken by the people (Ex. 34:10-17;18-36). Moses face shone so he
veiled it while he talked with the people and unveiled it when he
talked with God.
G. The construction of the
tabernacle according to the pattern shown in the mount and the making of
the holy garments and furniture(Ex.35-39).This section is an almost verbal
repetition of chapter 25-35.
1. The work begins and the
liberality of the people is shown.
2. The furniture of the
Mishcan is set before them and made. Bezaleel is the chief workman (Ex.37).
3. The Holy furniture continued.
Then we have the sum of the precious metals used. Ellicott values the gold
at 320,000 English pounds and the silver at 40,000 pounds, besides brass
and other precious things. Both Ellicott and Dunlow have good estimates
of the values.
4. In Chapter 40 we have
the erection of the tabernacle. We are then told the cloud descended and
the glory occupied the tabernacle.
I. Book of Leviticus
A. At first God spoke to
Moses at the burning bush. Then from the tent of meeting and also from
Mount Sinai. Then the glory rested over the tabernacle of the congregation
and filled it and rested therein ( Lev.1:1). Leviticus as a name is misleading.
It deals with laws of Sacrifice governing the priests. Hence it is ceremonial.
It is divided into four parts.
1. Law of sacrifice Ch 1-7.
2. Consecration of the priesthood
3. Laws of unclean leading
up to ritual to the day of atonement Ch.11-16.
4. The law of Holiness or
holy living in ethical symbolism Ch 17 ff.
5. Modernistic teaching
, regards the book of Leviticus as the work of Ezekiel in Babylon. This
should not be taken seriously. The Israelites were disputed as being in
the wilderness (Lev.4:12; 14:3; 16:10; 25:1; 26:46; 27:34)`.
B. Law of Sacrifice (Ch1-7).
Paul in Romans Ch. 1:ff poses from sinful man to Holy God. John in I John
1:1-10 starts at a Holy God and poses to sinful man. Moses in Lev. Ch.
1-7 poses from a Holy God to sinful man. That is from the burnt offering
to the trespass offering. From man to God it would be from the trespass
offering to the burnt offering. When Isreal sinned Moses offered from the
trespass to the burnt offering as does Paul. They were never mixed. We
must start from one end to the other. Here we shall follow Moses order
ethically or Paul’s order doctrinally
C. All the offerings follow
1. The Trespass offering.
2. The Sin offering.
3. The Offering of ignorance
4. The Meat Offering (Meal
5. The Burnt Offering
D. At first every male sacrificed.
Then the head of the house or the clan, then the oldest son then the consecration
of the Aaronic house.
1. The consecration of Aaron
and his sons (Ch 8).(Note): The chapters 8-10 are the fulfillment of the
injunctions given in Ch. 29.
(1) By command of God Moses
took Aaron and his sons and took special garments , anointing oil, a bullock,
two rams, unleavened bread and gathered the congregation together at the
door of the tabernacle of the congregation (Lev.8:1-3).
(2) Moses then took Aaron
and his sons and washed them with water and put upon Aaron the coat, the
girdle, the robe, the ephod and girded him with the girdle of the ephod.
He put a breastplate upon him, and upon it the Urim and Thummin (Lights
and perfection). He put the Mitre upon Aaron’s’ head and upon the forefront
of the Mitre; the golden plate and the golden crown (v.8-9).
(3) Moses took anointing
oil and anointed the tabernacle and all therein and sprinkled oil upon
the alter seven times and all the vessels and poured the oil upon Aaron’s
head. Moses also put upon Aaron’s sons coats and girdled them with
girdles and put bonnets upon them (Lev.8:10-13).
(4) Moses brought the bullock
for the sin offering and Aaron and his sons laid their hands upon its head
and Moses slew it and put the blood upon the horns of the alter with his
finger and poured the blood out on the bottom of the alter. Moses took
the fat of the innards and the caul and the two kidneys and burned them
upon the alter. The rest was burned without the camp (Lev.8:14-17).
(5) Moses then brought
the ram for the burnt offering. Aaron and his sons laid their hands upon
its head. Moses then killed it and sprinkled the blood upon the alter and
cut it in pieces. Moses burnt the whole ram upon the alter for a sweet
incense (Lev. 8:18-21).
(6) Moses then brought the
other ram (Of consecration) And Aaron and his sons laid their hands upon
its head. Moses then slew it and put the blood upon Aaron’s right ear,
the thumb of his right hand, and the great toe of his right foot. Moses
did the same to Aaron’s sons. He then sprinkled the blood on the alter.
(7) Moses then took part
of the ram of Consecration and some of the bread and cakes and wafers from
the basket , and put these in the hand of Aaron and his sons and waved
them for a wave offering. These were then taken from their hands and
burned upon the alter by Moses (Lev.8:22-28).Moses then took part of the
ram and waved if for a wave offering and then took it for himself (Lev.
(8) Moses then took the
anointing oil, the blood that was on the alter and sprinkled Aaron’s and
his sons garments. Aaron and his sons then ate the boiled flesh at the
door of the tabernacle with the bread of consecration. The rest was to
be burned with fire (Lev. 8:30-32).
(9) Apparently these ceremonies
were repeated daily for seven days running; during which time they remained
in the tabernacle of the congregation (8:33-34). Thus , after they had
part out of the benefits of the trespass offering, they were ceremonially
cleansed by the blood of the sin offering as typified by the washing of
water and also the consecration in toto by blood on the right ear, right
thumb and right great toe of their feet. All this was done in one ceremony
including the anointing with oil before they could administer as priest.
(Note):Believers today are priest and must be this consecrated :Cleansed
in heart and baptized by the Holy Spirit before they can serve as priest.
2. 2. The Installation
of Aaron and his sons Ch.9.
a) On the eight day , Aaron
formally was called by God through Moses to take office (Lev.9:7; Heb.
5:4-5). Aaron offered first for himself and then for the people ( Lev.
b) Aaron blessed the people
from the ledge of the alter (Lev.9:22). Then later when Moses and Aaron
came out of the tabernacle of the congregation and both appeared to have
blessed the people (Lev.9:23 ; Num. 6:22-27).
c) At that point the glory
of the Lord appeared unto all the people. Fire came down from the Lord
and apparently ,suddenly consumed the sacrifice upon the alter. God approved
all they had done (Lev.9;23-24 remember).
3. The death of Nadab and
Abihu the sons of Aaron (Lev. 10 :1-18).
a) At the close of a gracious
day with the fire on the alter Nadab and Abihu were slain by the
Lord. They had offered strange incense . They were the two elder sons
of Aaron. Aaron and his other sons were not allowed to mourn. They were
taken care of by their cousin. The displeasure of God came sharply.
b) Aaron and his sons however
did not eat of the sin offering as was customary. Possibly they felt they
could not eat after a tragedy like that. Moses made the concession under
the circumstances (Lev. 10:19-20).
E. The Law of the Clean
and the Unclean (Lev. 11-16) Most of this discussion of uncleanness has
reference to the physical, to teach by types heart cleanness: "That which
is natural and that which is spiritual."
1. The law of clean and
unclean meats(Lev.11).They are divided into four groups. (1). Large animals
(Lev.11;3-8).(2).Water animals (Lev.11:9-12). (3)Birds (Lev.11:13-19).(4).Winged
creeping things (Lev. 11:20-23).
2. Uncleanness connected
with child birth (Lev.12).
3. Uncleanness connected
with leprosy (Lev.13-14).
a) Uncleanness of leprosy
(Lev. 13). It is evident that the present day leprosy is not the same as
it was then. It was then a type of sin. Leprosy in articles was not a human
leprosy, but a mildew or fungus which destroyed both the clothes and the
skin of the leper in the final stages because it dried up. In earlier
stages the leper was banished.
b) The purification of Leprosy
(Lev.14). The priest met the leper outside the camp. Two birds were taken,
one was killed and the blood sprinkled seven times on the leper and also
on the living bird. The bird was released and the leper was cleansed. The
erstwhile leper washed his clothes and his person etc. then came into the
camp but tarried outside the camp seven days. This was partial restoration
or partial cleansing. Seven days later , he was presented at the door of
the tabernacle and burnt offerings and sin offering were killed. Then right
ear, right thumb, and right great toe of the leper was anointed with
some of the blood of the trespass offering, and with some of the log of
oil (v.14- 18).He also washed himself again. This was complete restoration,
cleansing and anointing (Lev.14:10ff). (If he were poor he could offer
birds instead of the regular offering). Then he was taken in to the camp.
Similar rules governed a leprous house.
4. In Ch. 15: rules regarding
uncleanness in matters relating to sex etc.
5. In Ch. 16: We have the
ritual of the great day of atonement. The most awful day of the entire
Hebrew calendar: The 10th day of the seventh month. It was then the culminating
point of the Levitical system. (Web site Note: There are two papers that
DR. King wrote in this area on this web site: "Symbolism with regard to
sacrifices and the priesthood " and " Mosaic offerings considered in relation
to Pauline Theology." J.R.)
F. Aaron on the great day
1. Aaron selected a young
bullock for a sin offering and a ram for a burnt offering for himself and
for the priest. Then he selected two kids of goats for a sin offering and
a ram for a burnt offering for the congregation (Lev.16:3-4).
2. Aaron then bathed his
entire person in water and removed his high priestly garments for glory
and for beauty and put on the garments of the common priest (Linen coat,
linen girdle, and linen Mitre ) (v.4). He retained his white turban and
golden crown "With Holiness Unto Jehovah," written upon it (Lev 16:4
3. Aaron then led out the
sin offering for himself and for his house . He then cast lots between
the two goats for the people. One goat faced East ; and the other faced
West. Aaron then killed the sin offering for himself and his house. He
then went in the Holy of Holies with incense and burned it upon the alter
of incense until the glory was manifested in smoke (Lev.16:13). Aaron then
got the blood of his own sacrifice and reentered the Holy of Holies and
sprinkled the mercy seat and before the mercy seat seven times (second
4. Aaron then returned to
the alter and placed both hands upon the goat facing East and then confessed
over him all the sins of the people and then slew it, and did with its
blood as the blood of his own offering (Third entrance) . He evidently
used this goats’ blood with the blood of his own sin offering and sprinkled
the alter of incense in the Holy place (Ex.30:10 ;Lev.16:19). (Note): Those
three entrances are called one entrance in that they are three aspects
of one offering (Heb.9:7-12).
5. Aaron then laid his hands
on the head of the remaining goat facing West and confessed over him all
the sins of the people. Then placed him in the hands of a capable person
who led him away in the desert and left him there. Thus Christ carried
away our sins by shedding his blood, two aspects of one work are set forth.
6. Aaron then returned to
the tabernacle of the congregation and resumed his garments for glory
G. The Law of Holiness (Lev.17-26).
Teaching holiness by types symbols and prohibitions.
1. Oxen, sheep, and goats
were slaughtered for food or sacrifice at the door of the tabernacle (Lev.17:1-10).This
was repealed or modified as life became more complex (Duet. 12:15).No blood
was to be eaten as food (Lev. 17:10-16).
2. Those of close kin were
forbidden to marry each other. This was not observed in heathen nations
nor yet in Israel’s early history. Chastity was also enjoined (Lev.18:
3. Jehovah is the upholder
of the poor, the weak, and the oppressed. We are to love our neighbors
as ourselves. Cutting ones flesh, tattooing, and cutting the hair religiously
were all forbidden. Spiritism and communion with the dead were forbidden
(Lev.19:1-35). Chapter 20 deals with penalties concerning the foregoing.
4. The sacred season (Ex.
20:8-11 ; Lev. 23 - 26).
(1) Sabbath (Lev.23:3)
(2) Passover and feast of
unleavened bread; The day of Pentecost followed by seven days the feast
of unleavened bread. The Passover was instituted in Ex. 12 :1-14,
and the unleavened bread in Numbers 28:16-25.These are considered as one
feast but are two. The wave sheep was also offered at this time. The first
day was also a Holy convocation. The Passover was celebrated on the
14th of Nisan beginning in the evening. The feast of unleaven bread followed
for seven days.
(3) Pentecost or the feast
of weeks: Seven weeks later was Pentecost. It began with the presentation
of the two loaves, signifying that the harvest was complete (Ex. 23:18-19),
and sacrifices were offered (Num. 28:26-31).
(4) The feast of Trumpets.
This was celebrated on the first day of the seventh month, Tishri, which
was New years according to the civil days (Ex. 12:2; Lev. 23:24-25). For
special rituals see Numbers 29:1-6; Neh. 8:2; 8-12.
(5) The day of atonement
( Lev.16:;23: 26-32).
(6) The feast of tabernacles
of Booths (Lev. 23: 23-43).also called Ingathering (Ex.23:16), and was
observed from the 15th through the 22nd of Tishri and marked the end of
the agriculture year, when the vintage and the grain were alike secured,
(Duet .16:18). It was a time of rejoicing. Note: The three main feast were:
1. Passover, 2. Pentecost , 3. Tabernacles.
5. The blasphemer whether
stranger or Israelite was to be put to death (Lev.24:10-23).
6. Every seventh year the
land was to lie idle (fallow). Slaves were to be set free and debts to
Israelites were remitted on the seventh year. The Sabbatical year was to
begin with the first of Tishri (Lev. 25:1-7). The year of Jubilee was at
the end of seven Sabbatical years. There was still greater releasement
and cancellation. It appears that no special notice was given in pre-exilic
times (II Chron 36:21). They were brought to life under Nehemiah (Neh.10:3
ff). The year of Jubilee was ushered in with the day of atonement (Lev.25:8-25).
7. We then have some concluding
exhortations and laws regarding vows, tithes, and their redemption (Lev.26:1-46).
The book of Numbers
is named after the first and the second numberings of the people. It is
not well named as its chief subject is the wanderings. The events begin
"On the first day of the second month of the second year after they came
out (Num.1:1).They ( the events ) end shortly after the death of Aaron,
38 years and 3 months later (Num.33:38).Total time covered by the book
is less than 39 years (Ellicott).
recorded therein begin at the base of Mt. Sinai, and terminated on the
plains of Moab, just East of the Jordan. The book may be divided into three
major sections: I. Camp at Sinai and the preparation for departure.
II. Journey from Sinai to Moab. III. Events on the plains of Moab.
A. The camp at Sinai and
the preparation for departure ( Num. 1:1-10:10).
1. There had been a numbering
nine months before ( Ex. 38:25-26). At which time there were 603,550 males
over 20 years old. Now one month after the tabernacle is erected we have
the first numberings in Numbers and 38 years later we have the second numbering.
The first is in chapter one. The second is in chapter 26. All males 20
years old and upward, able to go to war, who could show the Hebrew pedigree
were numbered. The two numberings are as follows
2. First Census
601, 730 a decrease of 1, 820
B. The Levites were
not to be numbered as they were not to bear arms, but were to attend to
the tabernacle. Of the Levites there were : first census 22,000 second
census 23,00 (Num1:47-49; 3:14-39).
1. Their marching positions
were as follows :
(1) On the East was Judah
with Nahson as captain , flanked by Zebulun, captained by Elihab, and Issachar
captained by Nethaheel.
(2) On the South was
Rueben led by Elizue, flanked by Gad led by Eliasph, and Simeon led by
(3) On the West was
Ephraim led by Elishama, flanked by Manasseh, led by Gamliel, and Benjamin,
led by Abidan.
(4) On the North was Dan
led by Ahiezar, flanked by Asher, led by Pagiel and by Naphtali, led by
Ahira. This group was fourth in the march.
(5) The sons of Levi, (Gershon,
Kohath, and Merari ) took their positions inside the square and took care
of things. (A drawing for the marching is found in Butler's’ book
of Numbers. Aaron’s two sons (Eleazar and Ithamar) took up positions with
Moses and Aaron.
(6) The furniture
(sacred stuff) was covered with cloth when on the march. For the
Jew East was ahead. They faced that way. Their places of worship were that
2. The Aaronic family was
given the priesthood. The rest of the tribe of Levi were Levites and assisted
the priest and ministered to the people, (Musicians). They served from
25-50 years of age (Num. 8:24). They were numbered from 30 to 50 years
of age (Num. 4:3 ; II Chron. 31 :17).Their semi-retirement at age 50 apparently
did not mean much. The Levites were taken in place of the first born who
were spared over the number of the Levites redeemed.
3. Lepers and all persons
regarded as unclean were to be put out of the camp (Num. 5:1 ff).Restitution
in varying proportions was to be made. Laws dealing with jealousy in regard
to married life were set up (Num. 5:5-31).
4. The law of the Nazarite
( a peculiar form of special consecration to God is set forth) ( Num. 6:1-21).The
priestly benediction is then given. " The Lord bless thee and keep thee
: The Lord make his face to shine upon thee, and be gracious unto thee
, and give thee peace" (Num. 6:24-26).
5. The twelve princes, each
representing his tribe, presented vessels for use in the sacrifices , and
sacrificial animals, and wagons, and oxen for the transportation of the
tabernacle ( Num. 7:29-49). The dedication of such occupy twelve days (Num.&:1-89).
6. Aaron is instructed with
regard to lighting the lamps (Num. 8:1-4).Moses is then instructed
with regard to the sanctification and ceremonial cleansing of the
Levites for the service of the God. The Levites are waved before the Lord
as an offering in his service. How we are not told ( Dunlow ; Num. 8:5-26).
7. The Passover was observed
in the first month of the second year in the fourteenth day of the month.
The law made no provision for a Passover in the wilderness. A supplementary
Passover was arranged for those who were incapacitated and unable to observe
it at the proper time. This occur the fourteenth day of the second month
(Num. 9:6-14) (Little Passover -second Passover).As a signal to march the
cloudy pillar came down from over the tabernacle and went before them (Num.
9:15-23,vs 15-17).The two silver trumpets were to be used to signal the
march ( Num.10:1-10).
C. The journey from Sinai
to Moab ( Num.10:11-22:1).
1. On the 20th day
of the month of the second year they marched from Sinai to Paran. Moses
offered to Hobab the son of Raguel , the job of being eyes to them.
He refused and went home for a time at least (Num. 10:29-32).Moses
pronounced a blessing when the ark was carried and when it was to rest
in its place ( Num.10:35-36).( Dunlow).
2. The hardships of the
desert were severe and the people murmured against Moses and Aaron. Some
were consumed by fire on the outskirts of the camp. Moses complained to
God and God gave him 70 elders to help carry the burden. The quails were
sent, a plague followed ( Num. 11:18-23 (Second murmuring).
3. Miriam and Aaron led
a sedition against Moses. Undoubtedly Miriam was the leader. Miriam was
smitten with leprosy (Num. 12). They then reached Paran (Num. 12:16).
4. Twelve spies are sent
out, ten brought a good report of the land but said they could not take
it. Two others also brought a good report and said they could take it.
Moses interceded and God spared them, but they were to wander in
the wilderness until death overtook the rebellious generation. The ten
false spies died by the plague. They turned and attacked their enemies
,but God helped their enemies and they were smitten before them (Num.13-14).(Note):
The 37 years began here.
5. Some legislation is enacted
to come into effect on reaching the land Canaan. In chapter 16 Korah, Dathan,
and Abram rebelled and are destroyed by being swallowed alive. A plague
followed and Aaron interceded and the plague was stayed. His office was
confirmed in that his rod budded and blossomed and bore fruit (Num.16-17).
6. In Numbers 18 and 19
, we have a more accurate definition of the duties of the priest and the
Levites. We have the purification of those who contacted the dead or the
wounded. (Note): They stayed around Kadesh or swung back to it in their
7. The host gathered at
Kadesh -Barnea (1-7) for their final departure ending 37 years of wanderings.
There Miriam died and was buried. They departed and the people murmured.
Moses smote a rock in his own name (Num.20:10). He smote it twice. Did
not do it in Jehovah’s name, did not sanctify Jehovah before the people
(Num. 20: 7-11).
8. Under the circumstances
this did not appear to constitute sin that separated Moses from God. But
it was an error the result of which had to be reaped. It canceled Moses
future leadership (Num. 20:12-13).
9. Edom refused passage
for Isreal through her land. Isreal reached Haran. There Aaron died. Eliezer
, his son succeeded him. Isreal mourned 30 days for Aaron (Num. 20:20-29).
10. They appeared to have
returned through the Kadesh region. Arad attacked Isreal and Isreal vowed
a vow to destroy him (Num.21:1-3). They journeyed toward the Red Sea, and
the people murmured again. God sent fiery serpent among them. Moses
erected a serpent on a pole. Those who looked in faith lived (Num.21:4-20).
D. They finally reached
Mount Seir. Their wanderings are over. They celebrated by two songs of
gladness (Num.21:14-20). King Sihon was smitten and his land and cities
were taken. Og and his people were destroyed , and Bashan and its cities
were possessed. They finally gathered on Arbot-Moab (Plains of Jericho)
E. Events on the plains
of Moab( Num.22:2-36:13).
1. Balak, King of Moab ,
got Balaam to come to curse Isreal. Balaam knew he should not go, but he
wanted to go and was going to go anyhow, so God let him go. Balaam had
to bless Isreal instead. Balak got him to try again, and again he blessed
Isreal. Further he pronounced some of the finest prophecy of the
Star and Scepter that the Old Testament records. Balaam also disclosed
the disaster of the existing nations, and looked far into the future. Balaam
did not break the letter of law, but he told them how to get Isreal to
sin by getting them to worship heathen gods. He probably got his reward.
2. The Israelites did go
for the heathen woman who came to visit. God visited them with judgment
(Num.25:1-3). They were bold and almost open with their adultery.
Phinehas slew the most bold and was given the priesthood for doing it.
When Isreal marched into Canaan , she slew Balaam with the sword (Num.
25:14-15), for so advising them (II Peter 2:15-16, ). Balaam’s crime stated
(Num. 31:15-16; Joshua 22:13 ;Jude1:11 Rev. 2:14).
3. Isreal is numbered for
the third time, but second in numbers. The land east of the Jordan
is divided among the two and half tribes, Ruben, Gad and Half of
the tribe of Manasseh, the boundaries of Canaan are set and divided by
lot among the nine and one half tribes(Num.26-34).Phinehas succeeds his
father Eleazar (Joshua 22:13,30, 31,33,;Judges 20:28).It (? I think he
means the high priesthood here J.R.) remained in the family until Eli,
then passed it to Ithamar’s house. Solomon returned it to Eleazar’s house
(I king’s 2:35) (Dunlow deals with it also).
4. The Levites were to be
given cities and suburb’s among the others with six cities of refuge (Type
of safety in Christ).
5. Moses reviewed the journeying
of Isreal from Egypt to Canaan and named 40 places. It is the only
place we have some of the names given (Num.33).
6. The old generation is
declared dead, Daughters who are heiresses were to marry within their own
tribe. Moses death is then announced. He prays a twofold prayer (Num.27:12-23;
Deut. 3:21-28).Joshua is ordained as Moses successor (Num.33-36)
( Butler is scholarly in this matter).
The word a second law. It
should be a copy of this law. the Septuagint is probably responsible for
this misname. The greater part of this book is composed of God’s dealings
with them and their reaction to God during the 40 years wanderings in the
A. First Discourse (Deut.
1. A survey of the history
of Isreal from Sinai to Jordan(Deut.1-3).
2. Then follows an earnest
appeal to the people to keep the commandments of Jehovah and to remain
faithful to his covenant. This appeal is based on Jehovah’s gracious dealings
with them ( Deut. 4:1-43).
B. Second discourse ( Deut.
1. This address is mainly
legislative. It begins with the restatement of the Ten commandments (Deut.5ff).
2. Strong exhortation to
obedience is given. It begins with the statement "And thou shalt
love the Lord thy God with all thine heart, and with all thy soul, and
with all thy might." (Deut. 6:5).
3. They were not to be socially
mixed with the remnants of the destroyed nations. Marriage was not to be
made with them, else they might be drug into heathen idolatry (Deut.7).
4. Moses further exhorts
to obedience and recalls their rebellion against Jehovah in past times.
They were to bear in mind their great ancestors- Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob
5. Moses then rehearses
his second stay on top of the Mount and the making of the second tables
of stone with the commandments. They were placed in the ark (Deut.10).
6. Moses then places before
them a blessing and a curse, based on obedience and disobedience (Deut.11;26).
7. After they got over into
Canaan proper one central place of worship was to be chosen. There they
were to sacrifice and worship. Foreseeing the possibility of them desiring
a king certain warnings are given in that regard (Deut.12; 17:14-20).;
Dunlow and Ellicott).
8. There were to be no disfigurements
for the dead as in heathen nations. Clean and unclean animals were differentiated.
Idolatrous cities and individuals were to be destroyed (Deut 14:13). Tithes
were to be paid so the Levites could live ( Deut 14:22).
9. The seventh year was
to be the time of release with regard to bond servants and debts (Deut.15).
10. The feast, that is the
Passover, The Feast of Weeks ,The Feast of Tabernacles are more fully discussed
11. The priestly duties
are set forth. A great prophet is coming (Deut.18:18).This is indicative
of a long line of prophets. The false prophet is to be put to death (Deut
12. The cities of refuge
are further discussed; Land marks, military exemptions, rules of warfare,
murder, marriage of captive women, and treatment of rebellious sons (Deut.23).
C. Third discourse (Deut
1. Stone monuments were
to be inscribed with the law and erected on Mount Ebal. Blessings and curses
were to be pronounces from Mt. Gerizim; mount of blessing (to bless the
people v.12) and Mt. Ebal ; mount of cursing(to curse the people v.13);
twelve curses were to be pronounced from Ebal.
2. Promises were made of
restored favor ,upon repentance ,should there be a break.
D. Fourth address (Deut.29:1-30:20).
1. This address is brief
and contains a renewal of the covenant. It is a statement of past mercies
and a warning of punishment of Apostasy.
E. Concluding statements
1. A special message to
2. A solemn charge to Joshua,
and his successor.
3. A statement to the priest.
4. Jehovah’s address to
both Moses and Joshua.
5. The dying song of Moses.
6. The blessing of the trials
7. The vision of Canaan
8. The death and burial
and mourning for Moses.
The book of Deuteronomy
is a smooth well prepared series of farewell, and powerful speeches with
some matters expressed which were not expressed in the four former books
(Toss in Butler, Ellicott, Dunlow, and Expositors Bible).