The Pentateuch

Dr. W.Noble King
All Rights Reserved
This document consists of notes taken by students who attended Dr. King's class at Bethany Nazarene College. The notes therefore reflect student response to Dr. King's lectures and do not necessarily represent fully or accurately his thought in all respects.                                    ***....*** 

I.  The Pentateuch
A. Requirements:
1. Outside reading -750 pages.279 allowed for Biblical area.
2. Three examinations
3. One term paper—3000 words or more.
4. Class expression—unannounced 
5. Class attendance and interest.
B. Mosaic Authorship:
C. The Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch is sustained by Jesus Christ and his Apostles. In fact it is incredible for Jesus to have spoken as he did if this were not true. (Matt 19:7;Mark 12:19Luke 16:31;John5:46-47;Luke 24:27:44) With regard to the inspired writers: (John 1:45,Acts 15:21;Rom.10:5;Heb 13:12-13).
D. The Mosaic authorship was universally recognized by the Jewish Sects and parties-by Pharisees, Sadducees,  Essenes, and by Alexanderians , and Palestinian Jews, as well as by the Samaritans. (Ref. Pulpit Commentary P.7-17.)
Modernist or Liberal view-that the Pentateuch was compiled and rewritten by adding into it from other documents.
Doctrines(1).J-Jehovahistic,(2).E-Elohimistic,(3.)E-Jehovahistic and Elohimistic used (4),P-Preistly, (5.)D-Dueteronomy, written in Josiah"s Day.
II. The Body
A. Genesis:
1. The beginnings (Gen.1:1-2).
a) The creation of the universe (Gen1:1,21).
Creation of the Cosmos ( Bereshith).
(1) In the beginning God created (Bara) caused to be (Gen. 1:1,21,27). This is undated. (Bereshith) - at the beginning of time. Gen1:1 - from nothing; Gen.1:21 - animal life; Gen.1:27 - soul or spirit of man. Gen.2:7 - the body of man. Psa.33:15; Isa.44:9 - make graven image. (ASAH) - to make-Gen.8:6, Noah made.
b) Creation was at first formless and void, from that which was without form and void, form was called into being.
2. The six days work:
a) Gen.1:3-31, Light was called into being and separated from the darkness, darkness called night and light called day (Gen.1:3-5) (First day).
b) Firmament made dividing waters from the waters. It was called heaven(V.6-8)  (second day).
c) The seas were formed and dry land appeared. The gathering together of the  waters was called seas and the dry land earth. vegetation was then created with seed within itself(v.9-13 third day).
d) lights were formed for signs, seasons ,days, and years. A greater light to rule the day and a lesser light to rule the night, and stars also; they were given their respective place(v. 14-19 day four.)
e) Life in the water and whales and fowls in the air were called into being. they were blessed and caused to multiply.(v.20-23 day 5).
f) The beast of the earth and creeping things were created after their kind (v.24,25) an was then created in God’s image and given dominion over all(v.26-31).(day 6).
3. The seventh day was then observed by God for rest (Gen. 2:1-3). Man was not definitely commanded to observe it. The first command for man to do so is in Exodus 13:3-4, Duet. 16:3;Exod.23:1534:18,Duet 16:1. This is referred to as Redemption Sabbath. This is a revolving day. It might be implied that man also kept the day that God rested on after creation, but it is not stated.
B. The paradisaical state of man (Gen.2:4-25).
The first account of creation is a  full account of fact; the second is an introduction to the moral action of man. Such facts as are necessary to that end are stated and so arranged as to best present the moral actions of man.  Man is upright and holy and free and walking and talking with God .He had restrictions or he has restrictions with regard to the forbidden tree.  "Thou shalt not eat of it, for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die."
C. Adam named all creatures. God caused him to sleep a deep sleep, and then He took a rib (Heb. meaning, took from) and therefrom made He a woman and brought her to the man. Adam called her woman because she was taken out of man (A rib, "the crookedest part of man") (Gen. 2:21-23).
D. The institution of marriage then formed. the man is to leave the home of his father and mother and cleave to his wife, evidently not in her original home but start one of their own.(vs.24,25 )
E. The History of the fall 
1. The serpent appears and talks with Eve and deceives her and gets her to eat of the forbidden fruit against God’s stated and known command (vs.1-50).
2. Eve gave to her husband and he did eat. Their eyes were opened and conscious guilt settled down upon them and they hid from God.( vs.6-8).
3. God sought Adam and  Eve and called after them. They came out. God questioned them and they confessed to him and God passed judgment on the serpent, then upon the woman and upon the man.
4.  The prefiqured cross was set up in the midst of judgment ( vs. 15 21 ).
5. The man and the woman were then driven out of the garden, lest that in that fallen state they should eat of the tree of life. (vs.22-24).
F. The record of Cain and Abel ( Gen 4:1-13 )
1. Cain is first mentioned. He denied the blood ( First modernist )and hated his brother and later slew him. He was branded as an outcast by God, from God and from man(v.1 ff) (They represent Christ acceptors and Christ rejecters). And are figurative of end of time.
2. Abel is mentioned after Cain. He recognized the blood and his sacrifice was accepted. Later on Abel was slain by his brother (v.1f))
G. Racial development (Gen. 5:4;4:16-26) .
1. Cain dwelt in the East in Nod and raised a family and built a city and named it after his oldest son .In Cain’s line were cattle raisers, (Art and sciences in Cain’s line) Musicians ,artificers in brass and iron. The first polygamist appeared in the person of Lamech (vs.16-24).
2. Seth was born( takes Abel’s place in the messianic line) as Adam and Eve’s third named son(v.26) He married and begat a son named Enos.  "Then men began to call upon the name of the Lord," or "To call themselves by the name of the Lord"-marginal reading
III. The Generations of Adam
1. The First genealogical table is like tomb stone inscriptions in a grave yard (Ch. 5."grave yard chapter ").There is one bright spot there ,namely  Enoch’s rapture.
B. The degeneracy of the antediluvian’s ( Gen.6:1-8)This degeneracy was augmented by the intermarriage of the Sethites and Cainites .
1. a)The beginnings (1:-2:3).
                           b)  The generation Of heaven and earth (2:4-4)
                           c). The generation of Adam  (5:1-6:6).
C.              d.) The generation of Noah (6:9-9:29)
                            e).The generation of the sons of Noah (10:1 -11) 
           f).The generation of Shem (11:10-26)
                            g) The generation of Terah (11:25-26
                            h).The generation of Ishmael (25:12-18) 
                            I).The generation of Isaac (25:19 -35:29).
                            J). The generation of Esau (36:1-37:1)
                            K).The generation of Jacob (37:2-50:26).
IV. The Generations of Noah.
1. Noah was a just man and perfect in his generation and he walked with God. God commanded him to build an ark to the saving of his house during the flood. The ark was to be 300 cubits by 50 by 30. (v.15) It had one window and one door and three stories. Animals and food were to be taken within (v.21).
2. .Noah and his house were called into the ark. that is himself ,his wife their sons and their wives, clean beast by seven, male and female, unclean by two, of birds by seven, male and female. Seven days after the Noahic family entered the ark the flood came upon the earth.(Gen.7:1-10). 
(1) The flood started in the 600th year,2nd month, and 7th day of Noah’s life .It rained forty days and forty nights ,and the waters prevailed upon the earth 120 days (Gen.7:11-24).
(2) On the 7th month,17th day, the ark rested on mountain Ararat .On the 1st day of the tenth month the mountain tops were visible. Forty days later Noah released a raven that went to and fro until the water drier up. He released a dove and the dove returned. Seven days later he sent the dove  forth again. In the evening she returned with an olive leaf in her mouth. Seven days later he released the dove but she did not return again.(Gen.8:1-12).
(3) In year 601,the first month, the first day Noah removed the covering of the ark and the ground was dry. It was completely dry on the 17th day of the second month; God then told Noah to leave the ark (Gen.8:13-19).
(4) Noah built an alter and sacrificed and the Lord was pleased and  promised that not again would the world be flooded ,and seed time and harvest, summer and winter day and night  should not cease (vs.20-22).
3. The Noahic Covenant( gen.9:1-29)
(1) His family was blessed and commanded to increase and multiply and have dominion and eat of the herds and flocks and herbs. Whosoever shed man’s blood, by man was to be destroyed The rainbow was to be regarded as a token of the covenant of the continuation of the race (vs.1-17).
(2) Noah’s sons were Shem , Ham, and Japheth . Noah drank wine and was drunkened later when he awoke from his wine he pronounced a curse upon Ham. Shem and Japheth were blessed because of their conduct while Noah was drunken. Noah lived 352 years after the flood and died at the age of 950 years (vs.18-29).
V. The Generations and Locations of the Sons of Noah (Gen 10:1-11;9)
1. The ethnological register (Gen 10:1) Shem Ham and Japheth are thus named in order of their evident importance, but in this ethnological register they are evidently given in the order of their birth which is Japheth ,Ham and Shem.
(1) Japheth’s ethnology (vs.2-5).
(2) Ham’s ethnology (vs.6-20)
(3) Shem’s ethnology(vs.21-31).
2. The confusion of Languages at Babel(Gen.11:1-9).From Babel the general separation took place as well as ordination of languages.
VI. The Generations of Shem
are given at some length leading up to the presentation of the of families, from which Abraham appeared.(Gen. 11:10-26).
1. It is said that Shem was 100 years old and begat Arphaxad ,2 years after the flood. If Shem was the youngest of the three ,then Noah’s three sons would have been 98 years old or older at the time of the flood (Gen11:10).
2. It is said Shem lived 500 years after Arphaxad .He then would have been 600 years at death after the Flood.(Gen:11:11)
3. From Noah to Abraham there are 11 generations named. They are Noah, Shem, Arphaxad, Salah, Eber, Peleg Reu, Serug, Nahor, Terah, Abraham (Gen.11:10-26).
VII. The Generations of Terah (Gen.11:27-28)
1. Terah begat Abram, Nahor ,and Haran begat Lot ,and Haran died in Ur of Chaldees before his father ,Terah.(Gen.27-32).
2. Abram married Sarai (Iscah),daughter of Haran. Nahor married Milcah ;Thus Haran’s two daughters married his two brothers ,or the two nieces who were sisters  ,or the two nieces married their two uncles, which were brothers. A daughter of the same house, was called the sister of all the men of that same house, thus Sarai was Abram’s Sister. (Gen11:29)
3. The migration of the Terahites from  Ur to Haran (v.31) Terah gathered his family together (Abram, Sarai, and Lot.) and started to go for Canaan, evidently in obedience to Abram’s call. They stopped at Haran until Terah died (his age 205) (Gen 11:32).
VIII. The History Of Abraham the Terahite (Gen.12;1- 17:27)
1. God had called Abram to leave his country, his kindred ,and his father’s house and go to an unknown destination. This evidently took place in Ur and possibly explains why they left Ur to journey to Canaan .But God had only called Abram (Gen.12:1) A nation was to be started from him that was to be blessed and to  bless to the world (vs.2-3).
2. Abram and his family entered Canaan and came to rest at Sichem .He took all the family property that the family had had in Haran. He was 75 years old when he left Haran. The Lord appeared to him and promised the land to his seed. Abram built an alter there also and continued to journey toward the South. (vs. 4-9)
3. As there was a famine in Canaan Abram descended to Egypt. He told Sarai to claim to be his real sister so that they would not kill him for her. This she did, but the plot was discovered and rebuked by Pharaoh (vs.10-20).
4. Abram returns to Canaan and pitched on the mountain east of Bethel, with Bethel on the west and Ai on the east, and there he called upon the name of the Lord (Gen 13:1-4).
5. Abram and Lot separated. Lot choose the plains of Jordan and journeys east toward Sodom. Abram journeyed in the land of Canaan (vs.5-12). After Lot separated from Abram, God appeared again to Abram and promised  him all the land of Canaan and that his seed would be numerous(vs.14-16).Abram removed his tent and came and dwelt in the plains of Mamre and built an alter there(vs.16-18).
6. The battle and the pursuit of the kings(Ch.14),and the later meeting with Melchizedek. The Sodom combination was defeated and Abram pursued after the victors and reconqured the spoil and the persons. Melchizedek King of Salem (peace) brought forth bread and wine and blessed Abram. Abram gave him tithes of all.( Gen.14:20),Abram is here called an Hebrew and he paid tithes to Melchizedek
7. Abram believed God and was taken into a covenant with him. He is promised a son, and numerous descendants. The blood covenant was then entered into and God told him that his descendants were to be four generations in a strange land.(?400 years; or four generations from father to son).They were then returned to Canaan as the iniquity  of the Amorites would  then be full. The land was to be his from the river of Egypt (not Nile), to the river Euphrates (Gen.15;1-21).
8. Abram marries Hagar as Sarah suggested ten years after he entered Canaan.(Sarah’s big heart-not to be a nuisance in God’s will).As Hagar was near maternity she despised childless Sarah. Abram left the matter in the hands of Sarah and as a result Hagar had to flee from Sarah. The Angel of the Lord (Jesus) told her to return to Sarah and be obedient. He also promised her numerous descendant. Hagar gave birth to Ishmael when Abram was 86 years old (Ch.16:1-16).
9. The covenant or sign of circumcision was then given (Ch.17:9-14).
                            (1)When Abram was 99 the lord again appeared unto him and called him to perfection, His name was changed to Abraham (Ch.17:1-5).
(2)  The covenant of circumcision was then set forth. Every male was top be circumcised .The Land of Canaan was again promised to him (vs.6-14).
                            (3) Sarai’s name was changed to Sarah as a son was also promised to Abram by Sarah. His name was to be Isaac and the covenant promises were to descend to him. Isaac was to be his heir.(vs.15-19)
                            (4) Ishmael was also blessed and to become a people and a great nation.(vs.20-22).
                               (5)The covenant of Circumcision was then put into force. embraced every male of the Abrahamic household.(vs.23-27).
IX. Abrahamic House:
Abraham is then visited by Jehovah at Mamre.(Ch.18:1-33).
1. Three men visit him. (at least 2 of the Trinity). He hastens to welcome them and offers them the hospitalities that he had. They received him( Gen.18:1-8).
2. The promise of Isaac is restated Sarah laughed when she heard it (of joy) , then denied that she did laugh. ( Gen.18:9-15).
3. Two of the men then move on toward Sodom and one remains with Abraham. Abraham is then told that Sodom and the surrounding cities are to be destroyed. Abraham then intercedes six times and brought the figures down from 50 to 10,and then stopped .Abraham and the Angel part and Sodom and the cities are doomed.( Gen.18;16-33).
X. Sodom and the Cities were soon thereafter destroyed (Gen.19:1-28)
1. Two of the three angels that appeared to Abraham journeyed on to Sodom to rescue Lot and his family and they did so ( Gen.19:1-22).
2. The cities were then destroyed by fire and brimstone from God out of Heaven. ( Gen.19:2-25) .
3. Lot’s Wife left the city with the others but she disobeyed and looked back and became a pillar of Salt ( Gen.19:26).
4. The next morning Abraham viewed the smoking ruins from the hill tops of Canaan ( Gen.19:27-29).
5. Lot then dwelt at Zoar. His two daughters there brought Moab and Ben-Ammi (by Incest) into the world .These two later became the progenitors of the Moabites and the Ammonites. ( Gen.19:30-38).
XI. Abraham then journeyed toward the South between Kadesh and Shur, and dwelt at Gerar( Gen.20;1-18).
1. Abraham again denied the fact (to Abimelech) that Sarah was his wife .Again he said that she was his sister. ( Gen.20;1-7).
2. Abimelech loaded Abraham with gifts of livestock and money and sent him away ( vs.8-16).
3. Abraham then interceded for Abimelech and the evil was removed and they were restored to their normal state of health (vs.17-18).
XII. Isaac is born . Abraham rejoices at his birth. The Child was called Isaac and was circumcised the 8th day ( Gen.21:1-8).
XIII. Ishmael mocked  Isaac at  the feast of weaning.
This ultimately Led to the ( Old Man) expulsion of Hagar and Ishmael from the home( Gen.21:9-14).
1. Hagar and Ishmael wandered in the wilderness ,are in danger. God came and supplied their need, and declared that Ishmael too would become a great nation, or people .His hand was to be against every hand and every hand was to be against his.
2. He dwelt in the wilderness of Paran and his mother took him a wife from Egypt. (v.21).
XIV. At Beersheba Abimelech and his chief Captain Phicol enter into a covenant relationship of peace with Abraham as they realize that God was with Abraham. ( Gen.21:22-34)
1. Abraham also reproved Abimelech with regard to the well of water that he had taken from Abraham’s servants (vs.25-31). 
2. Abimelech and his chief captain arose and returned to the land of the Philistines from whence they had come, and Abraham planted a grove and an alter in the midst of it and called upon the name of the everlasting Lord. (vs.32-34).
XV. Abraham then Journeyed to Moriah (Gen.22) 
             To offer up Isaac as a sacrifice on Mt. Moriah. 
1. God called on Abraham to take his son Isaac, who was his only son and to offer him as a sacrifice on Mt. Moriah.(Vs.1-2).
2. Abraham took two young men and his son and journeyed. On the third day they arrived at the mount designated. There Abraham prepared to sacrifice his son (v.3-10).
3. The angel then spoke from heaven and forbade Abraham to sacrifice his son He declared that he now knew that Abraham would withhold nothing from God. The Lord then sware by himself that he would abundantly bless Abraham, "And I will multiply thy seed as the Stars of the heaven."  "His seed would be a blessing to all the families of the earth. (vs.11-18). 
4. Abraham then returned with his son to Beersheba and or some time dwelt there. He also learned that his brother , Nahor , had quite a large family, one of which was Bethuel , who was the father of Rebekah (vs.19-24).
5. Sarah died being 127 years old (Abraham 131). Abraham then bought the field of Machpelah from Ephron the Hittite who journeyed with the children of Heth, and he bought it with 400 shekels of silver. The same as Hebron. There they buried Sarah( Gen.23:1-20).
XVI.  Abraham then commissions Eliezer to find a wife for Isaac (Gen.24:1-67.)
1. Eliezer arose and took ten camels etc. and departed for Mesopotamia unto the city of Nahor. (Vs.1-10)
2. Eliezer met Rebekah at the well of water without the city and was invited by her brother to her father’s house (vs 11-28).
3. Eliezer then recites the whole story of Abraham’s Canaan history, also the death of Sarah and the desire of Abraham that Isaac should have a wife. He told them of the signs at the well ,and of how Rebekah measured up to them. They agreed also.(vs 29-54).
XVII. Abraham then entered into a second marriage.(Gen 25)
This time the woman was Keturah. By her he had six sons. These he later sent into the East country from the presence of Isaac his son of promise (25:1-6).
XVIII. Abraham then died at the age of 175.
Isaac and Ishmael buried  him in the cave of Machpelah (25;7-10).
XIX. Generations of Ishmael (Gen 25:12-18)
1. Ishmael was the son of Abraham by Hagar. He was the father of  12 sons of whom all became great (vs 12_16 ).
2. Ishmael himself lived to be 137 years old and then died, and was gathered to his people.(vs.16-180.
XX. Generations of Isaac. (Ch.25:19-Ch. 35:29).
1. When Isaac was 40 he married Rebekah. When he was 60 his two sons were born, namely Esau and Jacob. Esau was a cunning hunter. Jacob was a sissy, a plain man dwelling in tents (vs 19-34).
2. There was a famine in the land and Isaac went to Abimelech King of the Philistines, unto Gerar .The Lord appeared to him and reaffirmed the Abrahamic promise and told him not to go down to Egypt.(Gen.26:1-6).
3. In Gerar , Isaac also declared that his wife was his sister. His deception was discovered and rebuked by Abimelech ( Gen.26:7-11).
4. Isaac sowed in that land and became wealthy. He had flocks herds and a great store of servants. The Philistines envied him and requested that he depart from them. ( Gen.26:12-17) .
5. Isaac dug again his father’s wells and also dug others for himself. He then left the valley of Gerar and journeyed to Beersheba. The Lord then appeared to him and reaffirmed to him the divine protection. Isaac built an alter there and called upon the name of the Lord. The Abrahamic promise was reaffirmed to him (Ch.26:18-26).

6. Abimelech and his chiefs interviewed Isaac and entered a covenant of peace with him (vs.26-33)
7. Esau married Judith an Hittite when he was forty .This was a grief of mind to his parents (vs 34-35).
8. When Isaac was old and practically blind, he sent for Esau and told him to bring venison so that he could eat and bless him. Jacob and Rebekah heard him and defrauded him out of the blessing (Gen. 27:1-40).
9. Jacob then had to flee  from Esau to Laban  in Haran. This he did. The whole scheme was carried through by Rebekah. (Gen.27:41-28:1).
10. Jacob then reached Laban in Padan-aram after meeting God at Bethel. At Bethel the Abrahamic promise was reaffirmed to him. The place was called Luz at first but Jacob renamed it Bethel.(Gen. 28:Vs 2-3,7,10,22).Esau then realizing that the Canaanitish woman did not please his parents, married yet more of them.(vs8-9)
11. Jacob then arrived at Haran and met  Rachel and helped water the sheep. She then escorted him to her home (Gen 29:1-14).
12. Jacob served Laban 7 years for Rachel but was given Leah instead, He served another 7 years for Rachel and this time he got her (gen 29:15-30)
13. Jacob’s children  born to these women (Gen 29:31-Ch 30:24;35:16-18).
a) Leah
(1) Reuben
(2) Simeon
(3) Levi
(4) Judah
(5) Issachar
(6) Zebulun
(7) Dinah
b) Zilpah
(1) Gad
(2) Asher
c) Rachel
(1) Joseph
(2) Benjamin
d) Bilhah
(1) Dan
(2) Naphtali
14. Jacob then entered into another contract with Laban This time he served  him for so many cattle—14 years for the two daughters and 7 years for the cattle.(Gen.30:25-43).
15. Jacob then fled from Laban but was overtaken at Mt. Gilead. They set up a pillar and ate bread and promised that neither would cross to do the other harm. Jacob also sacrificed in the Mt. (Gen.31:1-55).Jacob called the place Mizpah. 
16. As Jacob journeyed the Angel of the lord met him. He also heard that Esau was approaching with 400 men. He feared and prayed.(Gen.32:1-12) One of the greatest prayer meetings in the Bible.(Sanctified here) His nature was changed.
17. Jacob then sent messengers to Esau with the following presents of appeasement (1)She-goats 200 , (2) He-goats 20.  (3)Ewes 200  (4) Rams 20   (5) Milch Camels 30  (6)Colt camels 30  (7)Milch Cows 40  (8) Bulls 10  (9)She-asses 20 (10)  She asses (foals)   580 some sucking animals not mentioned.
18. Jacob wrestled with an angel (Christ). The hollow of his thigh was put out of joint. He prevailed, his name was changed to Israel .He was no longer Jacob , the heel grasper. Jacob named the place Peniel. (Gen.32:24-32).
19. Jacob was then reconciled with Esau his brother. He presented his gifts. It was at first refused then later accepted .Both men said that he had enough Esau wanted to accompany Jacob ,but Jacob declined the offer and said that he was going to Seir, but went to Succoth instead ( DR King’s illustration of  Jael killing Sisera; Judges 4:17;5:24;She had to do it to save her name .That is more than some Nazarenes do today.).He reached the village of Shechem in the land of Canaan and bought a field from Hamor  father of  Shechem, for 100 pieces of silver, and then erected a pillar  or alter and worshipped. He called the place  Elelohe Israel.
20. As Jacob had pitched near Shechem , Dinah went out to and visited the daughters of the land, and Shechem took her and defiled her. Simeon and Levi slew all the grown males of the city,( Gen:34:25).and took their sister and all the little ones and women of the town to themselves and went their way.(Gen 34:1-3).
21. Jacob revisited Bethuel near Shechem In fact God told him to go to Bethel. He built an alter there and called the place El-Bethel .Deborah,  Rebecca’s nurse died there and was buried at Bethel. God blessed Jacob again and reaffirmed his new name as Israel and also reaffirmed the Abrahamic promise and covenant .He set up an alter to mark the place where God talked to him and named it Bethel (Gen.35:1-150.

22. On the Journey from  Bethel to Ephrath ,Rachel brought forth Benoni (Benjamin)Then she died . She was buried close to Ephrath (Bethlehem) and Jacob set  a pillar upon her grave.
23. Jacob then returned to Mamre to the city of Arbah to his Father Isaac (Gen.35:20-27).
XXI. Isaac died at the age of 180.
And his sons Esau and Jacob buried him.
XXII. The Generations of Esau (Gen 36:1; 37:1).
Esau had three  wives:
1. Adah an Hittite
2. Aholibamah an Hivite
3. Bashemath an Ishemaelite 
He had a large family of dukes and men of importance long before Isreal amounted to anything .Esau left  Canaan from the face of Jacob (Gen. 36:6) and dwelt in Seir. He is Edom (8).Jacob dwelt in Canaan (Gen. 37:1).
XXIII.  Generations of Jacob (Gen.37:2-50:26).
1. Jacob’s sons were in many respects very wicked. When Joseph was 17 (Gen.37:28). He was sold unto the Midianites-Ishmaelites , and taken down into Egypt and sold to Potipher in Egypt (v.36). He had dreams. Here are two of them as follows.: (1) Sheaves bowing to his sheaves(v.7).  (2)sun moon and stars bowing to him (same as father, mother, sons) (vs. 9-10).He was also his father’s favorite son as evident by the coat of many colors (Gen.37:2-36).
2. Not only were the sons of Jacob wicked in dealing with others and with regard to the truth but morally wicked as well (Gen.38:1-30)(.Judah and Tamar ).
3. Joseph’s fortunes varied while he was in Egypt. He was bought by Potipher and Egyptian captain of the guard of Pharaoh. Potipher placed him in charge of all his house. Potipher’s wife lies about Joseph and he lands in prison .But" God was with him." The keeper of the prison made Joseph the overseer of the whole prison.(v.22).(Gen.39:1-23.).
4. Pharaoh’s chief  butler and chief baker offended him and he cast them into prison where Joseph was. There ,they both dreamed a dream. (1)The chief butler dreamed of a vine with three branches . It appeared to bud and bring forth a  cluster of grapes .In his dream he pressed the grapes into Pharaoh’s cup in his presence and gave the cup into Pharaoh’s hand; he was to be restored to his former office in three days..(2)The chief baker dreamed that there were three white baskets on his head .On the top most basket were all manner of baked meats and the birds ate therefrom. Joseph interpreted the dream of the three basket as three days in which his head was to be cut off and the birds  were to eat his flesh .It was so (Gen.40:1-23).
5. At the end of two full years , Pharaoh dreamed a two fold dream. (1)Seven well fed Kine came out of the river and pastured on a near by meadow. Seven ill favored or lean Kine came out up out of the river and  devoured the former  fine Kine.   (2) Seven ears of corn on one stalk came out rank and good, then seven blasted by the east wind (desert wind) came up and devoured the good ears. ,When Pharaoh awoke the magicians and wise men failed to tell the dreams ,and Joseph was sent for. He interrupted the dream as seven years of great plenty, to be followed by seven years of famine.(Gen 41:1-32).
6. Joseph advised the selection of a man discreet and wise to gather up a fifth part of each year and to lay it in store for the years of the famine (Gen 41:33-36)  (1) Pharaoh harkened to Joseph in the matter and further appointed Joseph in the matter. He made him Lord of all, responsible to the throne of Egypt alone.(Gen 41;37-44).  (2) Pharaoh renamed Joseph Zaphnath-paaneah and gave him Asenath, the daughter of Potipherah priest of On , to wife. Joseph was 30 years old when he stood before Pharaoh (Gen 41:45-49). (3).To Joseph were born sons  before the years of famine came, Manasseh and Ephraim  the seven years of bounty ended and famine came (Gen.41;49-57).
7. The Egyptians then came to Pharaoh through Joseph and  (Joseph - type of Christ positive ;Isaac- type of Christ Negative. )Then the other surrounding countries came. This included Joseph’s brothers (Gen 42:1:45:28).   (1) Joseph’s brothers came and were known by Joseph, but they did not know him. They bowed to him and he remembered his dream of them. He accused them of being spies. He put them in prison for three days and then kept one , Simeon in prison until Benjamin came .Their past was staring them in the face, neither forgotten nor buried ,but alive and haunting. They returned to their father in the land of Canaan and told him all and how they found their money in their sack’s mouth. Jacob complained and declared that all was against him. Joseph gone ,Simeon gone ,and now they wanted Benjamin. Jacob is still partial to Rachel’s  children. His partiality has split his home and he has not gotten over it.(Gen, 42:1-38). (2). Isreal asked them to go again but they refused unless Benjamin is sent with them. Judah acts as the spokesman. Jacob then gave consent and sent Benjamin and also sent a present to the man. They took double money also, for the money returned in the mouth of the sacks, and they took Benjamin also. They were taken into Joseph’s house and they feared. Joseph asked them of their welfare and of their father, they again bowed and made obeisance to him . Joseph sees his brother Benjamin again .Bread was set at the table according to their age, and Benjamin’s mess was five times as great as the others (Gen.43:1-34).Their sacks were again filled and the money returned in them and the silver cup used by Joseph was placed in Benjamin’s sack. The steward overtook them and found the cup in Benjamin’s sack and all returned to Joseph’s house(Gen.4:1-15).Judah then stepped forth and pleaded in a remarkable manner. He reviewed the case and offered to stay in place of Benjamin (Gen.44:16-34).
8. Joseph then  revealed himself and uncovered his identity and forgave them and asked them to come to the land of Egypt and settle in Goshen. They journeyed down seventy souls and their household.(Gen 45:1-46:34).   (1) Joseph then informed Pharaoh that his brethren had settled in Goshen. He presented five of them to Pharaoh. Jacob informed Pharaoh that he was 130 years and then blessed him(Gen.47:1-12).   (2)Jacob and his family were then settled in Goshen in the land of Egypt,(or Rameses). Joseph nourished  from the store of Egypt (Gen 47:13-14). Joseph then gathered up all the money of the land of Egypt by selling the Egyptian’s corn. After the money failed ,he gathered their cattle. When the livestock failed , Joseph exchanged their land for corn. He did not take the land of the priest. He then  removed the people to the cities and sustained them. (Gen.47;15-22).   (3) Joseph then gave them seed to sow their land, and the fifth part of the increase was Pharaoh’s. The priest were again exempted (Gen.47;23-26).  (4) Isreal dwelt in the land of Goshen and increased and multiplied greatly. Jacob lived 17 years in Egypt making the total years of his life 147.He made his people promise to bury him with his fathers in the land of Canaan (Gen,47;27-31).
9. The last days of Jacob (Gen.48:1-Ch.49;32).
10.      (1)Joseph was informed that his father was sick. he took his two sons with him and went to his father. Jacob blessed the younger, Ephraim, above the older Manasseh. This displeased Joseph but Jacob declared that it was so. Jacob also gave to Joseph the ground that he had taken from the  Amorites that he had taken with the sword and the bow.(Gen 48:22b;34;26-30) Joshua 17:14).  (2) Jacob then blessed  his sons individually and characterized them individually as a last  prophetic utterance (Gen 49;:1-28).
a) Rueben---unstable as water and shall not excel (vs.3,4).
b) Simeon and Levi---are instruments of cruelty (vs.5-7).
c) Judah---praised by his brethren.(vs.8-12).
d) Zebulun---is to dwell at the haven of the sea.(v.13).
e) Issachar---is strong but couching between two burdens and became a servant unto the tribute,(vs.14-15).
f) Dan--- shall judge and  he shall be a serpent and an adder by the way.(vs 16-17).
g) Gad---shall be overcome but shall overcome at last.(v.19).
h) Asher---is to be wealthy.(v.20).
i) Naphtali---is a hind let loose; he giveth goodly words.(v.21).
j) Joseph ---is a fruitful vine (vs.22-26).
k) Benjamin---shall ravin as a wolf (v.27).
                    (3) The charge concerning his burial(Gen.49:29-Ch.50:14).Jacob was embalmed by the physicians of Egypt .After forty days(for those embalmed) and then three score and ten (70 days),Joseph and a great company went up and buried Jacob in the cave of Machpelah. All Jacob’s sons seem to have gone up to attend the funeral .They then returned to Egypt and a long night of darkness settled down.
B.  Joseph’s brothers then feared  Joseph  after their father died. Joseph then put them to rest with regard to it They then fell down on their faces before him thinking that he would make them pay for selling him. He did not. Joseph lived to be 110 years old. Joseph also saw his children to the third generation. When he died he was laid in a coffin in Egypt (Gen.50:15-26)..
XXIV. Notes closing the book of Genesis.
1. Japheth---white race
2. Shem ---Hebrew race
3. Ham ---black race
4. Nimrod was an outstanding figure in early time. He was a mighty hunter of his fellow man (slayer of the image of God). Built Babylon , Ninaveh ,and was a leader in the then civilization of the world. He was the first mass murder. First army leader.
5. There are at least four outstanding covenants  mentioned in the Book of Genesis..
(1) Edenic covenant ---innocence (Gen.1-2).
(2) Adamic covenant— Adam after the fall (Gen 3-5).
(3) Noahic covenant – (Gen. 6-9)
(4) Abrahamic covenant—(Gen 12 ff). In a sense this covenant is still in vogue. In another sense it is temporarily  suspended (II kings 25;II Chron. 36)
6. The development of Isreal from a family up to a nation.(Gen.12-Exodus 1).The family being welded together as nation in the fires of Egypt.(Gen 46-Exdous 1). Birthday of the Nation of Isreal at the Base of the Mt. (Sinai?)
7. Outline of the Book.

(1) Creation (Ch. 1-2)
(2) Fall (Ch 3-5).
(3) Flood (Ch.6-9)
(4) Babel (Ch.10-11)
(5) Abraham (Ch12-25)
(6) Isaac (Ch 21-28).
(7) Jacob(Ch 25-50).

8. Cain’s rebellion represents man made religion. First Unitarian and modernist.

9. Able’s religion represents salvation by the blood.
10. Seth represents all who call upon the name of the Lord
11. Abraham is a type of the father.
12. Isaac is a type of the Son
13. Servant (Eliezer) is a type of the Holy Spirit
14. Rebekah is a type of the bride of Christ.
Key word in Abraham’s life ---faith
Key word in Isaac’s life ---submission
Key word  in Jacob’s life---desire. 
Key sentence in Joseph’s life---suffering and glorying from prison to the throne.
15. From the beginning God was selecting and building from that selection a Messianic line to be completed by the revelation of Jesus the Christ. A mushroom can grow in a night, but it takes Centuries to grow an oak.
 I. Exodus
A. Exodus has two major sections: 1. Historical and 2.Didactic.
II. Historical narratives of the fortunes of Isreal from the  death of Joseph to the arrival of the Nation at the front of Mt. Sinai (Ch 1-19).
A. The  oppression of Israel in Egypt (Ch.1).
1. The prologue (Ch 1:1-6). The book of Exodus is connected with Genesis  by the conjunction "Now". Many Bible books are connected in this way. In fact the Bible is one book. In a sense all of history is one vast whole marching on to a certain consummation in the will of God. (Gen. beginnings ,Ex. departure or outgoing). Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings Nehemiah, Esther, are connected with conjunctions. Seventy direct descendants of Jacob went down. Joseph and his two sons were down there already. This would mean that  from several hundred to several thousands went down (Ex.1:1b).The stated seventy were made up as follows. Jacob 1: His sons  12,His daughter ,Dinah, 1, His grandsons 51,His granddaughter , Serah 1, His great grandsons 4, A total of 70 souls. There were many other daughters and daughters-in- laws, and women and small children as well as servants (Gen.46:7, 26) (Gen 46 5-27) . Women were not generally mentioned unless they did something off the accepted path such as Dinah. When they left Egypt possibly 215 years later , there were 600,000 men capable of bearing arms( Not counting the tribe of Levi).This would call for a total population of three million at least.
2. The oppression (Ex.1:7-22). A new dynasty took over and a new king arose that refused to recognize that Joseph had made any contribution to Egypt. The Israelites had been friendly to the former dynasty now this new dynasty is suspicious of them. The new king feared an alliance between Isreal and any invaders. Hence he intended to grind them down. That failed so he introduced the murder of all male babies. The taskmasters were first placed over them and they built Pithom and Raamese and some canals, and did field work as well. The midwives, Shiphrah ,and Puah  were then asked to kill all male babies at birth. They got out of it by appearing on the scene a little too late. The king then commanded his own people to cast all male babies into the river Nile. Pharaoh started with oppression and wound up with murder.  86 years later the plan backfired and the Egyptians lost their first born. Raamese II is regarded as the Pharaoh of the oppression. His son Merimptah , the Pharaoh of the Exodus. Merimptah , however left  a monument stating, that he invaded Palestine and destroyed the Israelites. Hence the oppression might  have been much earlier. ( Pharaoh—means Crocodile.)
B. The birth, rescue , choice, and flight of Moses.( Ex.2:2)
1. The birth of Moses (vs 1-2). Amram and Jochebed  were both of the house of Levi. They had three children; Miriam (Mary), Aaron, and Moses. Moses was hid for three months and then placed in an ark, or box made of flags or bulrushes or papyri and dubbed with pitch( bitumen) (Ex.2:3).Jochebed was not necessarily a daughter of Levi and thus the aunt of Amram  , but rather a daughter of the house of Levi or a cousin of Amram.
2. The rescue of Moses(Ex. 2:3-10). Miriam watched under the direction of her mother who was not far away. Pharaoh’s daughter came down to bathe herself in a sacred stream ;possibly as a religious ceremony. She  rescued the child ,guessed who he was, and must have known who Miriam was at first sight, and who the woman was who was called as a nurse. Jochebed returned him to the palace when directed, and Moses was possibly adopted as the son of the childless princess. We have a good example of ignoring the historical order to set the stage for the birth of Moses (Ex. 2:1-2).
3. Josephus writes Moses up as a great general in the Egyptian army and the conqueror of Abyssinia . St. Stephen agrees with this in principle (Acts 7:22,R.V.)
4. The choice of Moses and the immediate results.(Ex. 2:11-22).When Moses was forty he decided to cast his lot with his own people. Apparently the princess did not keep him in ignorance of his real identity. He broke with the court before he left for his own people. He slew an Egyptian who was beating a Hebrew and had to flee to Median to save his life. It was a hasty act to say the least and cost him much (Hebrews 11:24-25).In Median he defended Reuel’s daughters and watered their sheep. He was invited home with them and Reuel gave him one of his seven daughters to wife ( a worthless one). Moses was a liberator and delighted to defend the weak. The Midianites were descendants of Keturah and were more Godly than the Israelites.
5. About forty years later the Pharaoh of the oppression died and the Israelites sighed in bondage. God decided to act (Ex.2:23-25).
C. Call and commission of Moses and the return to Egypt ( Ex. 3 &4.)
1. The burning bush( Ex.3:1-12). Moses was with the sheep beside the Mt. of God which was Horeb. The second person of the Trinity spoke to him from a flaming Acacia bush. The speaker declared  himself to be the God of his fathers. He said, (A.) "I have seen." (B.)"I have heard" (C.) " I have known" (D.) "I have come."(E.) I "will bring them out and into a good land."
2. Moses was to be the one to lead them out. Forty years before he had wanted to do it, but now he hesitated. Moses plead four excuses.(Note) Moses a hasty man out Petered Peter.(1) Personally unfit (Ex. 3:11-12). (2) Israelites would not know who sent me (Ex.3:13-22). (3)Israelites would not believe who sent me (Ex. 4:1-9) (4)Did not  possess the gift of  persuasive  eloquence (Ex. 4:10-17) God brushed all four aside but gave him Aaron as his mouth piece (Ex.4:16-17).
3. The new  name Jehovah. God  had been revealed as Elohim or the God of Power. Now he is revealed as a personal being (Elyeh). "I am" is the name God gives himself. Eternally now it referred to (1) An existence different from all other existence’s (Isa. 45:6).(2) An existence out of time and with which time has nothing to do (John 8:58).(3) An independent and unconditioned existence from which all other life is derived and which it is dependent ;"Who only hath immorality" , that is in His own right, and ours is derived. In the next verse (Ex. 3:15) the "I Am" is modified into "Yahveh" We further modify it into Jehovah. This is done by substitution; the Third person for the first. God used the First in v.14. He used the Third as given in v.15.(LORD  in block letters really means  Jehovah).
4. God commissioned Moses to lead the Israelites out of Egypt , bring them to the Mt. of God. His rod was a symbol of power and thus became the rod of God. His leprous hand was healed and was a symbol of divine power over men (Ex.3;10,12;4;2ff).He was to perform like signs in the presence of Isreal, and greater in the presence of Pharaoh (Royal Crocodile) (Ex. 4:8,19).
5. Moses returns to Egypt (Ex 4:18-31).Moses ask leave of Jethro (Ex .4:18).God informs him that the men are dead that sought his life (4:19). He was to tell Pharaoh that if he would not let Isreal go ."I’ll slay the first born" (V. 23)Moses took his wife and two sons and started to return. His wife apparently observed the law of circumcision  and God made Moses deathly sick. She there complained with a deathly taunt (Ex.4:20,21,24-26).Jehovah then told Aaron to go out and meet  Moses , and Moses told Aaron all the acts and words of God. They arrived in Egypt and Aaron gathered the people together and told them all . And also performed the signs in their presence(Ex.4:27-31).
D. The first interview between Moses and Pharaoh and its results (Ex 5:1-6:13).
1. Moses and Aaron visit the court  (At Zoan) (Ps.78:12.43)."The men are dead who sought your life" (Ex.5:1-3).The request was to let the Israelites go into the desert to sacrifice  to "God" Jehovah of Isreal for three days.
2. Pharaoh refused the request, and increased the burden (Ex. 5:2,4,9,). He refused to regard Jehovah as having any authority over him. He ruled Isreal. " Why should I obey God? " The same day he increased the burdens. They had to gather their own straw or stubble (probably four feet long)(Ex. 5:7,8).The first result of Moses effort  was to bring the people into worse bondage than they were before. ( Note): There were three grades of officers: (1) Lords of service (Ex.1:11).(2).Taskmasters (Ex5:6a ,10)  (3). Officers(Ex5;6b).The former first two were probably Egyptians, and the third Hebrews. They counted and piled the bricks. Both were beaten(Ellicott).
3. The Jewish officers under the taskmasters were beaten. The officers and people went to Pharaoh and lodged a complaint. Pharaoh accused them of idleness. On their way back they reproached Moses and Aaron. Moses went to God and lodged a strong complaint ( Ex. 5:15-23).
4. God then told Moses that he would take over and to tell the people that he would bring them out with power and victory and bring them into  the land of promise. The people harkened not unto God for anguish of spirit and cruel bondage (Ex.6:1-10). God gave Moses a further charge for Pharaoh and for the Israelites (Ex.6:11-13).
E. The genealogy  of Moses and Aaron (Ex.6:14-27). The Semitic people made much of the lineage of these people, hence the genealogy of Moses and Aaron and Levites in general. "Generations of Rueben (Ex. 6:14),Of Simeon(v.15), of Levi from whom descended Gershon ,Kohath, and Merari (v.16). The sons of Gershon (v.17), The sons of Kohath (v.18) The sons of Merari (v.19).The marriage of Amram and Jochebed  (v,20).Birth of Miriam, Aaron ,and Moses then followed. Aaron married Elisheba . Aaron’s sons were  Nadab, Abihu, Eleazar, Ithamar. The marriage of Eleazar and one of the daughters of Putiel and the birth of Phinehas (Ex. 6:25) (Note):Levi’s three sons were probably born before he left Canaan for Egypt. He died at the age of 137.Amram died at 137 also(Ex.6:16-18). (Moses father).
F. The effects of Moses to overcome the obstinacy (stubbornness ) of Pharaoh, and the first  nine plagues (Ex.7:1-11-11:10).And Moses and Aaron were to go to Pharaoh (Ex.7:2). Signs and wonders and judgment were to be performed (Ex. 3:20;4:8,9,30;7:4).Egypt was a leading nation in the world at that time, and she was at the height of her glory. Her gods were discredited and polytheism was discredited all over the world. Jehovah was exalted the world over. Every plague had the defeat of a god in it, and a victory for Jehovah in it (Ex. 7:5) (Ellicott).  Pharaoh asked for a sign. Aaron cast down Moses rod, and it became a serpent. The Egyptians did the same, and their rods became serpents; and Aaron’s rod swallowed them up.(Two of those men are named, Jannes and Jambres II Tim. 3:8). "Pharaoh’s heart hardened itself."(Pharaoh’s heart is in the nominative case and is the actor) (Ellicott). (Note): The term enchantment  leads  us to believe that they were only tricksters , and God took over as he did with the witch of Endor: to her and their confusion. She was terror stricken and astonished.(Moses would be 80 or more and Aaron would be 83 or more).
1. Plague one (Ex.7:14-25).Aaron took Moses rod and stretched his hand over the waters of the Nile, and they became blood and the fish died and the water was undrinkable (Ex.7;15,19).The enchanters did likewise. This plague covered all the waters in Egypt. It lasted seven days. Pharaoh hardened his heart.
2. Plague two (Ex.8:1-15). Frogs. The frog species came up. Moses commanded Aaron to stretch forth his hand with the rod over the waters of Egypt and frogs came up. They were into houses ,ovens, drinking water, on beds, and everywhere. They were hideous to the eye and grating to the ears, and repulsive to the touch. The frog was worshipped by them (Ex.t8:5).The magicians repeated the act. Pharaoh promised to let them go if he got rid of the frogs. Moses said," Glory over me" (Ex.8:9).That is (I submit to thy will).Moses prayed and the frogs died. They were as big a menace dead as alive. Pharaoh again hardened his heart.
3. Plague three (Ex.8:16-19). Lice.  God told Moses to tell Aaron to stretch out his arm with he rod and smite the dust of the earth. Aaron did so and beat the dust. The magicians declared it the hand of  God and did not try to imitate it. The first three plagues were upon Egyptian and Israelite alike. Apparently  Isreal was willing to obey Moses and leave Egypt. Aaron was the actor in the first three. God did it, Moses did it and Aaron did it. (Trinity). 
4. Plague four (Ex.8:20-32). Flies. (LXX. Septuagint ) calls it dog flies. The Hebrew merely refers to swarms. It could have also been a form of beetles. Goshen was spared (Ex.8:22).A days notice was given(Ex.8:23).The rod raising is not mentioned at all. God apparently just did it. Pharaoh said." Sacrifice in the land" (second repentance and first compromise) (EX.8:25). If they did so the Egyptians would be offended. Hence a three days journey into the wilderness was necessary (Ex 8:26-27).Pharaoh conceded ,but said they were not to go very far. (Second compromise).Moses prayed that on the next day the flies would  depart and they did. Pharaoh hardened his heart and broke the promise (Ex.8:30).
5. Plague five(Ex.9:1-7). The Murrain  cattle plague. It struck with a days notice but with no rod raising. It hit flocks and herds and horses recently brought in and prized very highly (barn stock apparently was saved).It did not strike Goshen.  This did not move Pharaoh much.
6. Plague six (Ex.9:8-12).Boils. Moses and Aaron stood in the sight of Pharaoh and apparently Moses sprinkled dust into the air. This dust became boils on man and beast
(1) The Magicians were smitten and fled before Moses and Aaron. Their deception became plain to all (II. Tim 3:8-9).
(2) This Jannes and Jambres were evidently the acting magicians, acting in imitation of Moses and Aaron. They were publicly reproved for the were publicly smitten.
(3) (Pharaoh had moved twice before. Now in a special way his heart was hardened by God. This is the inevitable result in any walk of life.
7. Plague seven (Ex.9: 13-35).Fire and hail. A speech was made and fire and hail were announced a day ahead. Moses stretched forth his had with the rod in it and fire and hail came. Judgment was tempered with mercy for those who stayed inside and stabled their stock and weathered the storm. God declares that he had spared Pharaoh’s life to show his power throughout the earth (Ex.9:16).Pharaoh said that he and his people had sinned and that it was enough(Ex.9:26-27). Moses stepped out into the storm and stretched forth his hand and the storm ceased (Ex.9:29,33).Moses appeared to be the speaker and the actor ,but it could have been Aaron.(Note)  Very light hail and thunder are not unknown in Egypt. By the state of the crops it would be about the end of January. (Ellicott’s judgment).
8. Plague eight (Ex.10:1-20).Locust  (type of  grasshopper).Moses and Aaron entered Pharaoh’s presence and announced that there would be locust tomorrow. They would enter all houses and eat all that was spared from the other plagues. Moses and Aaron walked out of the presence of Pharaoh (Ex.10:6) Pharaoh’s servants begged him to let them go, are else Egypt would be totally destroyed . Moses and Aaron were recalled and asked who would go? "All". Pharaoh was willing to let the men go and all the others stay behind to assure the return of the men (Compromise  no. 3). They were then driven out from Pharaoh’s presence (Ex 10:11)."Moses stretched  forth his rod over the  Land of Egypt," And the east wind blew all day and night and brought in the locust. They darkened the sun and covered the earth. Pharaoh hastily called for them and again confessed his sin and prayed that this death would be removed. Moses entreated the Lord and the Lord sent a strong west  wind and drove them away.
9. Plague nine (Ex.10:21-29). Darkness. This plague like the third and the sixth was sent without warning. God informed Moses to stretch forth his hand toward the heaven; He did so and there was darkness that could be felt for three days. (Note): In Dr. king’s sermon on the seven words from the cross he states that the darkness at the cross was "EGYPTIAN DARKNESS" implying that it was a darkness that could be felt. J.R.) The South or Southwest winds occasionally brought sand  that hid the sun; that is not meant here. Light would apparently burn in Goshen but not in Egypt. Pharaoh recalled them but told them to go but to leave flocks and herds  (compromise #4). Moses said that every hoof would be taken. Pharaoh  thrust them out and said he would see them no more (Ex 10:27-29). Chapter 11 is somewhat parenthetical  and much of it was told to Moses by God before plague nine. Moses informed them that death was to strike  the first born of man and beast in Egypt, but not a dog(v.7) would move its tongue against an Hebrew. It is not said to whom it was spoke  but evidently to Isreal. (Note): Moses told the people to borrow (ask for) jewels and silver and gold.
G. The institution of the Passover (Ex12:1-18).
1. Here is the  birthday of the nation (Judges19:30;I Kings 6:1).This was to be the first month of their ecclesiastical year (Abib) (EX13:4; 23:15; 34;18 Deut.16:1). Abib is also called Nisan after the Babylonian Captivity (Neh.2:1); (Esther 3:7), Our end of  March and beginning of April. Their civil year began seven months after Abib and was called in Babylonia ,Tishri. It  was at or near the autumnal equinox. In the Old Testament it is called Ethanim (I Kings 8;2).
2.  (Pulpit Hom. Com., Exp. P.227 )
3. A lamb ,either of sheep or of goats was to be selected on the 10th day of the 7th month (six months and ten days into their civil year) , and kept under observation for four days. It was to be killed between the two evenings (Between 3 P.M. and 5 P.M., according to Josephus  a little later) by the whole congregation.  The innards were to be taken out, cleaned, and returned , and then the whole lamb or kid was to be roasted with fire. Nothing was to remain, and the uneatable parts were to be burned with fire. It was to be wholly consumed (Note): No uncircumcised home could eat of the Passover (Ex.12:48-49).
4. The blood was to be sprinkled upon the door post, and the flesh to be eaten by groups within each house, large enough to consume a whole lamb. Two small families would go together and every large one would help make a smaller one (Ex 12:8ff). This male offering of the first year was wholly consumed. Christ was wholly given without the camp.
5. Apparently anyone of the congregation could kill it. In this sense they were all priest. They were to eat it with their loins girded, shoes on, staff in hand, and eat it in haste. Being killed between the  two evenings, the Passover would have been observed on their 15th day. That is eaten after sunset, and then the death of the first born at midnight and the departure thereafter ,all on the 15th day or first day. (of the week?)
6. No one was to go out of doors until the death angel had passed over. At midnight, the weirdest hour of the night, the tragedy took place. From the king on his throne to the captive in the dungeon, man and beast, the first born male died. Not an unsprinkled house escaped and not a blood sprinkled house was visited by death.(Ellicott, Adam Clarke, and P.C.).
H. Plague ten and its consequences (Ex 12:29-36).
1. God smote at midnight, and Pharaoh and his servants arose and there was a great cry throughout all the land. Moses and Aaron were called for, and they were asked to get out in haste with all their possessions, else the Egyptians would all  be dead.
2. Both men and women now asked for jewels etc. As wages for slave labor(Ex.12:34-36). Apparently they got much. Here it says that they were 430 years in Egypt. The Septuagint says 430 years from the immigration into Canaan of Abraham until they left Egypt. If this is as it appears there would be a gap between Jacob and Amram. Paul apparently agrees with the Septuagint (Gal.3:17).
3. Six hundred thousand men over 20 years besides a mixed multitude (Egyptians) by marriage or servants or sympathizers) , and they journeyed from Raamese to Succoth.(Note): From  Raamese to Succoth to Etham to Pihahiroth.
I. The departure from Egypt and the journey to Pihahiroth (Ex.13:1-14:4).God claimed all the first born males and beast, and those who were spared in Egypt as the death angel passed (Ex.13:1).The first born of the animals were to be sacrificed or redeemed by substitution. The first born of men were to act as priest.(Ex 13:12-13).The first born of man had to be redeemed also (Ex. 13:13:Num.8:16;18:15,16).This was the rite performed by Joseph and Mary for Jesus, and recorded in Luke 2:22,23.The first born male of unclean animals had to be destroyer or redeemed by a clean animal (Ex.13:2, 12,13).
1. The most direct route to Canaan from Raamses (In the Eastern delta where the host was mustered would have been Northeastward  along the coast. It would have been  150-200 miles through the heart of the Philistine country. God said that they would be afraid so he led them Southeastward into the peninsula of Sinai, a two year trip to Canaan instead of 11 days. Fear necessitated this trip (Ex.13:17-22).(Dunlow has a good discussion; marshes , bogs, lakes were all around there).
2. The cloud by day and a pillar of fire by night appeared and is declared to be the presence of Jehovah by day and by night.(Ex.13:21-22).The bones of Joseph were also carried up with them (Ex.13:19).
3. They then  swung  partly around and encamped  before Pihahiroth between Migdol and the sea , before Baal-Zephon (Ex.14:2). They appeared to have been entangled in the wilderness (Ex.14:13) (draw a Chart of the journey).
J. The pursuit of Pharaoh. The passing over the Red Sea, and the destruction of the Egyptians (Ex. 14:5-31).
1. It was told to the king of Egypt that the people had fled or had gotten out with a high hand. Pharaoh hardened his heart and gathered his army together and pursued them.(Ex.14:5-9).
2. When Isreal saw them they were afraid and cried unto Jehovah and taunted Moses for having brought them there. Moses informed them to fear not but stand still and see the salvation of the Lord. The Egyptians were to be seen by them nevermore. Moses was commanded to lift up his rod  over the sea. It went back by a strong East wind all that night. The Israelites crossed and the Egyptians followed, but the waters came back and destroyed them all (Ex.14:10-31).(First complaint)
K. The song of triumph sung by Moses and Miriam (Ex.15:1-21).This is a song of triumph over the Egyptians. It evidently was written by Moses and sang by Miriam and the people at the red Sea. ( Ellicott; Chorus seems to have been written by Miriam).
L. The Journey of the Israelites from the Red Sea  to Rephidim , the Victory over the Amalekites (Ex15:22-17:6). (To the wilderness of Shur).
1. The head of the Gulf of Suez is called Etham. It was on an elevated wilderness area. The northern part was called Shur and the Southern part Sin (to Marah). They reached Marah, and the waters  were bitter. Moses cast in a tree and the waters were usable. They complained about the water (Second complaint). They came to Elim; There were 12 fountains of good water and 70 trees; a fountain for each tribe and a tree for each elder (Ex.16:8).They complained about the food (Third complaint).God sent the manna and the quails They were to gather day by day, and for two days on the sixth day. Manna in the morning and flesh in the evening.(Ex. 16:8 ;John 6:31,32).Some gathered for two days and some went out to gather on the Sabbath, but none was found.(Ex.16:27,28). Apparently the grace of God can not be stored up. A small amount of manna was laid before the Lord. (Note): (In Ex. 16  we are told  they were out of Egypt one month and there had been five camping places between Raamese and Sin; hence there  must have been many resting places.)  Water became a problem ,and they chided with Moses. Moses took his rod and smote the rock of Horeb and water flowed out (Ex.17:3-7 ; I Cor.10:4).(Fourth complaint).
2. Ellicott says that the Amalekites were descendants of  Amalek, the grandson of Esau (Gen.36:12-15). Balaam speaks of them as  "The first of the nation," possibly meaning the earliest of the nations in the Sinaic Peninsula . Isreal was passing  through their pasture land at Rephidim. Joshua defeated them with instructions and help from Moses. By this attack Amalek sealed his doom forever (Ex. 17:8-16 ; I Sam.15:2).
M. Jethro’s visit to Moses (Ex .18:1-27).Jethro was head of the house of which Moses wife was a daughter; Hence he was Moses’ father in law  tribually if not actually. He was a priest and evidently held the sacrifice  himself in the presence of Moses and Aaron (Ex. 18:12).Jethro gave Moses some valuable advice about administration , about judging the rights of the people (Ex.18:13-27).He also brought Moses’ wife and two sons back to him. Moses had evidently sent them back when things got hot.
N. They depart from  Rephidim and came to the wilderness of Sinai.(It was two miles long and a half a mile wide and enclosed between  two  black and yellow granite precipitous ,with a huge mountain rising straight in front 7500 or more feet. From the top of this God spoke to them).Moses was to bring the people to this Mt. Sinai , 150 miles from Egypt. They stayed at the base of the mount for 11 months (Num.10:11-12).
III. Section Two The Didactic section of Exodus (Ex.19:1:40:38).
A. The date of the charter by which Israel was incorporated is said to be the third month after leaving Egypt (Ex. 19:1).Fifty days after they left Egypt the law was given at Sinai. The feast of  Pentecost was observed fifty days after the Passover. The Holy Spirit was poured out fifty days after the death of Christ.
1. Moses then started to go up to God on the Mount. Either half way up or fully up God spoke to him and sent him back to the people with a covenant. He would be their God and they would be his peculiar people and a kingdom of priest and a Holy nation. Moses called the seventy elders and they readily ratified the covenant. Moses was the mediator, and returned their discussion to God (Ex.19:1-8).
2. A three days notice was given that God would reveal himself to Moses in a thick cloud and give the people the law. They were to sanctify themselves ceremonially by washing their persons , clothes and etc. This ceremonial cleansing referred to heart  cleansing necessary to draw near to God. Bounds were set around the mount. Man or beast that passed  the bounds were to be slain.
a) On the third day the whole mount was wrapped in flame and smoke and trembled supernaturally. It was an awesome sight and sound when God came down. From the top of it the trumpet sounded louder and louder; Moses trembled and quaked greatly (Heb.12:21).Moses led the elders to the base of the bounds of the mount. It appears that Moses went up or part way up and was told to return and warn the people not to break through the bounds.
B. The Decalogue (Ex.20:1-21).The ten commandments were spoken to "All the assembly of Isreal" by God out of the midst of the fire of the cloud and of the thick darkness (Duet. 5:22) They are called  ten words.(Ex. 34:28;Deut. 4:13; 10:4). They were later written by the finger of God on stone and placed in the ark as a basis of God’s covenant with them ( Ellicott) (Ex.31:18 ).On witnessing Israel’s apostasy Moses  broke those slabs (two) containing the ten words. They were then replaced by two other slabs hewn by Moses , but the writing was apparently written by God (Ex. 20:1-19).Duet.5:6-21 R.V.) At least two versions of the ten words appear ( Ex. 20:1-19;Duet 5:6-21)  (Note) : The two broken slabs show that the ten commandments  were broken. They were rewritten but remained broken on unbroken slabs and placed under the blood stained mercy seat.
C. The Book of The Covenant (Ex.20:22). After the ten words were uttered the people fell away and asked Moses to be their mediator and take the messages of God and relay them to them (Ex.20:19;Deut 5:30;Heb.12:21). (Note): Moses drew near to the base of the Mount (Ex.20:21) and went up at least to the darkness. 
2. Laws concerning religion (Ex.20:22-26) An alter of earth was to be made, if stone the stones were to be unhewn. No steps to lead up to them. Later with the proper Preistly dress that prohibition was lifted.
3. Laws concerning the rights of persons (Ex. 21:1-22:15).The rights of Hebrew slaves (Ex.21:1-6). Rights of a daughter sold as a slave (Ex 21:7-11).Concerning injuries to persons (Ex. 21:12-32)).Concerning property rights (Ex 21:33-36). Concerning theft (Ex.22:1-5).Concerning fire and dishonesty (Ex 22:6-15).
4. Miscellaneous Laws (Ex .22:16-23:33). Concerning immorality (Ex.22:16-19).Concerning idol worship (Ex.22:20;Deut 13:1-10).Concerning oppression (Ex .22:1-28 Lev.25:35;Deut 15:7;Ps.15:5;Prov. 28:8;Neh.5:7-11;Ezek.18:13;22:12).They could not charge interest to an Israelite as only the poverty stricken borrowed (Duet. 23:20). Concerning unrighteous dealings ( EX. 23:1-9) Concerning Sabbatical year (Ex 23:10-13).Concerning the three feast (Ex 23:14-19). A. Feast of Unleavened Bread v. 14-21 of Abib or Nisan (Passover)(Ex.2:15-20;13:4-7). B. Feast of Harvest . Fifty days after  (Pentecost)The law limited the feast to one day. C. Feast of Ingathering (feast of tabernacles).Lev. 23:34;Duet.16:13-16;31;10;IIChro. 8:13;Ezra 3:4;Zech 14:16-19).This feast lasted for a week from15 to 21 of Tishri (Oct.).
5. Concerning the possession of the land (Ex.23:20-30). An angel was to go before with power to forgive and power to punish. The enemy was to be destroyed and finally driven out. "The little by little."  refers to character development (Ex.23:30).Everything Canaanitish was to be destroyed and removed. They did not obey this and it was the chief cause for their overthrow.( Josh.16:10;17:12-13;Jud.1:19-36;I Kings 11:1-10;14:22;24;II Kings 12:3;17:6-20).  (Note): Their borders were to be the Red Sea, Mediterranean Sea ,The Euphrates. (Ex 23:30 ff.) Solomon touched all three points, but it is questionable if he reached the limit (Gen.15:18;Duet 11:24;I Kings 4:21). (Note):The Canaanites and all the others were to be expelled (Ex.23:30;34:12-17;Num.25:16-18;33:50-56;Duet 7:ff).
D. The Acceptance of the Covenant and the ascent of Moses into the Mount.
1. Moses was commanded to take  Aaron, Nadab, Abihu and 70 elders of Isreal (not judges) (Ex 24:1). They sacrificed and ratified the covenant with blood. The people unanimously ratified it.
2. The group went a little farther and ate and drank and saw God in some revealed form. Moses went up to the Mount to meet God and took Joshua part way with him. He received from God the tables of stone with the law and the commandments "Which I have written." Moses remained on the mount 40 days and 40 nights with God (Ex.24:15-18). (Note): Joshua remained part way up until Moses returned.
E. Instructions given to Moses as to the structure of the tabernacle and the consecration and attire of the priest (Ex25:31).
1. Moses was  commanded to take an offering from the people of metals, of textiles ,and of skins to make a tabernacle so that God would dwell among them (Ex.25:1-9).
2. The ark was to be made of Acacia wood (a very hard wood) (Ex 25:10-22).Length 2.5 cubits- 3’9" . Breadth and Height 1.5 cubits- 2’3". It was to be overlaid with pure gold. A crown or rim of gold was to encircle the top. Two rings of gold were to be on each side, Through them staves , overlaid with gold were to be pushed, by these it was to be carried. The staves were to be  permanent fixtures. A mercy seat of the length and breadth of the ark was to be made of pure gold and placed on the top of the ark.(The only lid it had).Two Cherubims (Kneeling) of one piece with the mercy seat were to be made of pure gold. Their faces were to be inward and their wings to tip overhead-upon the mercy seat. Beneath the faces and the wings of the two Cherubims, God was to speak to Moses and also make expiation for the people. Within this ark were to be placed the testimony, the table of stone, and Aaron’s rod that budded and a pot of Manna. The ark itself was to be placed within the Holy of Holies.
3. The table was also to be made of Acacia wood. (Ex.25:23-30).The length 2 cubits, breath 1 cubit ,and height 1.5 cubits. It was to be overlaid with pure gold. A crown or rim of gold was to encircle it. Rings and staves of Acacia wood overlaid with gold were to be made so that the table could be carried. Its dishes spoons and bowls were to be made of gold.
4. A candlestick of pure gold was to be made (Chandelier) (Ex. 25:31-40).Three branches were to curve upward and outward on both sides to the same height. The three branches on each side had three cups apparently composed of a knop and an almond flower each. There were four sides on the central shaft.
5. The tabernacle proper or the Mishcan was to be 30 cubits long (45 feet)10 cubits wide and 10 cubits high. Apparently the depth it was sunk in the ground was counted in  the height. It was divided  in two by a heavy veil. The west end was a cube of ten feet. The East end was 20 cubits long and 10 X 10. The west was the Holy of Holies and the East was the Holy place.
(1) Over this Mishcan  were placed curtains of fine twined linen of blue, purple and scarlet upon which were the Cherubims . A tent of goat’s hair was then cast  over all in the form of an awning.
(2) A covering of ram’s skin died red was placed over the ridge pole or where the ridge pole would be. Over those skins were placed another covering of seal skins.
(3) Boards were to be hewn from Acacia wood. And set on end for the frame work and placed with gold on the inside. There was a veil door to the East.
(4) An alter of Acacia wood was to be made 5 cubits long, 5 cubits wide and 3 cubits high. Four horns were to be made, one at each corner of one piece with the frame work. It was to be overlaid with brass. Its pots, shovels, basins, flesh hooks, and fire pans were to be made of brass. There was an approach to the south side and a ledge about half way up (around the alter) for the priest to walk around. There was a metal curtain around it evidently to prevent the priest from touching it as they officiated. Staves overlaid with brass were made to carry it.
6. 6.   Court of the Tabernacle.
(1) The pillared and curtained enclosure 100 cubits long and 50 cubits wide was to form a court. The curtain was made of fine twined linen hung on pillars and sockets of brass and silver. The height was to be 5 cubits (Ex 27:17-18).
(2) There was to be a gate to the East midway of 20 cubits, it was a fancied embroidered gate of blue, scarlet and purple fine twined linen ( Ex.27:16).
(3) Apparently the lamps were to be kept burning with pure beaten oil. In Eli’s day they apparently were permitted to have gone out (Ex.27:20-21).
7. 7.   Aaron and his sons ( Nadab,  Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar-(Nadab and Abihu died before the Lord Lev.10) constituted the priesthood. The priesthood was continued through Eleazar and Ithamar (I Chron. 24 :1-6; Num.25:11).
(1) The priest were to be garmented in Holy garments. Garments symbolic of truth and holiness. High priest garments were more elaborate. On his shoulders, he carried bronze pads with the names of the 12 tribes on them. On his breast he had Urim and Thummin (Lights and Perfection) from these God spoke. How no man now knows as Aaron and his sons were hollowed by blood ( Ex.29:1-5ff).
(2) When Aaron went  into the presence of the Lord he carried the names of the Israelites on his shoulders and on his heart and carried their needs into the Divine  presence.
8. An alter to burn incense upon was to be erected. It too was of Acacia wood. Length and breath were 1 cubit and 2 cubits high. It was to be overlaid with gold and was to stand outside the veil during the year. And then it was to be moved into the Holy of Holies for the great day of atonement (Ex. 39:38;40:26;Num.4:11;Heb.9:3-4).The lamps were to be trimmed and replenished morning and evening. And the incense on the alter was to be replenished morning and evening. Thus it burned continually. This alter had two staves as the others did to carry it about (Ex. 30:6-16).
9. Great wisdom and skill were given to certain people to build and design and construct all these things (Ex.31:1-11).
10. The Sabbath was given as a sign and was to be kept. The death sentence was inflicted for its disregard (Ex. 31:12,14 ,18).
F. The infraction of the covenant just given by  the idolatry of the calf. The removal of it through the intercession of Moses (Ex.32:-34).
1. When Moses delayed to come down, the people  asked Aaron to make gods before them. Aaron collected all their personal gold that they were wearing and made a golden calf (Ex.32:1-6). And built an alter before it. He punished them for their desire, but yielded just the same.
2. God informed Moses what they had done, evidently while he was in the mount and told him to get down (Ex.32:6-7).It was then that God offered to make a new nation of Moses’ descendants. But Moses refused to stand aside. There is the peak of the devotion of Moses to God.(Best sign or type of the sanctified heart , Ex.32:9-14).
3. Moses then went down with the two tablets in hand. Apparently the battle of intercession took place on the top of the mount (Ex.32:14-15).The two tablets were written on both sides and the hewing  and the writing  were both the work of God (vs.15-17).
4. Somewhere on the way down he picked up Joshua , but nothing is said of the 70 elders. As they neared the camp they heard the noise of the idolater’s worshippers and then they saw it. Moses’ wrath waxed hot ( only place divine wrath was exercised by a human being  except Jesus in the temple when obeying God). He broke the tables of stone and ground the calf to powder and cast the dust into the water and made them drink of the water. He then chided with Aaron, and Aaron excused himself by saying the people were stiff-necked and hard hearted. The people would have probably done it with or without Aaron’s consent. Apparently God was not so hard on Aaron as Moses was (Ex. 32:17-35).
5. It is at this point that the Levites redeemed themselves and turned a previous curse into a blessing by showing zeal above friendship and ties of relatives for the cause of God (Ex 32:26-29).Apparently it was the leaders that were slain.
6. Moses prayed and the second time and begged to be blotted out rather than have the people perish. God informed him that the transgressors were blotted out from the land of the living(Ex.32:30-35). Verse 35 refers back to the slaughter by the Levites.
7. An angel was to go before them. Moses took the tent of meeting and pitched it far without the camp to indicate the removal of the presence of God due to their rebellion (Ex. 33:7 R.V.). When Moses went out to it , the cloud descended on it and all the people stood at their tents’ door and watched. Joshua abode much in this tent. God spoke face to face with Moses and showed him his glory and his goodness by putting him in the cleft of the rock as his goodness (creation) passed by (Ex.33:14-23).
8. Moses hewed the second piece of stone and took them up and God wrote the Ten commandments on them. (fifth trip up).This time Moses went up all alone for forty days and forty nights (Ex.34:1 ff.).The covenant was reinstated and renewed as it had been broken by the people (Ex. 34:10-17;18-36). Moses face shone so he veiled  it while he talked with the people and unveiled it when he talked with God.
G. The construction of the tabernacle according to the pattern shown in the mount and the making of the holy garments and furniture(Ex.35-39).This section is an almost verbal repetition of chapter 25-35.
1. The work begins and the liberality of the people is shown.
2. The furniture of the Mishcan is set before them and made. Bezaleel is the chief workman (Ex.37).
3. The Holy furniture continued. Then we have the sum of the precious metals used. Ellicott values the gold at 320,000 English pounds and the silver at 40,000 pounds, besides brass and other precious things. Both Ellicott and Dunlow have good estimates of the values.
4. In Chapter 40 we have the erection of the tabernacle. We are then told the cloud descended and the glory occupied the tabernacle.
 I. Book of Leviticus
A. At first God spoke to Moses at the burning bush. Then from the tent of meeting and also from Mount Sinai. Then the glory rested over the tabernacle of the congregation and filled it and rested therein ( Lev.1:1). Leviticus as a name is misleading. It deals with laws of Sacrifice governing the priests. Hence it is ceremonial. It is divided into four parts.
1. Law of sacrifice Ch 1-7.
2. Consecration of the priesthood Ch.8-10.
3. Laws of unclean leading up to ritual to the day of atonement Ch.11-16. 
4. The law of Holiness or holy living in ethical symbolism Ch 17 ff.
5. Modernistic teaching , regards the book of Leviticus as the work of Ezekiel in Babylon. This should not be taken seriously. The Israelites were disputed as being in the wilderness (Lev.4:12; 14:3; 16:10; 25:1; 26:46; 27:34)`. 
B. Law of Sacrifice (Ch1-7). Paul in Romans Ch. 1:ff poses from sinful man to Holy God. John in I John 1:1-10 starts at a Holy God and poses to sinful man. Moses in Lev. Ch. 1-7 poses from a Holy God to sinful man. That is from the burnt offering to the trespass offering. From man to God it would be from the trespass offering to the burnt offering. When Isreal sinned Moses offered from the trespass to the burnt offering as does Paul. They were never mixed. We must start from one end to the other. Here we shall follow Moses order ethically or Paul’s order doctrinally
C. All the offerings follow this.
1. The Trespass offering.
2. The Sin offering.
3. The Offering of ignorance .
4. The Meat Offering (Meal Offering).
5. The Burnt Offering
D. At first every male sacrificed. Then the head of the house or the clan, then the oldest son then the consecration of the Aaronic house.
1. The consecration of Aaron and his sons (Ch 8).(Note): The chapters 8-10 are the fulfillment of the injunctions given in Ch. 29.
(1) By command of God Moses took Aaron and his sons and took special garments , anointing oil, a bullock, two rams, unleavened bread and gathered the congregation together at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation (Lev.8:1-3).
(2) Moses then took Aaron and his sons and washed them with water and put upon Aaron the coat, the girdle, the robe, the ephod and girded him with the girdle of the ephod. He put a breastplate upon him, and upon it the Urim and Thummin  (Lights and perfection). He put the Mitre upon Aaron’s’ head and upon the forefront of the Mitre; the golden plate and the golden crown (v.8-9).
(3) Moses took anointing oil and anointed the tabernacle and all therein and sprinkled oil upon the alter seven times and all the vessels and poured the oil upon Aaron’s head. Moses also put  upon Aaron’s sons coats and girdled them with girdles and put bonnets upon them (Lev.8:10-13).
(4) Moses brought the bullock for the sin offering and Aaron and his sons laid their hands upon its head and Moses slew it and put the blood upon the horns of the alter with his finger and poured the blood out on the bottom of the alter. Moses took the fat of the innards and the caul and the two kidneys and burned them upon the alter. The rest was burned without the camp (Lev.8:14-17).
(5) Moses then  brought the ram for the burnt offering. Aaron and his sons laid their hands upon its head. Moses then killed it and sprinkled the blood upon the alter and  cut it in pieces. Moses burnt the whole ram upon the alter for a sweet incense (Lev. 8:18-21).
(6) Moses then brought the other ram (Of consecration) And Aaron and his sons laid their hands upon its head. Moses then slew it and put the blood upon Aaron’s right ear, the thumb of his right hand, and the great toe of his right foot. Moses did the same to Aaron’s sons. He then sprinkled the blood on the alter.
(7) Moses then took part of the ram of Consecration and some of the bread and cakes and wafers from the basket , and put these in the hand of Aaron and his sons and waved them for a wave offering. These were then taken from their hands and  burned upon the alter by Moses (Lev.8:22-28).Moses then took part of the ram and waved if for a wave offering and then took it for himself (Lev. 8:29).
(8) Moses then took the anointing oil, the blood that was on the alter and sprinkled Aaron’s and his sons garments. Aaron and his sons then ate the boiled flesh at the door of the tabernacle with the bread of consecration. The rest was to be burned with fire (Lev. 8:30-32).
(9) Apparently these ceremonies were repeated daily for seven days running; during which time they remained in the tabernacle of the congregation (8:33-34). Thus , after they had part out of the benefits of the trespass offering, they were ceremonially cleansed by the blood of the sin offering as typified by the washing of water and also the consecration in toto by blood on the right ear, right thumb and right great toe of their feet. All this was done in one ceremony including the anointing with oil before they could administer as priest. (Note):Believers today are priest and must be this consecrated :Cleansed in heart and baptized by the Holy Spirit before they can serve as priest.
2. 2.   The Installation of Aaron and his sons Ch.9.
a) On the eight day , Aaron formally was called by God through Moses to take office (Lev.9:7; Heb. 5:4-5). Aaron offered first for himself and then for the people ( Lev. 9:7-21).
b) Aaron blessed the people from the ledge of the alter (Lev.9:22). Then later when Moses and Aaron came out of the tabernacle of the congregation and both appeared to have blessed the people (Lev.9:23 ; Num. 6:22-27).
c) At that point the glory of the Lord appeared unto all the people. Fire came down from the Lord and apparently ,suddenly consumed the sacrifice upon the alter. God approved all they had done (Lev.9;23-24 remember).
3. The death of Nadab and Abihu the sons of Aaron (Lev. 10 :1-18).
a) At the close of a gracious day with the  fire on the alter Nadab and Abihu were slain by the Lord. They had offered strange incense . They were the two elder sons  of Aaron. Aaron and his other sons were not allowed to mourn. They were taken care of by their cousin. The displeasure of God came sharply.
b) Aaron and his sons however did not eat of the sin offering as was customary. Possibly they felt they could not eat after a tragedy like that. Moses made the concession under the circumstances (Lev. 10:19-20).
E. The Law of the Clean and the Unclean (Lev. 11-16) Most of this discussion of uncleanness has reference to the physical, to teach by types heart cleanness: "That which is natural and that which is spiritual."
1. The law of clean and unclean meats(Lev.11).They are divided into four groups. (1). Large animals (Lev.11;3-8).(2).Water animals (Lev.11:9-12). (3)Birds (Lev.11:13-19).(4).Winged creeping things (Lev. 11:20-23).
2. Uncleanness connected with child birth (Lev.12).
3. Uncleanness connected with leprosy (Lev.13-14).
a) Uncleanness of leprosy (Lev. 13). It is evident that the present day leprosy is not the same as it was then. It was then a type of sin. Leprosy in articles was not a human leprosy, but a mildew or fungus which destroyed both the clothes and the skin of the leper in the final stages because it  dried up. In earlier stages the leper was banished.
b) The purification of Leprosy  (Lev.14). The priest met the leper outside the camp. Two birds were taken, one was killed and the blood sprinkled seven times on the leper and also on the living bird. The bird was released and the leper was cleansed. The erstwhile leper washed his clothes and his person etc. then came into the camp but tarried outside the camp seven days. This was partial restoration  or partial cleansing. Seven days later , he was presented at the door of the tabernacle and burnt offerings and sin offering were killed. Then right ear, right thumb, and right great toe  of the leper was anointed with some of the blood of the trespass offering, and with some of the log of oil (v.14- 18).He also washed himself again. This was complete  restoration, cleansing and anointing (Lev.14:10ff). (If he were poor he could offer birds instead of the regular offering). Then he was taken in to the camp. Similar rules governed a leprous house.
4. In Ch. 15: rules regarding uncleanness in matters relating to sex etc.
5. In Ch. 16: We have the ritual of the great day of atonement. The most awful day of the entire Hebrew calendar: The 10th day of the seventh month. It was then the culminating point of the Levitical system. (Web site Note: There are two papers that DR. King wrote in this area on this web site: "Symbolism with regard to sacrifices and the priesthood " and " Mosaic offerings considered in relation to Pauline Theology."  J.R.) 
F. Aaron on the great day of Atonement.
1. Aaron selected a young bullock for a sin offering and a ram for a burnt offering for himself and for the priest. Then he selected two kids of goats for a sin offering and a ram for a burnt offering for the congregation (Lev.16:3-4).
2. Aaron then bathed his entire person in water and removed his high priestly garments for glory and for beauty and put on the garments of the common priest (Linen coat, linen girdle, and linen Mitre ) (v.4). He retained his white turban and golden crown "With Holiness  Unto Jehovah," written upon it (Lev 16:4 ;Ex.28:38).
3. Aaron then led out the sin offering for himself and for his house . He then cast lots between the two goats for the people. One goat faced East ; and the other faced West. Aaron then killed the sin offering for himself and his house. He then went in the Holy of Holies with incense and burned it upon the alter of incense until the glory was manifested in smoke (Lev.16:13). Aaron then got the blood of his own sacrifice and reentered the Holy of Holies and sprinkled the mercy seat and before the mercy seat seven times (second entrance) (Lev.16:14).
4. Aaron then returned to the alter and placed both hands upon the goat facing East and then confessed over him all the sins of the people and then slew it, and did with its blood as the blood of his own offering (Third entrance) . He evidently used this goats’ blood with the blood of his own sin offering and sprinkled the alter of incense in the Holy place (Ex.30:10 ;Lev.16:19). (Note): Those three entrances are called one entrance in that they are three  aspects of one offering (Heb.9:7-12).
5. Aaron then laid his hands on the head of the remaining goat facing West and confessed over him all the sins of the people. Then placed him in the hands of a capable person who led him away in the desert and left him there. Thus Christ carried  away our sins by shedding his blood, two aspects of one work are set forth.
6. Aaron then returned to the tabernacle of the congregation and resumed his  garments for glory and beauty.
G. The Law of Holiness (Lev.17-26). Teaching holiness by types symbols and prohibitions.
1. Oxen, sheep, and goats were slaughtered for food or sacrifice at the door of the tabernacle (Lev.17:1-10).This was repealed or modified as life became more complex (Duet. 12:15).No blood was to be eaten as food (Lev. 17:10-16).
2. Those of close kin were forbidden to marry each other. This was not observed in heathen nations nor yet in Israel’s early history. Chastity was also enjoined (Lev.18: 1-30).
3. Jehovah is the upholder of the poor,  the weak, and the oppressed. We are to love our neighbors as ourselves. Cutting ones flesh, tattooing, and cutting the hair religiously were all forbidden. Spiritism and communion with the dead were forbidden (Lev.19:1-35). Chapter 20 deals with penalties concerning the foregoing.
4. The sacred season (Ex. 20:8-11 ; Lev. 23 - 26).
(1) Sabbath (Lev.23:3)
(2) Passover and feast of unleavened bread; The day of Pentecost followed by seven days the feast of unleavened bread. The Passover was instituted in Ex. 12 :1-14,  and the unleavened bread in Numbers 28:16-25.These are considered as one feast but are two. The wave sheep was also offered at this time. The first day was also a Holy convocation. The Passover was celebrated  on the 14th of Nisan beginning in the evening. The feast of unleaven bread followed for seven days.
(3) Pentecost or the feast of weeks: Seven weeks  later was Pentecost. It began with the presentation of the two loaves, signifying that the harvest was complete (Ex. 23:18-19), and sacrifices were offered (Num. 28:26-31).
(4) The feast of Trumpets. This was celebrated on the first day of the seventh month, Tishri, which was New years according to the civil days (Ex. 12:2; Lev. 23:24-25). For special rituals see Numbers 29:1-6; Neh. 8:2; 8-12.
(5) The day of atonement ( Lev.16:;23: 26-32).
(6) The feast of tabernacles of Booths (Lev. 23: 23-43).also called Ingathering (Ex.23:16), and was observed from the 15th through the 22nd of Tishri and marked the end of the agriculture year, when the vintage and the grain were alike secured, (Duet .16:18). It was a time of rejoicing. Note: The three main feast were: 1. Passover, 2. Pentecost , 3. Tabernacles.
5. The blasphemer whether stranger or Israelite was to be put to death (Lev.24:10-23).
6. Every seventh year the land was to lie idle (fallow). Slaves were to be set free and debts to Israelites were remitted on the seventh year. The Sabbatical year was to begin with the first of Tishri (Lev. 25:1-7). The year of Jubilee was at the end of seven Sabbatical years. There was still greater releasement and cancellation. It appears that no special notice was given in pre-exilic times (II Chron 36:21). They were brought to life under Nehemiah (Neh.10:3 ff). The year of Jubilee was ushered in with the day of atonement (Lev.25:8-25).
7. We then have some concluding exhortations and laws regarding vows, tithes, and their redemption (Lev.26:1-46).
 I. Numbers
  The book of Numbers is named after the first and the second numberings of the people. It is not well named as its chief subject is the wanderings. The events begin "On the first day of the second month of the second year after they came out (Num.1:1).They ( the events ) end shortly after the death of Aaron, 38 years and 3 months later (Num.33:38).Total time covered by the book is less than 39 years (Ellicott).
   The events recorded therein begin at the base of Mt. Sinai, and terminated on the plains of Moab, just East of the Jordan. The book may be divided into three major sections: I. Camp at Sinai and the preparation for departure.  II. Journey from Sinai to Moab.  III. Events on the plains of Moab.
A. The camp at Sinai and the preparation for departure ( Num. 1:1-10:10).
1. There had been a numbering nine months before ( Ex. 38:25-26). At which time there were 603,550 males over 20 years old. Now one month after the tabernacle is erected we have the first numberings in Numbers and 38 years later we have the second numbering. The first is in chapter one. The second is in chapter 26. All males 20 years old and upward, able to go to war, who could show the Hebrew pedigree were numbered. The two numberings are as follows
2.  First Census                          Second Census
3. Rueben      46,500                         43,730
4. Simeon      59,300                          22,200
5. Gad            45,650                          40,500 
6. Judah         74,600                          76,500
7. Issachar     54,400                           64,300
8. Zebulun       57,400                          60,500
9. Ephraim      40,500                          32,500 
10. Manasseh   32,200                          52,700
11. Benjamin     35,400                          45,600 
12. Dan               62,700                         64,400
13. Asher            41,500                         53,400
14. Naphtali        53, 400                         45,400 
                        603, 550                      601, 730     a decrease of 1, 820
B. The  Levites were not to be numbered as they were not to bear arms, but were to attend to the tabernacle. Of the Levites there were : first census 22,000 second census 23,00 (Num1:47-49; 3:14-39).
1. Their marching positions were as follows :
(1) On the East was Judah with Nahson as captain , flanked by Zebulun, captained by Elihab, and Issachar captained by Nethaheel.
(2) On the South was  Rueben led by Elizue, flanked by Gad led by Eliasph, and Simeon led by Shelumiel.
(3) On the West  was Ephraim led by Elishama, flanked by Manasseh, led by Gamliel, and Benjamin, led by Abidan.
(4) On the North was Dan led by Ahiezar, flanked by Asher, led by Pagiel and by Naphtali, led by Ahira. This group was fourth in the march.
(5) The sons of Levi, (Gershon, Kohath, and Merari ) took their positions inside the square and took care of things. (A drawing for the marching  is found in Butler's’ book of Numbers. Aaron’s two sons (Eleazar and Ithamar) took up positions with Moses and Aaron. 
(6) The furniture  (sacred stuff) was covered with cloth when on  the march. For the Jew East was ahead. They faced that way. Their places of worship were that way.
2. The Aaronic family was given the priesthood. The rest of the tribe of Levi were Levites and assisted the priest and ministered to the people, (Musicians). They served from 25-50 years of age (Num. 8:24). They were numbered from 30 to 50 years of age (Num. 4:3 ; II Chron. 31 :17).Their semi-retirement at age 50 apparently did not mean much. The Levites were taken in place of the first born who were spared over the number of the Levites redeemed.
3. Lepers and all persons regarded as unclean were to be put out of the camp (Num. 5:1 ff).Restitution in varying proportions was to be made. Laws dealing with jealousy in regard to married life were set up (Num. 5:5-31).
4. The law of the Nazarite ( a peculiar form of special consecration to God is set forth) ( Num. 6:1-21).The priestly benediction is then given. " The Lord bless thee and keep thee : The Lord make his face to shine upon thee, and be gracious unto thee , and give thee peace" (Num. 6:24-26).
5. The twelve princes, each representing his tribe, presented vessels for use in the sacrifices , and sacrificial animals, and wagons, and oxen for the transportation of the tabernacle ( Num. 7:29-49). The dedication of such occupy twelve days (Num.&:1-89).
6. Aaron is instructed with regard to lighting the lamps (Num. 8:1-4).Moses is then instructed  with regard to the sanctification  and ceremonial cleansing of the Levites for the service of the God. The Levites are waved before the Lord as an offering in his service. How we are not told ( Dunlow ; Num. 8:5-26).
7. The Passover was observed in the first month of the second year in the fourteenth day of the month. The law made no provision for a Passover in the wilderness. A supplementary Passover was arranged for those who were incapacitated and unable to observe it at the proper time. This occur the fourteenth day of the second month (Num. 9:6-14) (Little Passover -second Passover).As a signal to march the cloudy pillar came down from over the tabernacle and went before them (Num. 9:15-23,vs 15-17).The two silver trumpets were to be used to signal the march ( Num.10:1-10).
C. The journey from Sinai to Moab ( Num.10:11-22:1).
1. On the  20th day of the month of the second year they marched from Sinai to Paran. Moses offered to Hobab the son of Raguel , the job of being  eyes to them. He refused and went home for a time at least (Num. 10:29-32).Moses  pronounced a blessing when the ark was carried and when it was to rest in its place ( Num.10:35-36).( Dunlow).
2. The hardships of the desert were severe and the people murmured against Moses and Aaron. Some were consumed by fire on the outskirts of the camp. Moses complained to God and God gave him 70 elders to help carry the burden. The quails were sent, a plague followed ( Num. 11:18-23 (Second murmuring).
3. Miriam and Aaron led a sedition against Moses. Undoubtedly Miriam was the leader. Miriam was smitten with leprosy (Num. 12). They then reached Paran (Num. 12:16).
4. Twelve spies are sent out, ten brought a good report of the land but said they could not take it. Two others also brought a good report and said they could take it. Moses interceded and  God spared them, but they were to wander in the wilderness until death overtook the rebellious generation. The ten false spies died by the plague. They turned and attacked their enemies  ,but God helped their enemies and they were smitten before them (Num.13-14).(Note): The 37 years began here.
5. Some legislation is enacted to come into effect on reaching the land Canaan. In chapter 16 Korah, Dathan, and Abram rebelled and are destroyed by being swallowed alive. A plague followed and Aaron interceded and the plague was stayed. His office was  confirmed in that his rod budded and blossomed and bore fruit (Num.16-17).
6. In Numbers 18 and 19 , we have a more accurate definition of the duties of the priest and the Levites. We have the purification of those who contacted the dead or the wounded. (Note): They stayed around Kadesh or swung back to it in their wanderings.
7. The host gathered at Kadesh -Barnea (1-7) for their final departure ending 37 years of wanderings. There Miriam died and was buried. They departed and the people murmured. Moses smote a rock in his own name (Num.20:10). He smote it twice. Did not do it in Jehovah’s name, did not sanctify Jehovah before the people (Num. 20: 7-11).
8. Under the circumstances this did not appear to constitute sin that separated Moses from God. But  it was an error the result of which had to be reaped. It canceled Moses future leadership (Num. 20:12-13).
9. Edom refused passage for Isreal through her land. Isreal reached Haran. There Aaron died. Eliezer , his son succeeded him. Isreal mourned 30 days for Aaron (Num. 20:20-29).
10. They appeared to have returned through the Kadesh region. Arad attacked Isreal and Isreal vowed a vow to destroy him (Num.21:1-3). They journeyed toward the Red Sea, and the people  murmured again. God sent fiery serpent among them. Moses erected a serpent on a pole. Those who looked in faith lived (Num.21:4-20).
D. They finally reached Mount Seir. Their wanderings are over. They celebrated by two songs of gladness (Num.21:14-20). King Sihon was smitten and his land and cities were taken. Og and his people were destroyed , and Bashan and its cities were possessed. They finally gathered on Arbot-Moab (Plains of Jericho) (Num.21:21 ff).
E. Events on the plains of Moab( Num.22:2-36:13).
1. Balak, King of Moab , got Balaam to come to curse Isreal. Balaam knew he should not go, but he wanted to go and was going to go anyhow, so God let him go. Balaam had to bless Isreal instead. Balak got him to try again, and again he blessed Isreal. Further he pronounced some of the finest  prophecy of the Star and Scepter that the Old Testament records. Balaam also disclosed the disaster of the existing nations, and looked far into the future. Balaam did not break the letter of law, but he told them how to get Isreal to sin by getting them to worship heathen gods. He probably got his reward.
2. The Israelites did go for the heathen woman who came to visit. God visited them with judgment (Num.25:1-3). They were bold and almost  open with their adultery. Phinehas slew the most bold and was given the priesthood for doing it. When Isreal marched into Canaan , she slew Balaam with the sword (Num. 25:14-15), for so advising them (II Peter 2:15-16, ). Balaam’s crime stated (Num. 31:15-16; Joshua 22:13 ;Jude1:11 Rev. 2:14). 
3. Isreal is numbered for the third time, but second in numbers. The  land east of the Jordan is divided  among the two and half tribes, Ruben, Gad and Half of the tribe of Manasseh, the boundaries of Canaan are set and divided by lot among the nine and one half tribes(Num.26-34).Phinehas succeeds his father Eleazar (Joshua 22:13,30, 31,33,;Judges 20:28).It (? I think he means the high priesthood here J.R.) remained in the family until Eli, then passed it to Ithamar’s house. Solomon returned it to Eleazar’s house (I king’s 2:35) (Dunlow deals with it also). 
4. The Levites were to be given cities and suburb’s among the others with six cities of refuge (Type of safety in Christ).
5. Moses reviewed the journeying of Isreal  from Egypt to Canaan and named 40 places. It is the only place we have some of the names given (Num.33).
6. The old generation is declared dead, Daughters who are heiresses were to marry within their own tribe. Moses death is then announced. He prays a twofold prayer (Num.27:12-23; Deut.  3:21-28).Joshua is ordained as Moses successor (Num.33-36) ( Butler is scholarly in this matter).
 I. Deuteronomy
The word a second law. It should be a copy of this law. the Septuagint is probably responsible for this misname. The greater part of this book is composed of God’s dealings with them and their reaction to God during the 40 years wanderings in the wilderness.
A. First Discourse (Deut. 1:1-4-4:43).
1. A survey of the history of Isreal from Sinai to Jordan(Deut.1-3).
2. Then follows an earnest appeal to the people to keep the commandments of Jehovah and to remain faithful to his covenant. This appeal is based on Jehovah’s gracious dealings with them ( Deut. 4:1-43).
B. Second discourse ( Deut. 4:44-26:19).
1. This address is mainly legislative. It begins with the restatement of the Ten commandments (Deut.5ff).
2. Strong exhortation to obedience is given. It begins with the statement  "And thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thine heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might." (Deut. 6:5).
3. They were not to be socially mixed with the remnants of the destroyed nations. Marriage was not to be made with them, else they might be drug into heathen idolatry (Deut.7).
4. Moses further exhorts to obedience and recalls their rebellion against Jehovah in past times. They were to bear in mind their great ancestors- Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob (Deut,8-9).
5. Moses then rehearses his second stay on top of the Mount and the making of the second tables of stone with the commandments. They were placed in the ark (Deut.10).
6. Moses then places before them a blessing and a curse, based on obedience and disobedience (Deut.11;26).
7. After they got over into Canaan proper one central place of worship was to be chosen. There they were to sacrifice and worship. Foreseeing the possibility of them desiring a king certain warnings are given in that regard (Deut.12; 17:14-20).; Dunlow and Ellicott).
8. There were to be no disfigurements for the dead as in heathen nations. Clean and unclean animals were differentiated. Idolatrous cities and individuals were to be destroyed (Deut 14:13). Tithes were to be paid so the Levites could live ( Deut 14:22).
9. The seventh year was to be the time of release with regard to bond servants and debts (Deut.15).
10. The feast, that is the Passover, The Feast of Weeks ,The Feast of Tabernacles are more fully discussed (Deut.16).
11. The priestly duties are set forth. A great prophet is coming (Deut.18:18).This is indicative of a long line of prophets. The false prophet is to be put to death (Deut 18:20-22).
12. The cities of refuge are further discussed; Land marks, military exemptions, rules of warfare, murder, marriage of captive women, and treatment of rebellious sons (Deut.23).
C. Third discourse (Deut 27:1- 28:68).
1. Stone monuments were to be inscribed with the law and erected on Mount Ebal. Blessings and curses were to be pronounces from Mt. Gerizim; mount of blessing (to bless the people v.12) and Mt. Ebal ; mount of cursing(to curse the people v.13); twelve curses were to be pronounced from Ebal.
2. Promises were made of restored favor ,upon repentance ,should there be a break.
D. Fourth address (Deut.29:1-30:20).
1. This address is brief and contains a renewal of the covenant. It is a statement of past mercies and a warning of punishment of Apostasy.
E. Concluding statements (Deut.31-34).
1. A special message to the people.
2. A solemn charge to Joshua, and his successor.
3. A statement to the priest.
4. Jehovah’s address to both Moses and Joshua.
5. The dying song of Moses.
6. The blessing of the trials of Moses.
7. The vision of Canaan from Pisgah.
8. The death and burial and mourning for Moses.
The book of Deuteronomy is a smooth well prepared series of farewell, and powerful speeches with some matters expressed which were not expressed in the four former books (Toss in Butler, Ellicott, Dunlow, and Expositors Bible).

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