Systematic Theology
Fall 1963    Spring 1964
Dr. W. Noble King
Bethany Nazarene College 
All Rights Reserved

This document consists of notes taken by students who attended Dr. King's class in systematic theology at Bethany Nazarene College. The notes therefore reflect student response to Dr. King's lectures and do not necessarily represent fully or accurately his thought in all respects.                 ***....*** 


Religions are classed as those living and dead.  There are ten living religions and ten dead religions.  The ten dead religions (mostly European) died in front of Christianity.  The living religions like those in China are built around persons.  These religions crushed Christianity, holding that Jesus was just a man.

Four standard obstacles to belief in God.  They are as follows:

1. To some persons, the most serious obstacle is the presence of suffering and evil.

a. Suffering and evil are non-existent in Heaven.
b. They were non-existent in Eden before the fall.
c. Biblically, suffering and evil are the by-product of sin.
d. In fallen and crippled state, mentally, morally or physically, they will draw one closer to God.
e. Question — “Why did this happen to me?”  Endeavors to make God responsible for racial and personal sin.

2. If there were a God, He would give us unmistakable evidence of His existence.  Answer:  It is often said that God has revealed Himself in nature, history, and in conscience.  Objection:  If He had, all heathen would know of Him.

a. In heaven this would be non-existent.
b. In Eden, it was non-existent.
c. Wicked men in the Bible didn’t doubt God’s existence.
d. No race today doubts the existence of a superior being.

In the field of redemption during probation, faith calls for a balanced situation.

a. If God were more clearly revealed, faith would not be needed.
b. If less clearly revealed, faith would be mere presumption.

3. People who feel need of explanation or comfort in distress, merely talk themselves into believing in a God.  It is merely wishful thinking.

4. Physical science is said to be a barrier to belief in God.  The Bible, minus interpretations and additions, has nothing definitely contrary to scientific facts.

Chapter I

I. The Bible refers to false and sound doctrines.

A. False doctrine

1. Has insecure foundation (Matt. 7:26).
2. Rests on false hope (Matt. 7:27).
3. Is of the devil (I Tim. 4:1).
4. Is hateful to God (Rev. 2:14-15).
5. Is destructive to faith in God. (II Tim. 2:18).
6. Is loved by the wicked (II Tim. 4:3-4).
7. The wicked are given up to believe it (II Tim. 2:11-12).
8. Those who teach it are to be punished (Gal. 1:8-9 and II Peter 2:1-3_.
9. Should be avoided by all (I Tim. 6:20).
10. Perverts the gospel of Christ (Gal. 1:7).
11. Shall abound in the latter days (I Tim. 4:1).
12. Shall attract – deceive many (II Peter 2:2, Matt. 24:5).
13. It shall be exposed and should be avoided (II Tim. 3:8-9, Rom. 16:17-18.)

It is the religion that satisfied the conscience, intuitions, and peace of mind that lasts.

B. Sound doctrine

1. Has a secure foundation (Matt. 7:24).
2. Will stand the test (Matt. 7:26).
3. Is from God (John 7:26, Acts 13:12).
4. Is taught in the scriptures (II Tim. 3:16).
5. Leads to fellowship with the Father and the Son (II John 9, I John 1:3).
6. Leads to the experience of heart redemption (Rom. 6:17-22, Tit. 2:12).
7. The saints obey it, abide in it and bring no reproach upon it (Rom 6:17, Acts 2:42).

All doctrine is to be tried by ALL the scripture.  Isaiah 8:20 and II Tim. 3:16-17.

Sincerity does not make a thing right.

II. Theology means a discourse concerning the gods or God.  Theology was used before Christianity began by men such as Hesiod, Homer, Plato and others.  Theos – is God in Greek.  Logos is word.  The word was taken over by the Christian church followers and applied to Biblical truths. The word theology was variously defined as “The science of God”, “the science which treats of the existence, character and attributes of God, his laws, and government, the doctrines we are to believe and the duties we are to follow”.  Field p. 1 W. P. Pope defines theology as: the science of God and divine things based upon the revelation of Jesus Christ to mankind and variously systematized within the Christian church.” 

The divisions of Theology are:

A. Natural theology — as revealed in nature (Ps. 19).
B. Exegetical theology — an analytic study of the scriptures themselves.  Adam Clarke.
C. Historical theology — as developed in the church down through history.
D. Systematic theology — theology arranged in logically developed order.
E. Practical theology — the practical application of the great truths of theology.

III. False or mistaken sources of theology

A. False or mistaken sources

1. Creeds or confessions of faith.  They are valuable as historical records and register the opinions of those who found them but are void of inspiration. Some are correct in statements.  Others are horrible contortions.  Three main creeds are:
a. Apostle’s Creed – 2nd century with additions in 4th century.
b. Nicene Creed — AD 325
c. Athenacious Creed — 6th or 7th century AD.

2. In Romanism, tradition is held as of equal value with the scriptures.  Romanism claims for itself a continuous and abiding inspiration, which perpetuates its own infallibility.  Thus, the Roman church has developed a body of belief, not in the scriptures and really opposed to them.

3. There is mysticism in Christianity.  Mysticism leads astray, sets the Bible, sound reasoning and judgment aside.

4. Reason alone is not an independent or adequate source of theology.  It must itself be formed.  It cannot therefore, be adequate authority over that which formed it.  Necessarily, consciousness is not a guide at all.  There is truth in all of these but they are not primary sources and must not supercede the primary.

B. Primary Sources

1. Nature is of necessity the first and reveals God’s nature to us, but it reveals God mainly as a creative being.  It isn’t clear on redemption and can easily be misinterpreted. However, it is a source.  Rom 1:1-2ff, Ps. 19:1ff, Gen. 1:1ff. Hale’s V. I p. 11

2. Written revelation — our Bible.  This for us embraces the 66 books of the Bible, written by holy men of God as they were moved by the Holy Ghost.

3. Jesus Christ, himself as a revelation.

IV. Periodic development of theology

A. Earlier period — During the first seven centuries the church fathers, often at the price of life, worked out our system of theology.

B. Medieval Period — from 7th century till the reformation; from birth of Roman Catholic Church to 1517.  It reached its peak in the 13th century when the school men with Aristotle worked out systems.

C. The Reformation Period — period of controversy and creedal formulations.  The Romanists and Protestants had certain things in common yet vast differences developed.

D. The Confessional Period — AD 1600 – 1800.  The beliefs of the larger denominations were worked out during this period.

E. The Modern Period — 1800-1962.  Many systems of theology arose or have arisen during this time.

V. Within those periods dogmatic theology arose (positive belief).  The term, dogmatic is from “dokeo”, Greek, meaning to think.  It really means an arbitrary article of faith.  Dogmatic theology is that which systematizes the doctrines of divine revelation.  Dogma and doctrine are convertible terms.

A. Dogmatic theology includes:

1. Biblical theology — embraces Biblical criticism, exegesis (evaluation of lit.), hermeneutics, Biblical archaeology, Biblical geography, and Biblical history.
2. Historical theology — embraces ecclesiastical history, the progress of doctrines and all that belongs to the external and internal life of the church.
3. Systematic theology — systematizing doctrines of Christian religion.

B. Dogmatic theology has been chiefly presented by ancient creeds and confessions.  Some of these are:

1. The so-called Apostle’s Creed.
2. The Nicene Creed.
3. The Athenacious Creed.
4. The Augsburg Confessions (Lutheran AD 1530)
5. The Helvictic Confession (Calvinistic AD 1564)
6. The West Minister Confession and Catechism (Presby. AD 1647)
7. The Anglican 39 Articles
8. The Remonstrants Confession (Arminian AD 1620)
9. The Wesleyan (English gleaned from Wesley’s writings)
10. The Creeds of Roman and Greek Catholic Churches.

VI. Revelation — Primary sources include nature sometimes called general or external and also includes written revelation sometimes called special or internal.  The revelation in the nature and constitution of man and in human history do not belong to inspired written revelation.  If we have but two sources of revelation, we would have to class them with nature.  Miley and Hales put man with nature.  Wiley and Pope have the constitution of man as a separate source, so have three.

A. Bible comes from the Greek biblos, meaning book, scriptures, writing, testamentum or covenant.  The Old Testament deals with the record of the calling and history of the Jewish nation and as such is the “old covenant” or testament.

B. The New Testament deals with history and application of the redemption of 
Christ and as such is the “new covenant”.  The whole Bible is often called “The Word of God”.

C. The Bible was originally written in capital letters with no divisions into chapters, verses, or words.  Those divisions were added later by uninspired men to facilitate study.  Very often the chapters are improperly divided and the real meaning is clouded.  Isa. 8:22 should go to 20:1.  Mark 8:38 should go to 9:1.  The divisions into verses are often equally unfortunate.   I Pet. 1:4-5 and I Cor. 2:9-10.

D. Additions are no part of inspiration and were later added by uninspired men.
1. Subscriptions annexed to the book and chapter heading and marginal notes.
2. The spelling of names differ in the new from the Old Testament due to the translation from the Hebrew into Greek and then to English.
3. Idioms differ in various languages.  A corresponding English idiom must be found for a Hebrew or a Greek one.

E. The Bible is an ancient book as well as an oriental book and many of its figures of speech reveal this fact.
1. A metaphor is very frequently employed in the scriptures as it is in all languages.  Matt. 5:13-14.  The disciples are likened to salt and light.
2. An allegory is an extended metaphor.  It too, is much used in the Bible. Ps. 18.
3. The hyperbole consists of magnifying or diminishing an object from its proper size.  Gen. 13:16, Deut. 1:28, and John 21:25.
4. An irony is a figure in which one thing is spoken of and another designed to add vehemence.  I Kings 18:27, Job 12:2, and I Kings 22:15.
5. In the synecdoche the whole is put for a part or a part for the whole.  Acts 27:37.
6. The word hate is used often to mean nothing more than to love less.  Gen. 29:30-31 and Rom. 9:13.

F. The oldest manuscripts (MSS) of the Old Testament of any value are the Qumran scripts or Dead Sea Scrolls. 160-200 BC.  The second oldest to that was probably written in the 8th century AD.  The oldest of any value of the New Testament was written in the 4th century after Christ.  Printing was not begun until the 1500’s.  Scores of recopies were made before one came down to us.

G. Inspiration would be confined to the scriptures and close with their completion.  Rev. 22:18-19.  The illumination of the mind continues.

H. There are nine theories of inspiration:
1. natural inspiration — is thus identified with genius of a high order.  Shakespeare, Milton, Mohammed or Confucius were as inspired as Bible writers.
2. Universal Christian inspiration or illumination — here means inspiration, thus the ordinary Christian of today may be as much inspired as Bible writers.
3. Conceptual or thought inspiration — only the concepts or thoughts were given by inspiration and the writers did the rest.
4. Partial inspiration — this holds that the Bible contains the word of 
God, but who shall determine what words or parts are actually the words of God.  Modernism likes this view.
5. Organic inspiration — the Holy Spirit acted on the writers in harmony with the laws of their own inner being using them just as they were recognizing their character, temperament, gifts, education, vocabulary and style.  They were also guided in their expression of thoughts even to their choice of words.
6. Dynamic inspiration — affects only the writers and has no direct bearing on the writings.  Their mental and spiritual life were raised to a high pitch so that they saw things more clearly and had more profound sense of their real value.
7. Mechanical inspiration — God literally dictated what the human authors of the Bible had to write, as if they were merely passive like a pen in the hand of the writer.  Their minds contributed nothing.
8. Verbal inspiration — the very words of scripture were given by the Holy Ghost.  The mind and personality of the writer were not set aside; hence, it differs from the mechanical theory.
9. Plenary inspiration — every part of the Bible is inspired, but the writers were left to express themselves in their own way with their own words.  They were, however, so guided that they were kept from theological errors.
a. Some of those theories we just do not like.
(1) natural inspiration
(2) universal Christian inspiration
(3) partial
(4) mechanical
(5) dynamic
b. Some we like in part only.
(1) conceptual
(2) organic
(3) verbal
c. Plenary is accepted.  God did appear to state words at certain times.  Lev. 4:1ff, Lev. 6:1ff, Jer. 1:9, I Cor. 2:13.  At other times great doctrines were stated in their own words. Sometimes they had dreams and saw visions and described them in their own words.  At other times, they reviewed what everyone already knew.  Sometimes took pages from history.  Plenary inspiration allows for all of these and yet the writers were so guided in their selection of words and phrases that they were kept from error.  Apparently, they had the approval of the Spirit on their finished work.  Manual, Church of the Nazarene, p. 26.

I. Proofs of divine inspiration.  If an intelligent God made an intelligent man, it is natural to suppose that that God would speak to that man.
1. Miracles — Pharaoh accepted the miracles of Moses and Aaron as proof that God was with them.  Nicodemus accepted the miracles of Jesus as proof God was with him.  True miracles are proofs of God.
2. Prophesying — telling events before they occur.
3. Prophesy concerning Jesus the Christ.
a. to be born of a virgin. Is. 7:14. 
Fulfillment — Matt. 1:18-23
b. to be born in Bethlehem.  Micah 5:2. 
Fulfillment — Matt. 2:1
c. to be born, a member of the house of David. Ps. 132:11, Jer. 23:5-6.
Fulfillment — Acts 13:22-23.
d. Jesus was to be crucified.  Ps. 22:16-18.
Fulfillment — Matt. 27:35.
e. His death to be for others.  Is. 53:4-6.
Fulfillment — I Peter 2:21-22.
f. He was to be buried.  Is. 53:9.
Fulfillment — John 19:38-42.
g. His flesh was to see no corruption.  Ps. 16:10.
Fulfillment — Acts 2:27-31.
h. He was to rise again.  Ps. 16:10.
Fulfillment — Acts 2:30-33.
i. He was to ascend to heaven.  Ps. 58:18.
Fulfillment — Acts 1:9.
4. The Person of Christ.  Prophecy drew a picture of Christ.  Christ by his advent, his life, his miracles, his teachings, and his death and resurrection constitutes the greatest miracle of all time.  He is the best-authenticated fact in history.  The Christian church, as a whole, points back to the fact of Christ.  Western civilization could not be, as we know it, were it not for Christ.  He then, is the greatest proof of the inspiration of the Bible.  The operations of the Holy Spirit within the church, upon the sinner, and in the hearts of believers are powerful evidential factors that the Bible is to God, and that the church, as a whole, is a sampling of God’s own planning and care.

VII. The Canonization of the Scriptures.  Canon actually means “a straight rod or measuring reed.”  It came to be applied to that list of books approved to be read in the church as inspired of God.

A. We are told that Moses wrote a book of the law, which he commanded the Levites to put in the side of the ark.  Deut. 31:24.  It was commanded to be read by those in authority.  Deut. 17:18-19. This would place a special value on this book.

B. Later Joshua made a covenant with the people and wrote in the book of the law of God his book.  Josh. 24:26.  This too, would be highly valued.

C. Samuel also wrote in a book and laid it up before the Lord.  I Sam. 10:25.  This is highly regarded.

D. Under the reforms of King Jehosphaphat, the people were taught out of the book of the law.  II Chron. 17:9.  Thus, the idea of a sacred book is already well underway.

E. During the religious reform by King Josiah, II Kings 22:8-10, in 621 BC. The high priest Hilkiah discovered the book of the law in temple.  After it had been read to the king, he had it read to the people and a general reform followed.

F. During the 5th century BC. on a return from Babylonian exile, the reformers were led by Ezra and Nehemiah.  The law of the Lord was read and the people reformed themselves accordingly.  Neh. 9:38, 10:1ff.

G. The “prophets” were closed not later than 200 BC. and the Psalms were closed not later than 100 BC.  These two may have been closed much earlier.

H. Jesus believed the Old Testament substantially, as we have it.  He believed the so-called stories.  Lot’s wife —Luke 17:32; Brazen.  Serpent’s story — John 3:14-16, Jonah and whale — Matt. 12:40.  He also referred to the whole of the Old Testament, Law – Prophets – Psalms, and said the leaders of his day made the word of God of none effect by their traditions.

I. Paul and Peter were strong on the inspiration of the Old Testament.  Paul held that all scripture (O.T.) was to be given by inspiration of God.  II Tim. 3:16, I Thess. 2:13.  Peter held the same as Paul.  II Peter 1:19-21, Acts 1:16.  The other apostles were apparently in agreement.  “Thus saith the Lord,” or similar expressions occur 1,960 times in the Old Testament.

J. Jesus inferred that the New Testament, when written, would be similarly inspired by the Holy Spirit.  John 14:26.

K. At an early date, there were collections of Paul’s letters, passed from church to church by command of Paul.  Col. 4:16.  Peter places his approval upon the Pauline writings as inspired.  II Peter 3:16.

L. Some of the books did not make the canon at once, largely because of disputed authorship.  However, by the time of the Synod of Carthage, they had all made it.  AD 397-419 the canon as it now stands, was ratified.  In fact, the Synod of Carthage was the first to do so.

M. The common Christian body of believers, pastors and people, had made the selection of books to be regarded with special veneration and the councils merely ratified the selection.  The selection was made on the following grounds.
1. The honor paid by our Lord for the scriptures.
2. The wonderful unity apparent in sacred books.
3. The grandeur and sublimity of their contents.
4. The absolute veracity of their teachings no matter who was involved.
5. The moral and spiritual influence which the Scriptures exert wherever they are truly believed.

Chapter II -  God

I. God is a spirit, a personal spirit.  John 4:24.  From that personal spirit, flow Life, Light, and Love.  Nowhere does the Bible turn aside to prove the existence of God.  The Bible regards the existence of God as a self-evident fact.  We know God’s existence by intuition, by scripture, by a personal visit, and by the Holy Spirit.

II.  Names of God.
A. El or Elohim indicates God is strong and mighty.  It is a plural word with regard to person, singular with regard to nature.  Its plural form indicates plurality of persons.

B. Yahweh – indicates the self-existent, the Being, the “I AM”.  This name is used only with regard to the divine Being.  Ex. 3:14.

C. El Shaddai – the strong, the mighty one, the Almighty or the self-sufficient.

D. Elyom – points to His exalted nature as “The Most High”, the object of reverence and worship.

E. Elyeh – I Am.

F. Adonai – Lord, supporter or judge or master.

G. A group of names belong together.
1. Jehovah – Jirah — The Lord will provide.  Gen. 22:13-14.
2. Jehovah – Rapha — The Lord hath healed.  Exodus 15:26.
3. Jehovah – Nissi — The Lord our banner.  Exodus 17:8-15.
4. Jehovah – Shalom — The Lord our peace.  Judges 6:24.
5. Jehovah – Ra-ah — The Lord our shepherd.  Ps. 23:1.
6. Jehovah-Tsidkenu — The Lord our righteousness. Jer. 23:60.
7. Jehovah – Shammah — The Lord is present.

There are many more names in the Old and New Testaments referring to God.  They set forth in God personality and are an ever fuller and gradual revelation of His nature.

III. Proofs of God.  Self-creation of the cosmos is a contradiction.  Creation by chance is absurd.  A watch did not create itself, nor develop by chance. A personal intuition, universal belief, and history are all proofs of God, after a fashion.  There are also many more.  There are, however, four major proofs used by all, whether Catholic or Protestant.

A. Cosmological Argument — This argument may be stated as follows: Every effect must have an adequate cause.  The world is an effect.  Therefore, the world must have had a cause, outside of itself and adequate to account for its existence.  Heb. 1:10, Ps. 90:2, John 1:3.

B. Teleological Argument — This argument may be stated as follows: Design supposes a designer.  The world everywhere, exhibits marks of design.  Therefore, the world owes its existence to an intelligent designer.  Gen. 1:14-18 and Ps. 94:9-10.

C. Ontological Argument (strongest in intellectual field) — This argument is an attempt to establish the fact of real existence as distinguished from created or apparent existence. This argument appears in the writings of Plato, Aristotle, St. Augustine, Athanasius, Amselm, and Descartes.  Amselm was the first to state it fully.

D. Anthropological Argument (moral) — All men have a conviction of right and wrong and a consciousness that they are accountable to a superior being who is their over-Lord and who knows their thoughts and acts and will reward them and punish accordingly.

IV. Atheistic and Erroneous Theories Regarding God.
A. Classical atheism — denial of God or of the gods by those that do not believe that way.

B. Philosophic atheism — does not deny the first cause, but do doubt much in between.

C. Practical atheism — This type operates more in the realm of ethics than in thought.  Ps. 14 we have “the fool has said in his heart, there is no God.”  “no God for me”.

D. Dogmatic atheism — It is blatant and belligerent and denies God or Christ.

E. Agnosticism — closely related to atheism proper.  It just declares that we do not and cannot know God if there is a God.

F. Deism — declares there is a God who created all and wound everything up, went away, and it runs down by itself.

G. Polytheism — belief in many gods.  It takes various forms such as:
1. Fetishism — stones, reptiles, etc. are believed animated by supernatural influence.
a. Hynotheism —- a belief in many gods, but worship one at a time.
2. Animism — believes that the inanimate objects of nature and other phenomena of nature are endowed with personal souls.
3. Sabianism — consists in worship of heavenly bodies – sun, moon, stars, etc.
a. dualism – belief that there are two antagonistic and eternal deities, one good and one evil.

H. Pantheism — holds that God is all and all is God.

I. Materialism — holds that matter constitutes the fundamental reality of all things.  It holds to nothing but matter.

Monotheism holds that God is one and God is personal.  The monotheistic religions are:
1. Judaism
2. Christianity
3. Mohammedanism

V. The Attributes of God.

A. Attributes of the absolute essence.
1. Spirituality – “God is spirit” John 4:24.  “Of what pure spirit is, we have no notion.”  Pope Vol. I, p. 292.
2. Infinity – God is unlimited in all of His perfections.  This quality belongs to God, alone.
3. Immensity – God is uncontainable by anything that has been or can be created.  II Chron. 6:18.
4. Eternity – His eternity goes backward as well as forward.  Ex. 3:14.
5. Self-sufficiency – He is absolute and unconditioned.  All things have their beginnings and end in Him. He has neither beginning nor end. Is. 44:6.
6. Immutability – This excludes change or development in God, personally. Heb. 1:10-12.  It would not exclude change in God’s creation or His methods of dealing with any part of that creation.
7. Perfection – His supreme perfection, the perfection of all perfections  Matt. 5:48. 

B. Attributes related to the creatures or to the created universe.
1. Freedom – God has willed and is free to will as He pleases without violating His essential nature.  Eph. 1:11.  That is He must use His will in harmony with His own nature.
2. Omnipotence – (absolute power) – God can do all that He wills to do.  He wills to do what He does and He does it. Jer. 32:17.
3. Omnipresence – Deity is present in every part of creation.  Jer. 23:24.
4. Omniscience – (all wisdom) – God has perfect knowledge of Himself and all else. Is. 46:9-10.

C. Attributes related to moral government.
1. Holiness – may be regarded as another attribute or it may be regarded as the sum total of all attributes.  Applied to nature of God of which attributes are an expression.  Ex. 15:11, Rev. 15:4.
2. Love – the moving cause of God manward.  His love is Holy love.  I John 4:16.  The cause of creation was benevolence or disinterested goodness.  Moving cause in redemption is love.
3. Righteousness or justice – is holiness applied to moral government and to the domain of love.  Deut. 32:3-4.
4. Truth or faithfulness – God is a promise keeping God.  As God, He cannot lie.  Psalms 31:5.
5. Grace and its related attributes – In the Old Testament God was full of compassion and graciousness.  Grace refers to the unmerited favor of God. The New Testament says Christ is full of grace.  II Thes. 1:12.

Chapter III – The Trinity 

I.       The Scriptures teach but one God.  “Hear, O Israel, the Lord our God is one Lord.”            Deut. 6:4.  Other Scriptures with regard to one God are:  Is. 44:6-8, Is. 45:5, I Tim. 2:5 and I Cor. 8:4.  The Bible is replete with positive declarations that there is but one God.

A. Hills gives the following diagram of Trinity and unity:

Singular  Plural
Nature   persons
Eternity   distinctions
Essence  subsistence
Being   hypostases

B. There is but one essence though there are different modes of subsisting in it. 
Those modes are called persons, and each one of those persons possesses the whole essence undivided.

II. God is not only one but He contains a plurality of persons.

A. This plurality is brought out in the original use of the word Elohim.  Elohim is both used with singular and plural adjuncts.  “And Elohim said, ‘Let us make man in our image after our likeness.’”  Gen. 1:26.  “Behold the man is become as one of us.”  Gen. 3:22.  “Who will go for us?” Is. 6:8.  “So Elohim created man in His own image.”  Gen. 1:27.

B. The word Trinity or tri-unity is not a biblical one, but that for which it stands is Biblically stated.  If we drop the word, we would have to coin another with exactly the same meaning.  Hence, we may as well keep it.
1. The trinity (in its Latin form is trinitaus).
a. The plural Elohim teaches a plurality of persons.
b. The trisagion of Isaiah 6:3 reveals one name and suggests three persons.
c. The priestly benediction in Numbers 6:24-26 reveals one name with three benefits.  In the New Testament its counterpart is in II Cor. 13:14.
d. Father, Son, and Spirit direct the Israelites in the wilderness.  Ex. 23:20-22, and I Cor. 10:9.
e. The Messiah’s commission in Isaiah 48:16 – two persons send one person and that one is Christ.
f. Many passages refer to the Son and/or spirit as well as the Father.  Son – Ps. 2:7, 12, Prov. 30:4  Spirit – Gen. 1:2, Gen. 6:3, Ps. 143:10, Joel 2:28, and Zachariah 4:6.

The Trinity in the New Testament
a. At the Savior’s baptism (Matt. 3:13-17) the Father speaks.  The Son is physically present.  Spirit appears in dove-like form.
b. The Christian baptism formula.  Matt. 28:19.
c. In the apostolic formula of baptism.  II Cor. 13:4.  The three persons are addressed in prayer as the united fountain in prayer and love.
d. In Trinitarian chapter of New Testament.  John 16.
e. In the prayers, etc. of New Testament writers we have it often.  Eph. 2:18, Rev. 1:4-5.
f. Many passages refer to different members of the Trinity. Father – Rom. 1:7.  Son – Heb. 1:8.  Spirit – Acts 5:3-4.

C. There is no analogy known to illustrate this tri-unity of persons in the Trinity.  The four following are used as illustrations merely:
1. Man has a body, soul and spirit.
2. Sun is an orb and produces light and heat – yet the sun is one.
3. Light, a ray strikes a prism and we have a chemical ray, a heat ray and a color ray.
4. Water – ice, liquid or vapor.

III. To each of three persons is ascribed the attributes of deity.

A. The attribute of eternity
1. God the Father is eternal.  Rom. 16:26.
2. God the Son is eternal.  Rev. 22:13.
3. God the Spirit is eternal.  Heb. 9:14.

B. Omnipotence
1. The Father is omnipotent. Gen. 17:1, Jer. 32:17.
2. The Son is omnipotent.  Rev. 1:8, Heb. 1:3.
3. The Spirit is omnipotent. Rom. 15:19, Luke 1:35.

C. Omnipresence
1. The Father is omnipresent.  Jer. 23:24.
2. The Son is omnipresent.  Eph. 1:20-23.
3. The Spirit is omnipresent.  Psalm 139:7-10.

D. Omniscience
1. The Father is omniscient.  Acts 15:18.
2. The Son is omniscient.  John 21:17.
3. The spirit is omniscient.  I Cor. 2:10-11.

E. Holiness — absolute
1. The Father is holy.  John 17:11.
2. The Son is holy.  Acts 3:14.
3. The Spirit is holy.  I John 2:20

F. Truth or faithfulness
1. The Father is faithful or true.  John 17:3.
2. The Son is faithful or true.  Rev. 3:7.
3. The Spirit is faithful or true.  I John 5:6.

      Thus, the attributes of deity are ascribed to all three persons.

IV. To each of three persons may be ascribed the same names, works, and honors.

A. All three are called God.  The term Father is ascribed to Jesus in Isaiah 9:6.  And most of the divine names can be ascribed to any one of the three.

B. Creation is ascribed to all three.  Gen. 1:1-2, Psalm 33:6, John 1:3-4, Col. 1:13-17, Job 33:4 and Job 26:13.

C. Together the three work.  “My Father worketh hither to and I work.”  The Spirit was sent to play a part in redemption also.  God raised the dead.  Christ raised the dead.  The Spirit raised the dead.  All three played a part in resurrection of Christ, but Christ himself was the active agent.  He raised himself.  Thus and only thus could the power of death be broken. He went under death’s power and under that power He arose.  Hence all three are equally God and all three are responsible for each divine act.

D. All three exercise the prerogatives of deity in that all three play a part in redemption and everything else.  Jude 1, Hebrews 13:12, Rom. 15:16. All three are entitled to and all three accept worship.  God and the Holy Spirit do, of course, but so does Jesus.  Matt. 13:43, Heb. 1:6, John 5:23, Acts 7:59-60, I Cor. 1:2, and Rev. 1:4-6.

E. All three are like dwellers in human temples.  Father – II Cor. 6:16 and Eph. 2:20.  Son – Eph. 3:17 and Col. 1:27. Spirit – I Cor. 6:19 and I Cor. 3:16.

V. Jesus is both human and divine but yet He is one Theanthropic person.  He is the 
active divine Agent in creation and He upholds all things in creation (Col. 1:17 and Heb. 1:3) and forgives sins.  (Mark 2:5-10 and Luke 7:43) and possesses within himself the fullness of the Godhead body (Col. 2:9) and is the judge of all.  Gen. 18:25c and John 5:22.  Christ as one person, however, had two natures.

A. His human nature.
1. He was born of a woman and had a physical body.  John 1:14.  Gal. 4:4.
2. He grew in wisdom and stature.  Luke 2:40.
3. He was called Jesus and that name referred to his human nature in which redemption was to be brought about.  Matt. 1:21.
4. He sorrowed.  Matt. 26:38.
5. He hungered.  Matt. 4:2.
6. He was weary.  John 4:6.
7. He prayed in mental and physical agony.  Luke 4:1-11.
8. He wept. John 11:35.
9. He was tempted.  Matt. 4:1-11, Luke 4:1-11.
10. He spoke as though He did not know, thus showing that He was human.  Mark 13:32.
11. He died.  Mark 15:44.
12. He was buried. Mark 15:45-46.

B. His divine nature or His deity.
1. He is spoken of as God.  John 1:1.
2. He tied himself up in essence as identical with the Father.  “He that hath seen me hath seen the Father.” John 14:9.  John 10:30-38.  Mark 1:1.  John The Holy Spirit is a person with 5:18.
3. He declared that He was God’s son in the sense of being God. John 5:18. Mark 1:1. John 5:25-26.
4. In works He claimed equality with the Father and identity with God.  John 5:21-26.  John 1:4. Hebrews 7:16.  Many passages declare that Jesus exercised in His own name the prerogatives of deity.
5. Divine attributes and offices and prerogatives are ascribed to Him.  He was conscious of the fact that such was the case.
a. His visit at 12 to the temple. 
b. As revealed at His Jordan baptism.
c. As set forth in the calling of the twelve.
d. As set forth in His wilderness temptation.
e. As revealed in the Sermon on the Mount.  All such passages as saying, “And when He came He saw” refer to His humanity.  Then when it says that “He knew all things,” it refers to His deity.

IV. The Holy Spirit is a person with Intelligence (John 14:26), with feeling (Isaiah 63:10), and will (Acts 16:5 and I Cor.12: 11) The Greek word Spirit is in the neuter gender. Consequently, when the Spirit is designated by the pronoun, the pronoun must be neuter. This does not however mean that the Spirit is not a person. For when Spirit ceases to be designated by pronouns, masculine forms are used. Thus, in John 14:26, Jesus refers to the comforter in the masculine gender. 

A. He is spoken of as a person in that:
1. He can be grieved.  Is. 63:10.
2. He can be resisted.  Acts 7:51.
3. He can be blasphemed against.  Matt. 12:31-32.
4. He can be lied against.  Acts. 5:3-4.
5. He can be tempted.  Acts 5:9.

B. Personal acts are ascribed to Him.
1. He strives.  Gen. 6:3.
2. He speaks. John 16:13, Acts 10:19, Acts 8:29.
3. He guides.  John 16:13.
4. He intercedes. I Cor. 6:11.
5. He works miracles. Rom. 15:19.
6. He sanctified. I Cor. 6:11.
7. He calls and sends forth messengers. Acts 13:2-3.
8. He seals. Eph. 1:13, Eph. 4:13.
9. He distributes gifts.  I Cor. 12:11.

C. Divine names are given to Him.
1. He is called God.  Acts 5:3-4, II Tim. 3:16, II Peter 1:21.
2. He is called Jehovah.  Isaiah 6:5-10, Acts 28:25, Ex. 17:7, Heb. 3:7-9, Jer. 31:31-34, Heb. 1:15-17.

D. Divine attributes are also ascribed to Him.
1. He is regarded as omnipresent.  Psalm 139:7-10.
2. Omniscience is ascribed to Him.  Isaiah 40:13-14.
3. He is regarded as omnipotent. I Cor. 12:11, Rom. 15:19.
4. Eternity.  Heb. 9:14.

E. Divine works are performed by Him.
1. Creation is ascribed to Him.  Gen. 1:2.
2. Renovation.  Psalm 104:30.
3. Regeneration.  John 3:5-6, Titus 3:5.
4. Resurrection of the dead.  Rom. 8:11, I Peter 3:18.

F. Divine worship is also paid to Him.  Isaiah 6:3-9, Acts 28:5, Romans 9:1, Matt. 28.
1. In essence He is equal to the Father and to the Son.  He proceeds from them jointly and they work through Him.
2. He reveals divine truth in the written word.  The Old Testament prophets and New Testament writers wrote and spoke by His help.  Micah 3:8, I Cor. 2:12-13.
3. Spirit is the source of life in the material world.  He brooded over the waters and chaos was reduced to order.  Gen. 1:2, Psalm 104:29-30.
4. Spirit empowers man and fits them for their tasks in life.  Numbers 11:17.  David became what he was because the Spirit rested upon Him.  I Sam. 16:13.

G. Best passages dealing with the Holy Spirit are:
1. Best books on the Spirit – Joel in the Old Testament and Acts in the New Testament.
2. Best chapters on the Spirit – John 14, John 16, Matt. 3, Acts 2, Joel 2.
3. Best passages on the Spirit – Ezekiel 36:24-36, John 14:15-18, Joel 2:28-31, Acts 2:1-4.
4. Best examples of the Baptism with the Spirit – Acts 2:1-40, Acts 6:8-7:55 (Steven), Acts 8:14-17, Acts 19:1-7, II Kings 2:1-15, Judges 3:9-11 (Otheniel), Luke 2:25-35 (Simeon), Gen. 32:24-32 (Jacob).
5. Best texts on Baptism with the Spirit.  Ezekiel 26:37, Matt. 3:11, Luke 24:49, Luke 11:13, John 7:38, John 14:26, John 15:26, Acts 1:5, Acts 15:8-9.

VIII. Errors

A. Respecting the Trinity.
1. Tetratheism – three persons with one essence – The essence is thus thought of as another god.
2. Tritheism – three gods distinct in both personality and essence.
3. Sabellianism – no distinction of persons in the divine nature.  The terms Father, Son and Spirit refer to the same person in different offices.
4. Swedenborgianism – three essences in one person.  Jesus Christ is the person.  This belief emphasizes the supreme deity in the Son at the expense of the personalities of both the Father and the Spirit.
5. Subordinationism – the Son is inferior to the Father and the Spirit is inferior to the Son.  The Father is thus the most important.  It is easy to think that way.
6. Arianism – the Godhead consists of one eternal person who in the beginning created the only begotten Son, by whom He made the world.  The Son created the Holy Spirit.  Tritheism, Sabellianism and Arianism are the three major areas.

B. Respecting the Son.
1. Humanitarianism – Jesus Christ was a man and nothing more.  Others may reach this perfection and even pass it.
2. Ebionism – Like Humanitarianism hold that Jesus was originally a mere man, but the Christ-Hood came upon Him at His baptism.
3. Apollinarism – taught that Jesus did not possess a human mind.  It held to the Tripartite nature of man-body, soul and spirit (mind was lacking).
4. The Monothelites taught Jesus had but one will in His two natures (no human will).
5. Nestorianism taught the two complete natures were not united in one person, but there were two distinct personalities.
6. Adoptianism – very similar to Ebionism and holds that Jesus was adopted into the Godhead by the descent of the Spirit upon Him.
7. Eutysicm – denied the two natures and held to a mingling of both natures in one.  “God had become flesh”.
8. Docetism – denied that Jesus possessed a real human body.  He only seemed to have a body.  Thus, He only seemed to suffer and to die and to rise.
9. Kenotic Theory – as a sufferer on the cross, there was too much human and not enough divine.
10. Arianism teaches Christ was a demi-god; lower than God and higher than man, having been the first creature God created and also a special creation by God.
11. Socinianism – closely related to Arianism.  Christ was ordinary man of miraculous birth to whom God gave extraordinary revelation and exalted Him to Heaven as a divinized man.

Many of those errors have gradations.  Many were originated by good men fighting the other errors.  In so doing, they went too far the other way.

C. Respecting the Spirit.
1. Spirit – only another name for Father.
2. Spirit – merely energy from God.
3. Spirit – means spirit “of the group”.


“We worship one God in trinity and trinity in unity, neither confounding the persons nor dividing the substance.  For there is one person of the Father, another of the Son, and another of the Holy Ghost but the Godhead of the Father, Son and Holy Ghost is all One.  The glory equal, the majesty co-eternal.”

We have just noted that there are three persons in the one trinity.  Those persons are wholly spiritual in natures and are in a wholly spiritual place – Heaven.

There are other wholly spiritual beings in that wholly spiritual place.  They are the angels.  We probably should give some consideration to them at this point.

1. They are spiritual, rational intelligences, first in rank as we are created a little lower than they.  Psalm 8:5.

2. They also appear to have been created first in the point of time among created beings; created before mankind was created.  Job 38:7, Psalm 8:5

3. All peoples of all ages and nations have believed in their existence.  They have not always believed in them as revealed in the Bible, but have believed in something of that nature.

4. Angels are known by various names: angels, ministering spirits, sons of God, morning stars, seraphim and cherubim.  Heb. 1:7, 14, Job 38:7, Isaiah 6:2-6, Ezra 11:22.  In Daniel 4:13, 17 they are called watchers.

5. They serve God by executing His judgments to the wicked and hence are called evil angels.  Psalm 78:49, Isaiah 37:36, Acts 12:23, Rev. 15:6.

6. They serve God by doing His bidding in Heaven and are employed by God in behalf of the righteous on earth.  Gen. 19:15-22, Dan. 6:2, Acts 12:7, Luke 16:22, Heb. 1:14.

7. They are declared to be innumerable.  Heb. 12:22, Matt. 26:53, Psalm 68:17.  In fact, all that is said of them leads us to believe that their number is great.  Mark 5:9.

8. They were appointed to declare the Messiah’s advent (Luke 2:9-14) and then they worshipped the Messiah.  Heb. 1:6.  They ministered to Christ in his trials,  Matt. 4:11, Matt. 26:53, Luke 22:43.  They attended His ascension and announced His Second Coming.  Acts 1:9-10.

9. They themselves are not to be worshipped by man.  Jude 13, 16.  Col. 2:18, Rev. 19:10, Rev. 22:9.

10. They were apparently created on probation.  Many remained true.  Many fell.  The unfallen are called the Elect or Holy Angels.  I Tim. 5:21.  The fallen are called sinning angels or devils and demons and evil spirits.  II Peter 2:4, Jude 6.  There is an inference in Jude 6 of their fall and why they fell.  Their first estate is probably referred to in Psalm 103:20, Matt. 6:10.

11. The fall of angels apparently took place in heaven.   They were then cast out into outer darkness for them (tartarus).  They were not destroyed nor yet incarcerated so they could bother no one.  They are at least free to tempt all men up to a point.  Beyond that point they cannot go.  Job 2:6.

12. They are led by the chief or prince of the devils.  Matt. 12:24.  The whole group is referred to as the devil and his angels.  Matt. 24, Rev. 12:7-9.

13. They themselves fell from a holy state and in a holy place.  Adam and Eve were tempted in a holy state in a sinless environment.  Christ himself was tempted having a sinless heart, but He was in a sinful environment.  Gen. 3:1-6, Luke 4:2ff.

14. Every fallen person is now tempted of the devil and his angels and every Christian is also tempted of the devil and his angels.  Apparently we never reach a place in grace or out of it where the devil no longer tempts us.

15. They are ultimately to be incarcerated in the lake of fire forever, for their punishment was originally meant to be.  Matt. 25:41.

16. Apparently they sinned under circumstances that it was impossible for them to be forgiven.  In any case, the death of Christ does not include them as beneficiaries.  Rev. 20:1-10, Matt. 25:41.

17. Some hold that the devil is merely the personification of evil.  This view would also remove the persons of the trinity.  Actions, attributes and passions are attributed to the devil and his angels.  So they are real, rational selves.  Luke 8:31, Luke 22:3, James 2:19, I Peter 5:8.

Chapter IV – Origins

Introduction – From whence did the cosmos come?  What are we?  Whither are we going?

Theories of creation.

A. Materialistic Theory holds to the eternity of matter.  The intelligent mind is excluded.  Resident forces within matter have produced all.

B. Pantheistic Theory holds that what is, is an extension of the divine substance.  All is God; God is all. Thus God is personal and man is not immortal as a body.

C. Natural Evolution Theory is similar to the materialistic theory.  Things just naturally evolve from within from whatever is.  It pushes the beginnings so far back that it is out of sight.

D. Continuous Creation Theory is held by many theistic evolutionists.  God works on and guides matter, step by step up to our present level. It is merely God-directed evolution.

E. The Bible view is that there was a time when matter did not exist.  God called it into being by creative fiat and upholds it therein.  Christ was the active agent in creation.  John 1:1-3.  Col. 1:16-17.

II. Creation.

A. “In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. ”From that substance without form and void of any design, God fashioned and formed the heavens and the earth.  Gen. 1:1. 
1. Bara (caused to be) is used in three connections:  (1)  caused to be from nothing with regard to the original substance from which everything was framed (Gen. 1:1), (2) sub-rational life (Gen. 1:27) and (3) Gen. 1:21 with regard to the spirit of man used with God and many.
2. Yatzar (formed) used with regard to forming something from a previously existing substance (Gen. 2:7)  God or man.
3. Asah (made) with regard to making something from previously created substance.  Gen. 8:6.

B. The creation of angels and spirits.
1. There are apparently gradations of angels – archangels, cherubim, seraphim, angels.  Their duties are to wait upon God and minister to those who shall be heirs to salvation.  Heb. 1:14.
2. They were created neither male nor female and holy and free moral agents.  They were created on probation.  During probation many fell by rebellion against God.  These are to be punished eternally.  Rev. 20:1-10,  Redemption is not for them.  Matt. 25:41 and Jude 6.
3. The fallen angels are headed by one called Satan or Abaddon.  Devil and Apollyon angel of the bottomless pit.  Rev. 9:11.  The accuser of the brethren and of God.  Rev. 12:10.  Belial – II Cor. 6:15.  Adversary – I Peter 5:8.  The Beast – Rev. 19:19. Beelzebub – Matt. 12:24.  The Dragon – Rev. 12:7.  Serpent – Rev. 12:9.  The Wicked One – Matt. 13:19, 38.  Some suppose one-third of the angels fell.  Rev. 8:7-12.  No number is stated.  Thus Satan hates God and tries to damn man to spite God.

C. The six days of creative work – There is no way to determine how long those days were. Yom-day is used to designate all the way from our day to a long period of time in the Bible.  Jesus calls a dispensation an hour.  John 4:21.  The six days may be divided into two periods:
1. The in-organic period: First day – cosmic light; Second day – firmament, Third day – dry land and vegetation.
2. The organic period: Fourth day – sun and moon, vegetation; Fifth day – fish and fowl; Sixth day – animals and man.  Man is separate creation from animals.  (“In class I remember him saying that after the Fourth day Yom is 24-hour day. J.R.”)

D. There are four theories regarding the pre-six day period and the six days.
1. Creation of the substance.  Gen. 1:1 was a way back.  Then after a long period God fashioned and formed the cosmos in a six-day period.
2. Gen. 1:1 refers to a previous creation which met with a calamity of some sort and after ages untold, God refashioned it in a six-day period.
3. Gen. 1:1 refers to creation of original formless substance.  Then the six days refer to six geological days of undetermined length which brought the cosmos up to what it was when man appeared.
4. The fourth theory holds that fossils and star rays, etc. would have to be created as such, were all outright creations in the six-day period.

Those periods present themselves because we know so little about them.  The time element in formation is an open question.  Each of those theories is supposed to give us all the time we need for formation of the fossils.

A. The Bible was written to a people who believed in God.  There is thus no proof given in the Bible to prove the existence of God.  It was considered unnecessary.

B.  The work of creation was a definite time and by a definite act. Therefore matter is not eternal.  Its maintenance is distinct from its original creation.  Four facts may be noted:
1. Neither the heavens nor the earth nor matter out of which things are created are eternal.
2. Things do not come into existence by chance nor by the fortuitous concourse of atoms.
3. Things were not created by many gods nor by two gods but by one God.
4. The creation took place in the beginning, that is at the commencement of time or when God began to work.

C.  The Bible at least infers that creation as we know it was for the residence of man.

1. Things were at one time without form and void that is in a chaotic state.  How long they so remained we are not told.
2. Things were fashioned and formed into their present general state over a period of what is called six days.  How long that was for sure no one knows.
3. Moses states that things seem to appear in the following order.  Plants, marine life and air life, land life or animals.  The rocks can only tabulate in their own way.  Marine plants, marine animals, land plants and land animals. Both orders are the same in procession.
4. The first day sees the creative act spoken, (Light called for) and darkness and light were divided, and day and night were caused to be and then we have evening and morning.
5. The second day saw the firmament cleared, or the expanse appear as the firmament above and below.
6. The third day marked the appearance of the mountains and valleys and channels and depressions for the seas.  Thus we have seas and earth appearing as such.  Vegetation also appeared with seed in itself.
7. On the fourth day the sun and moon were seen in the heavens.  It does not say they were created at this time, but they did appear then.  We are told that He made the stars also.  Again it does not say when.  Seasons are thus set up.
8.  On the evening of the fifth day lower life appears: creeping things, great monsters, mollusk, fish, fowl and the sea and expanse are filled with life.

9. On the evening of the sixth day higher life or land animals appeared and multiplied. On the evening of this sixth day, man himself appeared and took possession.
10. On the seventh day we are told that God rested from all his work and labor. Although Jesus declared that God worked and still works.
11. Apparently all previous work was for the preparation of man.  Man differs from all other created things in hat he is said to be like God.  God is infinite and man is finite.  God is not physical, but spiritual, therefore, man in his non-physical qualities is like God.
12. He was told to be fruitful and multiply and replenish the earth and subdue it and have dominion.  Thus man’s lordship of the earth is part of his original constitution.
13. Man was created holy and immortal, but he was also created on a high social level and capable of holy actions.  Not only this, but he apparently was created with the gift of language. Thus he was created a going concern.

D. The creation of man.  Man was an outright separate creation:
1. His body was from the dust, and his spirit was inbreathed by God, and he became as a result a living soul.  Gen. 2:7.  He is thus body, soul and spirit.  He is a created dichotomy, and he is an experiential trichotomy.  This is Pope’s and Wiley’s position.  Texts – Ecclesiastics 12:7, Matt. 10:38, I Cor. 6:20, James 2:26.  Trichotomy texts – I Thess. 5:23, Heb. 4:12 and Gen. 2:7.
2. Eve was made from that which was taken from Adam’s side, and then presented to Adam as his wife.  From this pair the entire race descended.  We thus have one creation.
3. They were created upright in nature, and holy in heart, and deathless in body, and in possession of positive and rewarded holiness.  That is they were created actively willing the will of God.
Note:  There are four theories in regard to origin of soul or spirit of man.
1. The social theory – not born with spirit.  Develops as child grows.
2. Tracucianism – Chip off the old block or inherited.
3. Pre-existencism – all souls are pre-existed.
4. Creationism – God creates new spirits.

III. The fall of man.  How long they remained in possession of primitive holiness we do not know.
A. The tempter who was a real person kept himself out of sight in the temptation using a serpent as an agent.  Job 1:6-12, Job 2:1-6, Isaiah 12:12-14, Ezekiel 28:12-15, Rev. 12:3-10.  The tempter was a spiritual being apparently once an angel in heaven.

B. Adam and Eve were forbidden to eat of the tree of good and evil in the midst of the garden.  Thus Satan drew Eve’s attention to it as being:  (1) good for food, (2) pleasant to look at, and (3) to be desired for sake of wisdom.  Eve listened, she looked, she took, she ate, she gave, and they fell.  They were free to continue to do the will of God.  They abused that freedom and used it to disobey God. God is neither negatively nor positively responsible for sin.  Man generated it within by the abuse of freedom or by disobedience.

C. (1)  It was an appeal to reason.  Gen. 3:6(a).  (2) Gen. 3:6(b).  (3) It was an appeal to vocational utility. Gen. 3:6(c).  They doubted the goodness of God.  Gen. 3:5-6.  They desired forbidden knowledge.  Gen. 3:6.  Their action brought shame and separation, expulsion from Eden.  They became transgressors in action, and sinful in nature.

Explanation:  Certain forms of lead poisoning drop into the lifeline and produce hereditary imbecility.  Sin dropped into the lifeline as a deadly disease and passed on from generation to generation.  This disease appears in the heart as sin and breaks out in the life as transgression.  After entire sanctification, the contaminated lifeline remains diseased and carries to the heart of the next generation.  That disease goes on to the next generation.  This is called the genetic mode, or the natural law of heredity.  Nature was also cursed as a result of man’s sin.  (Romans 8:22)

D. Christ the Redeemer.
1. Christ had a perfect human nature and a perfect divine nature, but the ego (self) was one.  While possessed of human nature, He did not cease at any point to be God.  Thus He never ceased to know who He was.
2. He was “made under the law,” born under the law, He was circumcised as law required, and blood was offered when He was young in the temple.  He told John the Baptist that it became him to fulfill all righteousness required by the law.  He died to meet the requirements of that law.  He thus delivered us from the law’s penalty of death and sin.
3. His humiliation started when He took our manhood upon Himself.  However, he took it in a sinless perfection and with the natural infirmities to which sin had reduced it.  It ended fully with His session at the right hand of God.  Luke 1:35-38.  John 7:39 particularly.
4. His exultation began at the precise moment of the article of death.  When He said, “It is finished,” it continued in the decenses when His humanity passed under the power of death.  It continued still further when He arose, and climaxed at His session.
5. In all of our Lord’s predictions of His own resurrection, He made himself the active agent in that resurrection.  John 2:19, John 10:17-18.  He voluntarily passes under the power of death, and while under it He broke the power of death by rising.  This is what is meant by following Scriptures:  Psalm 16:10, Psalm 49:15, Acts 2:30-31, Acts 13:35.  In Acts Paul interprets “Sheol” as the grave where Jesus’ humanity laid.  It was not to see corruption.
6. At the moment of death the price of redemption was paid.  Sin brings death, and death is followed by the corruption of the body but in Jesus’ case, death had no more power over Him.  Hence, His body could not see corruption.  “As His spirit dieth no more so His body saw no corruption.  The unviolated flesh of the Lord was till the moment He was quickened a silent declaration of perfect victory.  His divinity never left His body any more than it forsook His spirit in its passage to the world of spirits.”  Pope, Vol. II, p. 168.
7. The power of sin and death were broken in eternity.
8. Christ is mediator as He represents God and man being very God and very man at one and the same time.  He is the only being in the universe who can do so.  Three offices  connected to mediatorship:
a. Office of prophet.
b. Office of priest.
c. Office of king.
(1) Christ as prophet; perfect revealer of divine truth and every aspect of it.  This great prophet spoke through the prophets, and thus made them prophets.  This is the meaning of I Peter 3:18-20.  Prophets were types of Christ.
(2) Christ was both the offering and offerer.  His cross was the awful form that the altar took, thus the altars, the offerings, and the priests were nothing but types or aspects of Christ as priest and as offering.
(3) The royal office of Christ refers to His activity at the right hand of God as He rules all things in heaven and on earth for the extension of his kingdom.

Chapter V - Aspects of the Atonement


1. Christ’s perfect obedience and perfect sacrifice effected the atonement occurs but once in the New Testament (Rom. 5:11).  The word katalaga translated atonement in Rom. 5:11 occurs many times elsewhere, but is translated reconciliation, that is restored to favor with God.  II Cor. 5:18-19.  Katalallasso means to change or to exchange and then to reconcile.  Something has been exchanged or substituted for something else.

2. In the Old Testament the term of atonement is kaphar, which means primarily to cover or to hide by means of being put away.  The mercy seat hid the two broken tables of stone.  Christ’s sufferings were vicarious.  A vicar is one who acts for another, so vicarious suffering is suffering for others.

The atonement in definition, necessity, and theories.

A. Definition – the moving or originating cause of the atonement was the love of God, but God is holy and man has fallen into sin and is a sinner.  Sin and holiness cannot meet on common ground.  Jesus prayed and said, “That they all may be one as Thou, Father, art in me and I in Thee, that they also may be one in us.”  John 17:21.  Thus, “at-one-ment” between God must be procured.  The atonement and theology means this, “The expiation of sin made by the vicarious sacrifice of Christ.”

B. The necessity for the atonement.
1. God is a moral being, having within His own nature, the principle of moral law which cannot be ignored.
2. Moral beings require a moral government involving rewards and punishments.
3. Such a moral government and moral subjects and moral laws require a moral Governor.  God is that moral Governor, and cannot dispense with those moral laws resident within himself.
4. We are a race of sinners.  God must, therefore, meet our full punishment for the violation of His moral government or find some substitute who will pay the full price of sin so He can justly forgive.  It is one or the other, sinner or substitute.
5. If the sovereign Governor elects to forgive sinners, He, himself, must provide a substitute.  This substitute must be infinite or a member of the trinity, as no creative being would do.
6. The love of God prompted God to redeem man and the goodness of God prompted Him to create man.  Love delights in sacrifice for the object loved.  God is a moral being and man is a moral being, therefore God only saves those who wish to be saved.
7. The atonement was also needed to promote the highest influence and glory of God in the universe.  Hills Vol. II, p. 54.  The sin of man gave God an opportunity to reveal his love, holiness, justice, and burnish hatred of sin.  Sin is not good and never can be, but God can make the wrath of man to praise Him.
8. The atonement greatly augmented the happiness of the universe.  Man is redeemed and made happy.  Angels rejoice.
9. The atonement not only made forgiveness possible, but regenerates repentance and faith in man.
10. The atonement helps prevent sin by showing the awful punishment that it merits.  It also should generate the fear of punishment and brings out the restraining power of love.
11. The atonement is necessary to confirm beings back to holiness in holiness, and to further generate loyalty to God.

C.  Theories of the atonement.  The apostolic fathers had not worked out theory.  Irenaeus seemed to regard it as a victory over Satan.  Origen regarded it as a ransom paid to Satan.  Athanasiasius seemed to regard it as the payment of a debt due to God.  Anselm held that Christ being infinite and sinless paid the debt for us.  Abelard held that the atonement was a winning exhibition of divine love.  Man had to be moved and not God.  The Roman Catholic view gradually took on the idea of penance added to atonement.
1. The Penal Satisfaction Theory – Christ bore the sinners’ punishment as His substitute and then the sinner is regarded as righteous in the sight of God.  Calvinistic theory is too narrow and mechanical.  If Christ unconditionally met the penalty of the elected sinner, then we have antinomianism on one hand and universalism on the other hand.
2. The Governmental Theory – arose against the rigorless penal substitution theory above mentioned.  Was first advanced by James Arimius and carried on by Hugo Grotius.  God is not to be regarded merely as an offended person, but as a moral governor of the universe.  Moral law must be upheld even in the act of pardon.  John Miley and A. M. Hills are two upholders in modern times of this theory.
3. The moral Influence Theory – Salvation comes through the appeal of divine love rather than through satisfaction of divine justice. Atonement was made to move men to return to God.
a. Socinianism has Christ down pretty much as a great pattern for human conduct.  Christ died as a martyr to truth.  God could have forgiven without any atonement.
b. Mysticism identifies Christ with the race in the sense that Christ paid the penalty for racial sin.
c. Busnel represents a moral influence theory in which Christ is also unidentified with the race.
d. The New Theology – teaches that Christ made a perfect concession and adequate repentance for us.
4. The Ethical theory – Christ died to show us the horror of sin and Christ also revealed the glory of God.
5. Dr. Curtis has his own theory.  It is this – Christ has redeemed a group of people.  That group goes right through history to the end of time.  Then at the end of time a nucleus of that group are given pre-fall Adamic bodies.  (Bodies like Adam had before the fall, sinless, deathless and immortal).  That group repeoples the earth with sinless bodies.
The benefits and extent of the atonement. 

A. The unconditional benefits.
1. The continued existence of the race.  The statement was “in the day thou eatest thereof, thou shalt surely die.”  Grace suspended the sentence.
2. The bringing of all men within the reach of salvation or placing salvation within the reach of all men.
3. The striving of the Holy Spirit with the souls of all men after they have been brought within the reach of salvation.
4. The restraining grace of God on the hearts of the unsaved to keep them out of lower levels of sin.  (Conditional and unconditional)  Matt. 18:3 and 18:14.
5. The salvation of those who die in infancy.  Not only children by the calendar but those who never leave infancy mentally.
6. Faults and errors and mistakes such as are inseparable from human nature are prevented from becoming sin.
7. The general goodness of God to all in that He sends rain and sunshine and health and friends to all.

B. The conditional benefits.
1. Regeneration and witness of spirit to regeneration which is placed in the heart of believer.
2. Justification and adoption, which take place in heaven.
3. Entire sanctification of believers as a second definite work of grace.
4. The keeping power of God must also be considered as a conditional benefit as it depends on our walking in the light, in faith and in obeying God.

C. The limited extent of the atonement considered.
1. Calvinism assumes three forms.
a. Supralapsarianism – According to this view, the decree of election takes precedence of the decree of creation.  Out of the mass of creatables, God elects some and reprobates others for His own glory.  To bring this about God created man and God brought about the fall.  Thus men are damned without regard to sin.
b. Sublapsarianism – The decree of election considers man as fallen and then out of the mass of humanity considered fallen, God predestined some to eternal life and the others to eternal damnation.
c. Infralapsarianism – The decree of election considers man as created and fallen and redeemed.  Salvation was provided for all, but only granted to an elect few.
The only difference is in definition.  There is none in fact or in experience.

2. Calvinism denies that there is any difference between foreknowledge and fore-ordination.  What God foresees, He decrees.  He knows everything in the future, therefore, He decrees everything.
a. Election is simply part of God’s eternal purpose in which He determines “the free acts of free men” and by which He foreordains the wicked acts of wicked men.
b. God foreordains the means to the end as well as the end, thus if God decrees the salvation of a soul, He decrees that that soul shall hear, shall heed, and shall believe the gospel, likewise if God decrees the damnation of a soul, He decrees that he shall refuse to hear, to heed, and believe the gospel.
3. Calvinism rests on tests setting forth the absolute sovereignty of God, but it ignores texts setting forth moral freedom and responsibility of man.

Moral Freedom and Responsibility of Man 

    Godward           Manward
 John 4:14       Phil. 1:6      Matt. 23:27  II Chron 24:20
 John 6:39, 40       I Pet. 1:4-5      I Tim. 2:4  I Peter 1:17
 Heb. 13:5       John 10:28      John 5:40  I Chron. 9:27
 Rom. 8:35-39       John 11:25-26     II Chron. 15:2 I Cor. 9:27
         II Peter 3:14

     Responsibility of Both

       II Peter 1:10   I Chron. 28:9

4. God has chosen or elected from the foundation of the world all who meet certain conditions are to be born again and sanctified and kept and later glorified but He has not decreed that we meet those conditions.  Ephes. 1:4-5 and 11-13, Rom. 8:28-38.  Calvinism has faith and repentance coming after regeneration.  God grants these after He elects.  The text they use is Ephes. 2:8 but faith is not the gift of God there spoken of; it is the plan of salvation there spoken of.  We are responsible for faith.  God calls many but only chooses or elects those who respond to His call.  Matt. 22:14.

D. The unlimited extent of the atonement.
1. Armenianism holds that Christ died for all and that all may be saved if they will.  This view is sustained by the following:
a. There is not a single passage in the Bible that says Christ did not die for all or that He died for an elect few only.
b. Christ died for the whole world, or not just the church or the sheep.  I John 1:29, John 3;16, John 4:42, John 6:51, II Cor. 5:18-19, and I John 4:14.  The world does not mean the sheep or the church (John 15:19 and John 17:14-16).  Christ died for those outside the fold.  I John 2:2.  Calvinism says it means from the whole world.
c. Christ died for all men, not for the elect, only.  I Tim. 2:6.  He is the potential savior of all, but the actual savior of those who believe, only.  II Tim. 4:10.  He tasted death for every man.  Heb. 2:9.  The universality of the atonement.  II Cor. 5:14-15.
d. The atonement was co-extensive with the fall.  The fall embraced all and the atonement potentially embraces all.  Rom. 5:14, 18 and Is. 53:6.
e. Christ died for those who are now saved but who may yet perish.  Rom. 14:15, I Cor. 8:11.  Those who are doomed to “a sorer punishment” are declared to have been at one time saved by the blood of the covenant. Heb. 10:29.
f. The gospel is declared to be good tidings to all people and to every creature.  It could not be good tidings to those declared and damned by a divine decree.  It is not good news to demons and devils.  Luke 2:10 and Mark 16:15-16.
g. It is the duty of all men to repent and to believe the gospel.  Men are placed under guilt and condemnation for refusing to believe.  Mark 16:16, Luke 13:3-5 and John 3:18.
h. The ambassadors of Christ are given an unrestricted commission to preach the gospel to every creature.  Mark 16:15, Matt. 11:28 and Rev. 22:17.  Were a limited atonement correct, those texts would be meaningless granting a world-wide atonement and those texts are meaningful and gracious.
i. The responsibility for man’s lost estate is placed at his own door with positive certainty.  Ezek. 33:11, Ezek. 18:31, Matt. 22:3, John 5:40 and Is. 55:6-7.

IV. There are three different types of election granted by all.  They are:
A. There is an election of groups or bodies of people or nations for a specific, God-given historic purpose.  Abraham’s descendants through Isaac and Jacob were to become Israel and to produce the prophets and later Christ and then the founders of the church.  This election does not guarantee salvation to individuals within the group.  Israel was the people of God in this national sense when they were vile sinners personally.  Ex. 4:1, 23 and II Chron. 7:14.  They were only God’s people in a national sense with regard to His national purpose.

B. The election of certain persons to perform some specific kind of service in a special way – Saul to be first king of Israel.  David to succeed him. Cyrus to perform a special service in a special way.  Such election or elections did not affect their spiritual standing at the moment.  Saul was set aside because he ceased to be a God-fearing man.  Cyrus’ election did not call for personal salvation at all.

C. The election of individuals to be regenerated believers.  This election takes place after the penitent has voluntarily met all conditions for that experience.  They are not elected, being unsaved and unsanctified, but are elected being saved and being sanctified.  “Elect through the sanctification of the spirit.”  I Peter 1:2.  That is by means of regeneration and entire sanctification, they were elected to the glories of heaven.
1. In II Thes. 2:13-14 the elect ones are said to have been chosen from the very beginning, that is from the first reception of the gospel in Thessalonica “through sanctification of the spirit and belief of the truth.”  That is by the act of sanctification they were pre-destined to eternal glory.
2. They were to give diligence to make their calling and election sure and as a result make sure their pre-destined state of glory.  II Peter 1:10.
3. In Romans 9:13 we have this “Jacob have I loved, but Esau have I hated.”  It is Jacob’s descendents and Esau’s descendents who are spoken of by God. God chose Jacob’s descendents to fulfill his divine purpose.  This election had nothing to do with personal salvation.
4. Pharaoh, king of Egypt rejected ten solemn warnings and went on in his heart rebellion.  Elicott says that Pharaoh’s heart is in the nominative case and is the actor, thus, his heart hardened itself; this is in harmony with the entire Bible.  (The term ‘hate’ means to hold in less favor or to give a secondary place)  Matt. 10:37, Luke 14:26.  The Bible itself says that Pharaoh hardened his heart.  Exodus 8:15, 32, 9:34, 10:20.

V. The possibility of final apostasy.  Calvinism says there is none.  Armenianism holds that there are people who are people now regenerated or even sanctified wholly who may fall and remain fallen.  This is presented by the following cases.

A. Cited cases of people who have fallen away.
1. Satan and other fallen angels.  For them, there is no hope.  Job 4:18, II Peter 2:4, and Jude v. 6.
2. Adam and Eve fell to the extent that blood had to be shed to redeem them as well as their posterity.  A substitute had to bear the penalty for them.  Gen. 1;27, 31, Gen. 3:6-10, Ecles. 7:29 and Gen. 3;15, 21
3. The Jews were right with God when they left Egypt and yet backslid and fell into sin and the vast majority of them perished in the wilderness.  I Cor. 10:1-12, Heb. 3:17-19, and Jude v. 5..
4. Saul, first king of Israel was changed in heart, yet he lost out and we have no record that he ever got back.  Under the circumstances, it is impossible to believe he ever got back.  I Sam. 10:9-10, I Sam. 15:23-24 and I Sam. 16:14.
5. Judas fell by transgression.  Ps. 41:9, John 13:18, Matt. 26:24-25, John 17:12 and Acts 1:25.
6. Demas once ranked high in the apostolic church.  Paul placed him under inspiration with the spiritually great of all time, but he forsook all having loved this present world.  Col. 4:14, II Tim. 4:10.  It is however, up to a certain point, possible to get back.  David did get back in the Old Testament and Peter did get back in the New Testament.  Saul did not get back in the Old Testament and Judas did not get back in the New Testament.

B. Solemn warnings are given against possible apostasy from God with the fearful consequences.  This would be unnecessary if it were not possible.  Ezek. 18:24-26, Matt. 5:13, John 15:2-6, Rom. 11:19-22, Heb. 10:38, Rev. 3:11 and I Cor. 9:27.

C. Solemn injunctions are given in the Bible for final perseverance.  This too would be unnecessary if there were no possibility.  Matt. 34:11, 26:41, John 15:4, I Cor. 9:24, I Cor. 10:13, Col. 1:22-23, Heb. 3:14, 4:1, I Peter 5:8-9, II Peter 1:1-11 and Rev. 2:10.

VI. Imputation and Prevenient grace.

A. Imputation does not mean the transference of Christ’s righteousness to man regardless of man’s heart state.  It refers to legal or governmental regulation of an existing heart state.  Man is made righteous in heart and then that righteousness is legally recognized in heaven.

B. Prevenient grace is that grace which goes before preparing the soul for its entrance into the state of saving and sanctifying grace.  That there was and is racial prevenient grace.  Christ died for the ungodly.  Rom. 5:6.  Thus no man until he has sinned away his day of grace and perhaps later as long as he is  alive is utterly devoid of the grace of God.  One could say that it was that grace prepared before for the fall of man which God saw would take place. 
(In class Dr. King said that prevenient grace was the grace that kept Adam and Eve from falling to a totally depraved state like that to which the devil and his angels fell.  J.R.)

           Chapter VI
   Holy Spirit and Redemptive Experiences of Grace

I.    There was a progressive revelation of the Father and of the Son, and of the Spirit up to the coming of Jesus and of Pentecost.  This was particularly true of the Spirit.

A. The Spirit brooded over the oceans and brought order and beauty from chaos.  Gen. 1:2.  The creation of the spirit of man is due to His activity.  Job 33:4. Gen. 2:7.  And the Spirit wrestled with wicked man. Gen. 6:3. Is. 63:10. He inspired Holy men to write the Bible.  II Peter 1:21.

B. The Spirit was present at the incarnation of the Son.  Luke 1:35.

C. Jesus the Christ was also anointed with the Holy Spirit without measure. Thus Jesus’ body was the temple of the Holy Spirit.  John 3:34.

D. The Holy Spirit was personally present at Pentecost and was given in response to the promise of the son.  And at the same time, Jesus was reclothed with glory.  John 7:39.

II. Redemptive experiences in relation to the first work of grace.

A. Repentance means a change of mind, of heart attitude, of life purpose.  Then God changes the heart.  Thus we must repent, and then God grants us heart repentance.  It is repentance toward God.

B. Saving faith naturally follows repentance.  It is the condition and immediate instrument of salvation.  A sinner has a faith in God, but this is faith-appropriated salvation to ourselves.

C. Conversion in a strict sense describes the human part of that change called regeneration.  It refers to that change in the thoughts, desires, dispositions and in the life of a sinner which is brought about when he is made alive spiritually.,

D. Justification or pardon refers to the acceptance of the repentant sinner by God.  The sinner repents and exercises saving faith and is at the same moment reckoned just at the bar of justice on high.

E. Regeneration is that work of the Holy Spirit by which we experience a change of heart.  We are made alive within spiritually.

F. Adoption is that act by which one takes another into his family, owns him as his child and appoints him an heir.  Theologically – is that act of God’s free will by which He adopts the repentant sinner into His spiritual family.

G. The witness of the Spirit.  It is a privilege and right of every adopted child of God to have a sure knowledge of his new relationship to God.  The Holy Spirit witnesses to the human spirit and human spirit has that innate consciousness that all is well.  John Wesley describes witness of the Spirit as: 
an inward impression on the soul whereby the Spirit of God directly witnesses to my spirit that I am a child of God, that Jesus Christ hath loved me and given himself for me, and that all my sins are blotted out, and I, even I, am reconciled to God.”  Cullbertson p. 293.

III. Redemptive experiences in relation to the second work.

A. In regeneration, one is made alive spiritually.  He is saved back to the innocency of childhood and is cleansed from the pollution relative to his acts of transgression.  John 15:3, 13:10c.  Thus he is partially sanctified.  He who has no use for sanctification has no use for regeneration for regeneration is partial sanctification.

B. All of the religious groups for the most part, agree that we must be holy in heart or that we must be entirely sanctified in heart before we can enter into heaven.  They differ as to how and when we get it.
1. The Roman Catholics have their purgatory after death to cleanse away the remaining pollution.  This doctrine comes from Plato’s Republic – Book 10.
2. Calvinism holds generally that we get rid of it in the article of death.  God looks at us through Christ while we are on this earth and we appear as holy as is Christ.
3. In the Oberlan theory, sin consists solely in an act of the will.  Thus, carnality is supposedly taken care of in regeneration.  Sanctification consists in consecration – establishment that prevents any further alienation of the will
4. The Plymouth brethren hold to the extreme imputation theory of the Calvinists.  Sin has been nailed to the cross of Christ and as such done away, past, present and future.  Men are no longer responsible for their acts of sin.  Holiness and righteousness are imputed, but never imparted.  One’s standing in Christ is not impaired by his personal heart state.
5. The Keswick movement was founded in 1874 for the promotion of ethical holiness with the denial of heart holiness.  The baptism with the Spirit was for service only.  The carnal nature must be suppressed until death.  Their standing in Christ differed from their heart state.
6. The Moravians directed by Count Zinzendorff held that entire sanctification takes place at the moment of regeneration, as one work or grace.  On this issue John Wesley broke with them.

C. Armenianism and Wesleyanism hold that by means of a second definite work of grace as definite and as instantaneous as the first work, the old carnal nature may be removed totally from the soul.  Two perfect halves make a perfect whole.  The first is partial sanctification. The second is entire sanctification.  The time element between the two works is determined by the person himself.  The first calls for surrender in faith.  The second for a total consecration of the whole man and the new life received in consecration.
1. The First Cause of our entire sanctification is the Holy Father “to them that are sanctified by God the Father.” And preserved in Jesus Christ.  Jude v. 1.
2. The Procuring Cause is the Holy Son.  “Husbands love your wives, even as Christ loved the church and gave himself for it that He might sanctify and cleanse it.”  Eph. 5:26.
3. The Efficient Cause is the Holy Spirit.  “Elect according to the foreknowledge of God, the Father through sanctification of the Spirit.”  I Peter 1:2.
4. The Determining Cause is the Divine will.  “By the which will we are sanctified through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all.”  Heb. 10:10.
5. The Meritorious cause is the sacrifice of Jesus.  “Wherefore Jesus also that He might sanctify the people with His own blood suffered without the gate.”  Heb. 13:12.
6. The Instrumental Cause is the truth of God.  “Sanctify them through thy truth.  Thy Word is truth.”  John 17:17.
7. The Conditional Cause is faith in Christ.  “To open their eyes and to turn them from the power of Satan unto God that they may receive forgiveness of sin and inheritance among them that are now sanctified by faith that is in me.”  Acts 26:18.

D. The determining differences between the two works of grace.
1. In the first work we are regenerated in heart, reformed in life and our names are written in the redemptive book in heaven. In the second work we are further and completely cleansed in heart from the old carnal nature.  The first is instantaneous, as is the second.
2. In the first, transgressions and acts of sin are all forgiven and we are taken out of the sinning business.  “He that is borne of God doth not commit sin.”  In the second work, the root of sin from which acts of sin flow is removed totally.
3. In the first work we were adopted into family of God and we are given heirship with Christ.  We are thus taken out of the world or out of Egypt.  “They are not of the world even as I am not of the world.”  The second work takes the world or Egypt out of the heart and we are given heart meekness or fitness for heaven above.
4. The first work is instantaneous.  It is perfect and is complete in its own field.  Those who are justified are fully and completely justified.  Justification has no degrees.  Sanctification has degrees.  In first work we are partially cleansed.  In second work we are completely cleansed.  Each work is perfect and complete in its own field, but there are two degrees in sanctification.

E. There are only two works of grace with regard to redemption.
1. In Peter’s first sermon, he presents two works of grace.  With regard to home of Cornelius, Peter shows two works of grace.  Acts 2:38 and Acts 15:8-9.
2. Paul’s commission from God to the Gentile world was given in two works of grace.  Acts 26:18.

IV. Things that entire sanctification does not do for us in this life.

A. Make us perfect in all attributes, as God himself is perfect.

B. Give us angelic perfection.  They are bodiless spirits living in a perfect spiritual order.

C. Give us resurrection and glorified perfection as Moses and Elijah were perfect 
when they appeared on the mountain.

D. Vest us with Adamic perfection or the perfection that Adam had in unfallen state.

E. Does not include the cessation of spiritual warfare.  In many respects spiritual warfare is intensified.

F. Does not include deliverance from physical infirmities.  Such are neither good nor bad in themselves.

G. It is not deliverance from wandering thoughts while praying.  A perfect heart is one thing and a perfect mind is quite another.  (Heart is the moral quality of man, is his center, divided for purposes of analysis.)

H. It is not deliverance from scary, unpleasant or improper dreams.  Daniel Steele in Love and Enthrone pp. 86-88 deals with this matter. 

I. It is not a state of constant ecstasy and joy.  This is neither possible nor desirable.

J. It is not the removal or possibility of further sinning.  This is neither implied nor stated.

K. Does not enable us to serve God perfectly as Adam did before the fall.

L. Is not deliverance from physical death nor yet deliverance from evils and pain relative to the approach of death.

V. Various uses of the term sanctification in the Bible.  It has basically a four-fold meaning.  The first is to separate, second is to dedicate, third is to consecrate, and fourth is to make pure.  However, the first three are merely steps leading up to the fourth (purity) which is the real meaning.  Hagios meaning pure, righteous, holy in Greek.  In Latin is sanctus.  Facatio (to make) sanctification.  Thus we have our word.

A. The people were sanctified by their leaders.  Ex. 19:2.

B. The people sanctified themselves. Ex. 11:14.

C. Jesus sanctified himself to death.  John 17:19.

D. An unbelieving husband or wife was sanctified by a Christian spouse.  I Cor. 7:14.

E. The regenerated people are said to be sanctified initially, but not sanctified wholly.  I Cor. 1:2, 12-13.

F. Then the cleansed in heart are said to be sanctified wholly.  Ex. 31:13, Lev. 20:8, I Thes. 5:23, Jude v. 1, Heb. 13:12 and Acts 15:8-10.
Thus sanctification refers to ceremonial cleansing, to separation, dedication, consecration and heart cleansing by the baptism with the Spirit.

For a good presentation of a sinning Christianity for preverted presentation of Holiness, see Bercofy, Louis, Summary of Christian Doctrine, p. 144ff.  Patton, Francis. A Summary of Christianity.

VI. The Old Testament teaches heart purity and New Testament teaches heart purity by the Baptism of the Spirit.

A. Man was created holy and was called back to that heart state.  The general standard of purity is raised for all in Ps. 23:4, Ps. 73:1, 24 tells us where they went.  Same standard was raised Is. 1:18, Ez. 36:25.  Examples:  Gen. 6:9, 17:1, John 1:8, I Kings 15:14.

B. In the New Testament the same standard of heart purity is raised.  Matt. 5:8, 5:48, Acts 15:8-9, I Thes. 5:23, 4:3, Heb. 6:1, 12:13, II Cor. 7:1, Phil. 3:15, Mark 12:30, I Pet. 1:16, James 1:4 and Matt. 3:11-12.

C. The early church fathers preached both regeneration and entire sanctification.  The early church seemed to lose both about the same time.  There were always a few isolated monks who taught both.

D. Shortly after Luther resurrected regeneration as a doctrine, heart holiness was also resurrected but in an unclear manner.  Thus the holiness movement began.

VII. Symbols and Aspects of Entire Sanctification.

A. Symbols of the Holy Spirit.
1. The Dove – Noah released a dove to guide or direct his actions.  Then Jesus at his baptism was anointed and directed or guided by the Spirit who came upon Him in the form of a dove.  Gen. 8:11 and Matt. 3:16.
2. Rain moistens and soaks the earth and causes it to bud and bring forth.  Rain is a type of a Spirit.
3. Water is used to cleanse the human body and garments worn by human beings.
4. Wind or air is used by Jesus while talking to Nicodemus and Jesus declares the air there is a type of Holy Spirit.  John 3:8.
5. The oil was poured on the priests and on kings and on prophets when they were inducted to office.  Oil is referred to by Jesus in the parable of the Good Samaritan as having healing and purifying qualities.  Oil also lubricates and empowers and makes things run more smoothly.
6. Fire purifies by removing the dross.  It also warms and illuminates and energizes.

B. Symbols of the Carnal Nature.
1. Enmity – In definition the carnal mind is “Enmity against God” for it is not subject to the law of God, neither can it be.  “So then, they that are in the flesh (in possession of enmity) cannot please God.”  Rom. 8:7a-8.
2. Disease – in the physical that is destroying the body.  The dying state of the physical body templifies the dying state of the soul caused by enmity against God.
3. Leprosy in Bible times was the classic type of the principle of sin in the heart.
4. The Root of the evil tree that shot up a sapling that had to be constantly cut down is a type of the carnal nature.  Matt. 3:10.
5. Ishmael and Hagar in the home of Abraham constituted a disturbing factor and is a type of the carnal nature in the soul of the regenerated heart.  Gen. 21.
6. Goliath in directing the enemies of Israel against God’s people is a type of the old carnal nature.
7. Agag in leading the Philistines against Israel II Sam. 15:20, 33 is a type of carnal nature.
8. Mixed seed was not to be sown.  Deut. 27.
9. Mixed material in clothes was forbidden.  Deut. 22.
10. Could not plow or harrow with mixed animals.  Deut. 22.
11. The dross in gold or other metals was a type of the carnal nature.  Malachi 3:3.

VIII. Types or symbols of the Two Works of Grace.

A. The Levites and Priests, two positions in service.  Num. 3, Ex. 28:29

B. The Leper, when healed, underwent two washings and two anointings with a certain time interval between. Lev. 14.

C. The Holy Place and the Holy of Holies. Ex. 26:31-33.

D. The two crossings — (1) of the sea out of Egypt, (2) of the River Jordan into Canaan. Ex. 14 and Josh.3.

E. The slave and the love slave.  Lev. and Deut.

F. The two covenants, (1) works (2) grace  - (1) Moses (2) Christ.

G. The two cleansings of the temple.  John 3:12-14, Luke 19. 

H. The two rests (1) Matt. 11:28-30 (2) Heb. 5:6.

I. The treasure and the pearl.  Matt. 13:44-46.

J. The resurrection of Lazarus (1) Lazarus alive (2) Lazarus unbound.  John 11:43-44.

K. The two touches on eyes.  Mark 8:22-26.

L. The two baptisms (1) John with water, (2) by Jesus with Holy Ghost and fire. Matt. 3:11.

IX. The time element between two works of grace.  God presumably could save and sanctify a person in one work of grace.  However, man is a free, moral agent and he cannot be in two places at once or meet both conditions at once.  Man, himself, therefore necessitates a time element.
A. The length of time is not set by the Bible, but by man himself.  Some have more light, and some take longer to grasp new truths.

B. The Israelites could have made the journey from the sea to the Jordan in 11 days.  Fear necessitated two years, then disobedience stretched the two years to 40 years.  Eleven days or two years could represent the time span.

C. The leper was first sprinkled and then resprinkled 8 days later and declared fully cleansed.  Ceremonialism necessitated this 8-day period.

D. The disciples of Jesus took from 1-1/2 to 3 years to understand and grasp the truth.

E. In Peter’s thinking after Pentecost, the time could be very brief.  Acts 2:37-39.

F. The Jerusalem church through that the time could be quite short.  Acts 8:5-8; Acts 8:14-17.

G. Ananias thought Paul could be sanctified at once.  Acts 9:17-19.

H. Paul, himself, urged the Thessalonians to get sanctified inside six months after being saved. I Thess. 4:3; I Thess. 5:23-24.

I. Paul, at Ephasus, also urged immediate action.  Acts 19:1-7.

J. There is a danger in both directions, urging action before they are ready or waiting until they have lost their first love.  Jessop, Foundation of Christian Doctrines, pp. 74-78.  J. A. Wood, Perfect Love, pp. 30-33.

X   The apostles were regenerated before Pentecost.  Several of them were disciples           of John the Baptist before they met Jesus.

A. Evidences of salvation.
1. They were not of this world.  John 1:2; John 17:14.
2. They were not lost.  John 17:12.
3. Their names were written in Heaven.  Luke 10:20.
4. They belonged to God and to Christ.  John 17:9-10.
5. They were empowered to cast out devils.  Luke 10:1 and 20; Luke 9:1.
6. They were ordained and commissioned by Christ.  Mark 3:14-15; Matt. 28:19.
7. They (excepting Judas) spent 10 days praising and blessing God and waited for the Holy Spirit to come. Luke 24:53; Acts 1:14.

B. Evidences of need.
1. They were in possession of a man-fearing spirit “and they all forsook Him and fled.”  Mark 14:50.
2. They were carnally selfish.  Matt. 19:27; Mark 10:28.
3. They were carnally sectarian.  Matt. 17:16.
4. They were vindictive in spirit.  Luke 9:15 and 55.

C. Changes after Pentecost.
1. Their hearts were purified by the Baptism of the Spirit.  Acts 15:8, 9; Acts 11:18.
2. Their hearts were indwelt by the Holy Ghost. John 14:17.
3. Their hearts were filled with perfect love.  I John 4:17.
4. They were possessed of a oneness of heart.  John 17:21.

XI. Holiness as Experienced and Evidenced and Retained.

A. Holiness as Experienced.
1. We have a conviction of want or need.  We know we are saved, but we have a soul need.  “Blessed are they who hunger and thirst after righteousness for they shall be filled.”
2. A perfect repentance or mourning of spirit for being carnal in heart.  “Blessed are they that mourn.”
3. We feel that it is important, so much so, in fact, that we feel it will be spiritual death if we are not sanctified.  “Who shall deliver me from the body of this death.”
4. We believe that the promise is for us.
a. Jesus prayed for it for us.  John 17:17.
b. Jesus died for it for us. Eph. 5:15-26; Heb. 13:12.
c. God wills it for us. I Thess. 4:3.
d. God promises it to us.  I Thess. 5;24.
e. God commands it of us. I Peter 1:15.
5. There is a hunger and thirst for it in heart.  “Blessed are they who hunger and thirst after righteousness for they shall be filled.”
6. We must obey God for He gives “the Holy Spirit to them that obey Him.”  Acts 5:23.
7. We must fully consecrate ourselves to God, — body, soul and spirit – past, present and future.  In short, we must say an eternal “Yes” to all the will of God.  Romans 12:1, 2.
8. We must believe for it.
a. We must believe that God has promised it to us in the Holy scriptures.
b. We must believe that what God has promised, He is able to perform.
c. We must believe that He is able and willing to do it now.
d. We must believe that He does do it now.

Questions one must ask oneself and be able to answer “Yes”.
1. Do I clearly realize my inbred sin and my consequent need of holiness?
2. Am I willing and anxious and resolved to obtain it?
3. Am I willing to give up all to God — self, family, property, reputation, time, talents, everything to be His, to be used for Him, to be intrusted to Him, and to be never in Hell or taken from Him?
4. Do I believe that He is able to sanctify me?
5. Do I believe that He is willing to sanctify me?
6. Do I believe that having promised, He is able and willing to do it now?
7. Do I then seeing all this, believe that he now will do it now at this moment?
8. Am I now committing my all to Him and trusting in Christ; if I am, then it is done.

B. Holiness is evidenced.
1. In Christian holiness or Christian perfection or evangelical perfection, the carnal nature is cleansed from, is burned out of, or is eradicated from the soul, heart, or from the seat and center of the affectionate nature of man.
2. The sanctified believer is made pure in heart. (Matt. 5:8) and he is cleansed from all unrighteousness (I John 1:19) and he is without spot or wrinkle or any such thing in heart (Eph. 5:27) and he is sanctified holy (I Thes. 5:23).  He is cleansed from all filthiness of the flesh and spirit (II Cor. 6:1) and he is perfected in holiness in the fear of God (II Cor. 7:1).
3. The heart is filled with perfect love.  This perfect love is:
a. perfect in quality
b. perfect in quantity as it fills the heart
c. constant
d. progressive
e. casts out fear
f. It enables the soul to be more conscious of God than it was before.
g. It spurns the carnal and worldly things and hungers for God and holy things.
4. The Comforter witnesses within that all is well.
5. Thus, entire sanctification is evidenced by cleansing, purity, perfect love, and the witness of the Spirit.  As expressed by Job, it’s minimum is this:
a. He was going the direction that God told Him to go the last time they met.
b. God was pointing to nothing in his life that was wrong.
c. He had not violated any standards of conduct.
d. There was no condemnation on his heart.  In short, he had that negative witness of no condemnation.

C. Holiness is retained.
1. We must attend to the various means of grace, as it is reasonably possible so to do.
2. Our consecration must be kept complete and lived out actively in life.
3. We must testify in some manner to the fact that we are children of God and that we are sanctified.
4. We must read the Bible and pray daily.
5. We must deny ourselves somehow and be ever watchful of our conduct and expressions.
6. We must cultivate the presence of God and constantly seek the will of God.
7. Under pressure and temptations, we must see that no root of bitterness has a chance to spring up in our hearts.
8. We must be in the service of Christ and refuse to surrender faith under any form of temptation short of condemnation.

XII. The Holy Spirit

A. The Holy Spirit or Comforter is of identical essence with the Father and the Son but is a distinct person.  Thus, as a person, he is a wholly other.

B. In the Old Testament even, He is distinct as a person from the Father and Son, but is connected with both in operation.  Isaiah 41:16 “And now the Lord God and His Spirit hath sent me”.   He is also referred to as His Spirit. He is also called “My Spirit” and “The Spirit of God”.  In the New Testament He has stepped out alone. It is His dispensation.  “Separate me Barnabas, and Saul for the work whereunto I have called them”.  Acts 13:2-4.

C. He magnified the person of the Christ, brings His words to men’s minds and He empowers those words.  He convicts the sinner and regenerates the sinner.  He convicts the regenerated and then sanctifies him wholly.  He guides and directs him to Heaven.

D. The 16th chapter of St. John is the Trinity chapter in the New Testament.  The Holy Spirit there is a distinct person, executing redemption effected by Jesus and determined by the absolute Father.

XIII. The Witness of the Spirit.

A. The matter of witness is vital. There are witnesses to the sinner that he is a sinner.  There are witnesses to the saved and the sanctified.  There are witnesses to those who are on dangerous ground.

B. We here quote Wesley’s definition of the witness of the Spirit as quoted by William McDonald.  “Question – How then would you define the witness of the Spirit?  Answer – An imminent Wesleyan minister once defined this witness as being “A satisfactory and joyful persuasion produced by the Holy Ghost in the mind of a believer that he is now a child of God.”

It is doubtful that anyone has given a definition of the Spirit clearer than Wesley.  “By the witness of the Spirit I mean an inward impression for the soul whereby the spirit of God immediately and directly witnesses to my spirit that I am a child of God.  That Jesus Christ hath loved me and given himself for me and that all my sins are blotted out and I, even I, am reconciled to God.”  Wesley, Vol. I, p. 94.

Speaking of this definition 20 years later, he said:  “I see no cause to retract any part of it, neither do I see how any of these expressions can be altered to make them more tangible”. 

The witness of the Spirit according to this definition is an inward impression or witness to the soul made by the spirit of God, announcing to me:

1. That I am a child of God.
2. That Jesus Christ hath loved me and given himself for me.
3. That all my sins are blotted out.
4. That I am reconciled to God.

We would search in vain for a clearer, scriptural or satisfactory definition than this.

But can you explain the manner of the Spirit’s witness?  As the scriptures are silent on this point we cannot explain the operation of the Spirit upon the human heart.

The definition we have given assumes that it is by the Spirit’s direct and immediate influence exerted upon the mind, and when we have said this that is all we know.

XIV. Christian ethics and the church.

A. Ethics – to get saved and get sanctified is one thing – and to live a Christian life, grow in grace and act correctly is quite another.  He who gets sanctified does not go very far until he sees that sanctification doesn’t settle every problem in life.  It does settle some, but also raises others.
1. We have duties to God.  We owe Him reverence, adoration, worship.  The unknown bundle creates problems as it constantly unfolds, that is cause for cultivation for a “yes” attitude to God.
2. We have duties to ourselves.  We must be good to ourselves in the sense that we cannot defy our minds or our consciences or our souls or our spirits.  We must love ourselves as we love others.  Our bodies are the temples of the Holy Spirit.
3. We have duties to others.  We are all one in Jesus Christ and we cannot take advantage of this close union of love and fellowship without hurting ourselves.  Our dress, our places of recreation, speech, etc. must be in harmony with our principles of Christianity.
a. Family life is ordained of God.  Marriage consists of one man and one woman. Death dissolves the union.  Jesus regarded adultery as sufficient cause for divorce.  Matt. 5:32.  Protestantism generally interprets St. Paul to teach that desertion was sufficient cause for divorce. (Desertion as Paul dealt with it meant adultery) I Cor. 7:15.
b. Children are to be trained in the fear of God.  Together the family is to be a God-fearing unit.
c. The Christian owes duties to the state.  The state is ordained of God to assist man to be what God intends him to be.  Thus, the state should not interfere with man’s proper and legitimate worship of God. On the other hand, man should support the state.

B. The Sabbath
It was first instituted by God in Eden.  God rested His seventh day, which was man’s first day.  The Jews were to rest the day after six days of labor, which was the seventh day.  On certain special occasions, they also rested the eighth day, which was the 50th day.  These were days of Holy rejoicing. Ex. 12:16-17; Ex. 16:22-30.  According to Ex. 12 their Sabbath would fall on different days of the week.  There is no mention of the patriarchs keeping any day.  It is supposed they did from the following considerations.

1. The scriptural statement of the historic fact.  Gen. 2:1-3.
2. It is reasonable to suppose that the historic fact was at once observed.
3. By the division of time into weeks during the times of the patriarchs Gen. 8:10, 12; Gen. 29:27.
4. There are supposed traces of the seventh day before the Pentateuch was given.  (There are traces of it afterwards but it is very questionable if there were any traces of it before.)
5. By the terms with which the Sabbath was introduced in Exodus 16 (The terms do not hint that it was a new ordinance, neither that it was an old one.)
6. By the terms in which the reason for the ordinance in Ex. 20:11 is assigned.
7. By the terms used in the fourth commandment.  Ex. 20:8-11.

The only really noticeable thing about those seven reasons for believing that the Sabbath was observed by man between Eden and Exodus 12 is their painful weakness.

If one reckons from Eden it is impossible to tell which is the seventh day, as time has been upset many times.  The Hebrews had many Sabbaths and many Holy days and many new moon days.  Pentecost in the Old Testament was a first day, and was prophetic of the New Testament Pentecost.  Pentecost in the New Testament was on the first day.  It was a first day and the birthday of the Christian church.  Jesus arose on the first day and possibly all of His post-resurrection appearances were on the first day. That first day is called “Lord’s Day”.  Rev. 1:10.  The New Testament Christians kept the first day.  Acts. 20:7; I Cor. 16:1-2; Rev. 1:10.  Jesus said that He was Lord of the Sabbath, meaning He would change it.  This, he probably did after His resurrection.

C. The church (ecclesia) refers to the body of believers in Christ who are also referred to as the body of Christ with Christ himself as the head.
1. The Church had prophets, apostles, evangelists, pastors and teachers for the perfecting of the saints.  Eph. 4:12-13.  Thus the Church is like a great temple in which He operates Eph. 2:21-22.
2. The Church was prepared for by the Old Testament and also by the apostles and then by the descent of the Holy Spirit.  Thus the Church gathers up the old and continues therefrom.
3. The Church is both militant and triumphant.  It is militant here below and the church triumphant is in Heaven above.  Thus there are two aspects or two halves.
4. In the church (militant) the Old Testament priesthood is done away as the altar and sacrifices are done away.  Each believer is now his own priest and approaches God for himself.  However, there are bishops, elders, who ministered to the Church and deacons (officers under the bishops) who cared for members of groups within the Church.

D. The Organization of the Church.
1. The Church had definite meeting times.  Acts. 20:7
2. A recognized ministry.  Phil. 1:1; Acts 20:17, 28
3. They had a formal system of elections.  Acts 1:23-26
4. They had financial support for the ministry. I Cor. 16:1-2
5. Discipline for Church members and ministers.  I Tim. 5:15; I Peter 5:2; Matt. 18:17; I Cor. 5:4, 5, 13
6. A system of customs and ordinances.  I Cor. 11:16; Acts 2:41-42; I Cor. 11:23-26
7. Qualification for membership in the church.  Matt. 28:19; Acts 2:47
8. A list of widows that they claimed as their responsibility.  I Tim. 5:9
9. A system of recommendations.  Acts 18:27; II Cor. 3:1
10. Stated type of common work with regard to all churches.  That common work was “the work of Christ.”  Phil. 2:30

E. Sacraments of the church.
1. Romanism holds to seven.
a. Confirmation (no Biblical grounds for it)
b. Penance (substituted for repentance)
c. Orders (ordination - no sacrament at all)
d. Matrimony (a solemn undertaking state, but not a sacrament at all)
e. Extreme unction.
f. The Lord’s Supper, or the Eucharist, or the Mass
g. Baptism
2. Protestantism has two, but not sacraments.
a. Baptism
b. Lord’s supper

F. Theories of Baptism.  By baptism is meant the application of water to a person.  The word Bapto or Bapteiso signifies either sprinkling, pouring or immersion.  If it is determined which, the context must do so – the word cannot do it.
1. There are those who hold that baptism with water is obsolete as is animal sacrifices; having been fulfilled by Christ.  “Suffer it to be so now for thus it becometh us to fulfill all righteousness.”  Matt. 3:50.  They also refer to that classic statement, “He must increase, but I must decrease.”  John 3:30.  That is both John and his baptism was on the way out, and Jesus and His baptism was on the way in.  Furthermore, John’s baptism was in the Old Testament and the Old Testament was on its way out.  Jesus was to take over and the New Testament was to take over and Jesus’ baptism was to take over.

Peter and the Judaizers did appear to continue baptism as a right or an ordinance, but Paul and the Gentiles appeared to hold it very lightly.  Paul baptized a very few.  He said this “For Christ sent me not to baptize but to preach the faith.”  “One faith, one Lord, one Baptism”  Eph. 4:5.  This baptism cannot refer to water unchallenged.  It must refer to the baptism with the spirit.  See I Cor. 1:14, 15 and 17.
2. There are those that hold that immersion is the only form of water baptism taught in the Bible.  Such generally hold that:
a. Only immersion is baptism
b. Only immersion is Christian baptism
c. Only adults may receive baptism
d. Baptism is a type of the death and resurrection of Christ.
e. Baptism of infants is a modern innovation.
A. M. Hills, p. 516 says four of those are scripturally wrong and one is historically wrong.
1. Within this group, there are those who hold that one immersion face up in the name of the Father, Son and Spirit is correct.  Some hold three immersions in this group.  Also some hold three immersions in rapid succession, face down.
2. In strictly immersion churches generally there is a laxity with regard to preaching regeneration and entire sanctification.  They regard immersion as conversion.  Some hold it more important than conversion.  Immersion is almost universally the tongue’s evidences churches mode of baptism and substituted for sanctification.
3. There are those who hold to sprinkling or pouring, which is really one and the same method.  Such generally hold that baptism is a sign to the world of regeneration and a seal with regard to children.
a. In the Old Testament circumcision was a sign of their right to the privileges of redemption.  Any family who refused to circumcise their children was cut off from rights of redemption.  In the New Testament baptism took place of circumcision.
b. Sprinkling or pouring was used much in the Old Testament.  Num. 8:7; Num. 19:13; Isaiah 52:15; Ezekiel 36:25  This pouring or sprinkling was a type of the outpouring spirit of Pentecost.  Baptism in the New Testament was given as a type of the outpouring of the spirit.
c. Paul says that the Israelites were baptized unto Moses in the cloud and the sea.  They were sprayed by the wind crossing the dry ocean bed. They were under the cloud but not in it at all. I Cor. 10:2.
d. The word baptism is used when no water is involved at all.  Jesus said, “I have a baptism to be baptized with and how am I strengthened until it be accomplished.”  John 17:19  This was after his baptism with water and referred to a complete consecration to the will of God with regard to the Cross.  Paul uses baptism meaning a complete consecration.  Col. 2:11, 12; Gal. 3:27; I Cor. 10:2; Rom. 6:2

Death to sin is to be a permanent state and buried with Christ is to be a permanent state also.  Thus sprinkling and pouring refer directly to Pentecost and Baptism with the Spirit.  Immersion can never therefore be fully at home in a strictly holiness movement.  As Nazarenes, we are strictly sprinklers in theology and according to our manual we grant any form the recipient desires.

          Chapter VIII – Eschatology (Last Things)

I. The Second Coming

A. At the end of the church age Jesus Christ shall actually appear in the clouds of Heaven to catch away His waiting bride.  (The holy people are thus to be raptured.  Acts. 1:10-11; I Thes. 4:16-17; I Thes. 5:23).
1. The Man of Sin (the Anti-Christ) will then appear who will rule the world for a period of seven years.  II Thes. 2:3; Dan. 12:2, 7:25b, 12:7, Rev. 12:14).
2. The Battle of Armageddon takes place at the close of the tribulation period.  It is the Anti-Christ world against the Jews who returned to Palestine during the first half of the tribulation period.  Dan. 9:27; Is. 28:15, 18; John 5:43; Dan. 3:23-26.
3. Two-thirds of all (Jew and Gentile) shall be slain during the tribulation period.  Zeh. 13:8, 9

B. At the termination of the Battle of Armageddon Christ actually sets His feet on earth again.  This is His Second Coming proper.  Is. 53:3-5  All nations (living peoples) are gathered before Him to judgment.  Matt. 25:31-46.  The good are set to one side and the evil are cast away.  The good form a nucleus of the millennial population on earth.

C. The Millennial consists of 1,000 years during which time Christ reigns on earth and rules all nations with a rod of iron.
1. Israel shall then be God’s witnessing body.  Is. 60:1-3.
2. Israel (nation) shall be restored to temporal and spiritual favor.  Joel 2:19ff; Is. 53:1
3. The earth shall be filled with the knowledge of the Lord as the waters cover the sea.  Heb. 2:14; Is. 11:9
4. Wars shall cease.  Is. 2:4; Micah 4:3-4; Hosea 2:18
5. The Lord shall reign personally at and from Jerusalem.  Micah 4:7; Is. 24:23; Zeh. 8:2,3; Is. 66:23; Ps. 2:6

At the close of 1,000 years, Satan is to be loosed from his prison and shall go out and gather all the heart rebels against God to himself.  Then he shall encompass the Holy City.  God shall then pour out fire and brimstone from heaven upon them and defeat them.  This is to be the last organized act of rebellion against God.

D. We then have the last judgment.
1. At the first judgment not a dead person is resurrected.  Matt. 25:32  At the last judgment, all the dead are resurrected.  Rev. 20:11-12a.
2. At the first judgment, not a book is opened.  At the last judgment, all the books are opened.  Rev. 20:1ab; Matt. 25:31-36
3. At the first judgment, all were surprised at the results of judgment.  Matt. 25:27b-44b.  At the last judgment there were no surprises.
4. At the first judgment the saved pass into the “kingdom prepared for them: (millennial) and the unsaved pass on to the dead.  At the last judgment the saved pass into Heaven – the lost into the Lake of Fire – Matt. 25:34; Rev. 20;15
5. At the first judgment, the throne is a throne of glory upon which the Savior sits.  At the second judgment, the throne is a great white throne upon which the judge sits.  Matt. 25:31; Rev. 20:11
6. At the first judgment the issue of judgment is how they abused “my brethren,”  (Jews or Israel).  At the second judgment, the issue is how they abused Christ.  Then we have eternity proper, as we use the term.

II. Death – Physical death is the extinction of bodily life.  It is the separation of the spirit from the body.  That separation leaves the physical body dead or asleep.  The original cause of physical death is sin.  Gen. 3:19; Rom. 5:12.

A. As far as time is concerned we find but two exceptions to this rule.  I Kings 2:11; Heb. 11:5  Jesus statements with regard to the prodigal son verifies this.

B. Spiritual death is also the separation of the spirit from God.  This is called the second death.  This second death is a final and eternal separation.  Physical death is a type of the spiritual one.  The putrefying disillusion of the body is also a type of the moral breakdown that will take place on the final separation of the soul from God.

III.  Intermediate State

A. At death the spirit of man goes directly to God who made him.  Apparently, for some kind of initial accounting.  Ecl. 3:21; Ecl. 7:12.  Sometimes soul and spirit are used interchangeably.

B.  The spirits of the righteous go directly to Abraham’s bosom. (God’s bosom)  Also directly to Paradise (God’s presence). They also go directly to the right hand of God (Heaven) and also directly to Heaven.  These are all synonymous terms and refer to the same general place.  Paradise is a New Testament word as well as an Old Testament one.  The New Testament word occurs in Luke 23:43; II Cor. 12:2-4.  Heaven is a big place.  The city John saw coming down was a big city.  The place is the same but the state within that place is changed.  At present the redeemed spirits are disembodied and all are not as yet in Heaven.  That is the only intermediate state there is.

C. All we have said about Heaven goes for Hell or the Lake of Fire as well.  The spirits of the lost go directly to Hell at death.  There they wait the second judgment and the second resurrection, after which they shall be cast into the Lake of Fire. Hell is fire.  Luke 16:22-28 and the Lake of Fire is fire.  Rev. 20:10-15.  Internally there is no difference.  The Lake of Fire is merely Hell enlarged as Hell is dumped into it.  The only intermediate state there is that the general judgment is not passed and the general resurrection is not passed and all are not as yet in Hell.  All wicked persons, men and fallen angels and all wickedness will be dumped into the Lake of Fire. Instead of Hell, it is then called the Lake of Fire.

D.  Various words are used to describe our concept of Hell.

1. Sheol, Hell – originally refer to the abode of the death, thus it could refer to grave or the abode of the spirit.  The New Testament use is restricted to the abode of the lost.  The setting determines which term is meant.  When referring to either the grave or the abode of the spirit is usually in the Old Testament.

2.  Tartarus – refers to being cast down into total moral or spiritual darkness.  In the Bible, it is found only in II Peter 2:4.  The fallen angels were cast down to Tartarus and chained in darkness unto the judgment.

3.  Gehenne – refers to the place of punishment. The word is taken over from the valley of Gehenna where the rubble from Jerusalem was constantly burning.  Jesus used it as a type of hell-fire.  Gehenna occurs twelve times in the New Testament – eleven times by Jesus and once by James.  James 3:6.  All are going to the grave, hence Mark 18:9 cannot mean the grave and Mark 9:43 cannot mean the grave.  Both are called by Jesus, the Gehenna of fire.

4.  Lake of Fire – differs in quantity but not in quality from hell-fire.  It differs only with regard to time as it is called hell before the general judgment and the Lake of Fire after.  Thus, the state within the place changes but the place does not change.

E. Eternal status of the soul

1. Punishment is eternal for the lost.

a. Those who die in their sins are separated from God forever and are placed in a place of punishment.  They are also fully conscious.

b. This is not contrary to the goodness nor yet to the love of God.  God to be good to and to love His own must separate sin and sinners from them.

c. An aspect of eternal punishment is the second death.  This is an eternal state and it is not annihilation.  Rev. 21:8; 20:14-15.

d. Jesus associated this lost estate with weeping and wailing and gnashing of teeth.  Matt. 8:12; 22:13; 25:13.

e. This eternal punishment is what theologians call privative.  That is they are deprived of Heaven.  Also positive, they are in torment John 13:42.

f. This punishment is eternal and is everlasting.  The same adjectives are used with regard to both heaven and hell.  Matt. 12:32; Mark 10:30; Luke 18:30 and Matt. 25:31-46.

2. Blessedness is eternal for the saved.

a. The saved soul enters Heaven at death and waits there until the resurrection of the body.  Body and soul are then reunited in heaven in everlasting union.

b. Jesus sustained this truth in John 14:1-2.  Stephen sustained it in Acts 7:55.  Paul sustained it also while writing the II Cor. letter at 5:8.

c. The New Jerusalem that John saw coming from Heaven appears to be the church triumphant.  Hence probably it is the church triumphant. 

d. A. M. Hills has the following closing comments with regard to Heaven.

1. Root and branch of sin are gone.
2. Our mental powers will come into their own.
3. Heaven is moral and spiritual gain.
4. Heaven will be social gain.
5. Heaven has limitless development and progress.
6. Heaven for the Christian is endless.

     * * *

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