Dr. W. Noble King
Bethany Nazarene College
All Rights Reserved
This document consists of
notes taken by students who attended Dr. King's class in systematic theology
at Bethany Nazarene College. The notes therefore reflect student response
to Dr. King's lectures and do not necessarily represent fully or accurately
his thought in all respects.
Religions are classed as
those living and dead. There are ten living religions and ten dead
religions. The ten dead religions (mostly European) died in front
of Christianity. The living religions like those in China are built
around persons. These religions crushed Christianity, holding that
Jesus was just a man.
Four standard obstacles to
belief in God. They are as follows:
1. To some persons, the most
serious obstacle is the presence of suffering and evil.
a. Suffering and evil are
non-existent in Heaven.
b. They were non-existent
in Eden before the fall.
c. Biblically, suffering
and evil are the by-product of sin.
d. In fallen and crippled
state, mentally, morally or physically, they will draw one closer to God.
e. Question — “Why did this
happen to me?” Endeavors to make God responsible for racial and personal
2. If there were a God, He
would give us unmistakable evidence of His existence. Answer:
It is often said that God has revealed Himself in nature, history, and
in conscience. Objection: If He had, all heathen would know
a. In heaven this would be
b. In Eden, it was non-existent.
c. Wicked men in the Bible
didn’t doubt God’s existence.
d. No race today doubts
the existence of a superior being.
In the field of redemption
during probation, faith calls for a balanced situation.
a. If God were more clearly
revealed, faith would not be needed.
b. If less clearly revealed,
faith would be mere presumption.
3. People who feel need of
explanation or comfort in distress, merely talk themselves into believing
in a God. It is merely wishful thinking.
4. Physical science is said
to be a barrier to belief in God. The Bible, minus interpretations
and additions, has nothing definitely contrary to scientific facts.
I. The Bible refers to false
and sound doctrines.
A. False doctrine
1. Has insecure foundation
2. Rests on false hope (Matt.
3. Is of the devil (I Tim.
4. Is hateful to God (Rev.
5. Is destructive to faith
in God. (II Tim. 2:18).
6. Is loved by the wicked
(II Tim. 4:3-4).
7. The wicked are given
up to believe it (II Tim. 2:11-12).
8. Those who teach it are
to be punished (Gal. 1:8-9 and II Peter 2:1-3_.
9. Should be avoided by
all (I Tim. 6:20).
10. Perverts the gospel
of Christ (Gal. 1:7).
11. Shall abound in the
latter days (I Tim. 4:1).
12. Shall attract – deceive
many (II Peter 2:2, Matt. 24:5).
13. It shall be exposed
and should be avoided (II Tim. 3:8-9, Rom. 16:17-18.)
It is the religion that satisfied
the conscience, intuitions, and peace of mind that lasts.
B. Sound doctrine
1. Has a secure foundation
2. Will stand the test (Matt.
3. Is from God (John 7:26,
4. Is taught in the scriptures
(II Tim. 3:16).
5. Leads to fellowship with
the Father and the Son (II John 9, I John 1:3).
6. Leads to the experience
of heart redemption (Rom. 6:17-22, Tit. 2:12).
7. The saints obey it, abide
in it and bring no reproach upon it (Rom 6:17, Acts 2:42).
All doctrine is to be tried
by ALL the scripture. Isaiah 8:20 and II Tim. 3:16-17.
Sincerity does not make a
II. Theology means a discourse
concerning the gods or God. Theology was used before Christianity
began by men such as Hesiod, Homer, Plato and others. Theos – is
God in Greek. Logos is word. The word was taken over by the
Christian church followers and applied to Biblical truths. The word theology
was variously defined as “The science of God”, “the science which treats
of the existence, character and attributes of God, his laws, and government,
the doctrines we are to believe and the duties we are to follow”.
Field p. 1 W. P. Pope defines theology as: the science of God and divine
things based upon the revelation of Jesus Christ to mankind and variously
systematized within the Christian church.”
The divisions of Theology
A. Natural theology — as
revealed in nature (Ps. 19).
B. Exegetical theology —
an analytic study of the scriptures themselves. Adam Clarke.
C. Historical theology —
as developed in the church down through history.
D. Systematic theology —
theology arranged in logically developed order.
E. Practical theology —
the practical application of the great truths of theology.
III. False or mistaken sources
A. False or mistaken sources
1. Creeds or confessions
of faith. They are valuable as historical records and register the
opinions of those who found them but are void of inspiration. Some are
correct in statements. Others are horrible contortions. Three
main creeds are:
a. Apostle’s Creed – 2nd
century with additions in 4th century.
b. Nicene Creed — AD 325
c. Athenacious Creed — 6th
or 7th century AD.
2. In Romanism, tradition
is held as of equal value with the scriptures. Romanism claims for
itself a continuous and abiding inspiration, which perpetuates its own
infallibility. Thus, the Roman church has developed a body of belief,
not in the scriptures and really opposed to them.
3. There is mysticism in
Christianity. Mysticism leads astray, sets the Bible, sound reasoning
and judgment aside.
4. Reason alone is not an
independent or adequate source of theology. It must itself be formed.
It cannot therefore, be adequate authority over that which formed it.
Necessarily, consciousness is not a guide at all. There is truth
in all of these but they are not primary sources and must not supercede
B. Primary Sources
1. Nature is of necessity
the first and reveals God’s nature to us, but it reveals God mainly as
a creative being. It isn’t clear on redemption and can easily be
misinterpreted. However, it is a source. Rom 1:1-2ff, Ps. 19:1ff,
Gen. 1:1ff. Hale’s V. I p. 11
2. Written revelation — our
Bible. This for us embraces the 66 books of the Bible, written by
holy men of God as they were moved by the Holy Ghost.
3. Jesus Christ, himself
as a revelation.
IV. Periodic development
A. Earlier period — During
the first seven centuries the church fathers, often at the price of life,
worked out our system of theology.
B. Medieval Period — from
7th century till the reformation; from birth of Roman Catholic Church to
1517. It reached its peak in the 13th century when the school men
with Aristotle worked out systems.
C. The Reformation Period
— period of controversy and creedal formulations. The Romanists and
Protestants had certain things in common yet vast differences developed.
D. The Confessional Period
— AD 1600 – 1800. The beliefs of the larger denominations were worked
out during this period.
E. The Modern Period — 1800-1962.
Many systems of theology arose or have arisen during this time.
V. Within those periods dogmatic
theology arose (positive belief). The term, dogmatic is from “dokeo”,
Greek, meaning to think. It really means an arbitrary article of
faith. Dogmatic theology is that which systematizes the doctrines
of divine revelation. Dogma and doctrine are convertible terms.
A. Dogmatic theology includes:
1. Biblical theology — embraces
Biblical criticism, exegesis (evaluation of lit.), hermeneutics, Biblical
archaeology, Biblical geography, and Biblical history.
2. Historical theology —
embraces ecclesiastical history, the progress of doctrines and all that
belongs to the external and internal life of the church.
3. Systematic theology —
systematizing doctrines of Christian religion.
B. Dogmatic theology has
been chiefly presented by ancient creeds and confessions. Some of
1. The so-called Apostle’s
2. The Nicene Creed.
3. The Athenacious Creed.
4. The Augsburg Confessions
(Lutheran AD 1530)
5. The Helvictic Confession
(Calvinistic AD 1564)
6. The West Minister Confession
and Catechism (Presby. AD 1647)
7. The Anglican 39 Articles
8. The Remonstrants Confession
(Arminian AD 1620)
9. The Wesleyan (English
gleaned from Wesley’s writings)
10. The Creeds of Roman
and Greek Catholic Churches.
VI. Revelation — Primary
sources include nature sometimes called general or external and also includes
written revelation sometimes called special or internal. The revelation
in the nature and constitution of man and in human history do not belong
to inspired written revelation. If we have but two sources of revelation,
we would have to class them with nature. Miley and Hales put man
with nature. Wiley and Pope have the constitution of man as a separate
source, so have three.
A. Bible comes from the Greek
biblos, meaning book, scriptures, writing, testamentum or covenant.
The Old Testament deals with the record of the calling and history of the
Jewish nation and as such is the “old covenant” or testament.
B. The New Testament deals
with history and application of the redemption of
Christ and as such is the
“new covenant”. The whole Bible is often called “The Word of God”.
C. The Bible was originally
written in capital letters with no divisions into chapters, verses, or
words. Those divisions were added later by uninspired men to facilitate
study. Very often the chapters are improperly divided and the real
meaning is clouded. Isa. 8:22 should go to 20:1. Mark 8:38
should go to 9:1. The divisions into verses are often equally unfortunate.
I Pet. 1:4-5 and I Cor. 2:9-10.
D. Additions are no part
of inspiration and were later added by uninspired men.
1. Subscriptions annexed
to the book and chapter heading and marginal notes.
2. The spelling of names
differ in the new from the Old Testament due to the translation from the
Hebrew into Greek and then to English.
3. Idioms differ in various
languages. A corresponding English idiom must be found for a Hebrew
or a Greek one.
E. The Bible is an ancient
book as well as an oriental book and many of its figures of speech reveal
1. A metaphor is very frequently
employed in the scriptures as it is in all languages. Matt. 5:13-14.
The disciples are likened to salt and light.
2. An allegory is an extended
metaphor. It too, is much used in the Bible. Ps. 18.
3. The hyperbole consists
of magnifying or diminishing an object from its proper size. Gen.
13:16, Deut. 1:28, and John 21:25.
4. An irony is a figure
in which one thing is spoken of and another designed to add vehemence.
I Kings 18:27, Job 12:2, and I Kings 22:15.
5. In the synecdoche the
whole is put for a part or a part for the whole. Acts 27:37.
6. The word hate is used
often to mean nothing more than to love less. Gen. 29:30-31 and Rom.
F. The oldest manuscripts
(MSS) of the Old Testament of any value are the Qumran scripts or Dead
Sea Scrolls. 160-200 BC. The second oldest to that was probably written
in the 8th century AD. The oldest of any value of the New Testament
was written in the 4th century after Christ. Printing was not begun
until the 1500’s. Scores of recopies were made before one came down
G. Inspiration would be confined
to the scriptures and close with their completion. Rev. 22:18-19.
The illumination of the mind continues.
H. There are nine theories
1. natural inspiration —
is thus identified with genius of a high order. Shakespeare, Milton,
Mohammed or Confucius were as inspired as Bible writers.
2. Universal Christian inspiration
or illumination — here means inspiration, thus the ordinary Christian of
today may be as much inspired as Bible writers.
3. Conceptual or thought
inspiration — only the concepts or thoughts were given by inspiration and
the writers did the rest.
4. Partial inspiration —
this holds that the Bible contains the word of
God, but who shall determine
what words or parts are actually the words of God. Modernism likes
5. Organic inspiration —
the Holy Spirit acted on the writers in harmony with the laws of their
own inner being using them just as they were recognizing their character,
temperament, gifts, education, vocabulary and style. They were also
guided in their expression of thoughts even to their choice of words.
6. Dynamic inspiration —
affects only the writers and has no direct bearing on the writings.
Their mental and spiritual life were raised to a high pitch so that they
saw things more clearly and had more profound sense of their real value.
7. Mechanical inspiration
— God literally dictated what the human authors of the Bible had to write,
as if they were merely passive like a pen in the hand of the writer.
Their minds contributed nothing.
8. Verbal inspiration —
the very words of scripture were given by the Holy Ghost. The mind
and personality of the writer were not set aside; hence, it differs from
the mechanical theory.
9. Plenary inspiration —
every part of the Bible is inspired, but the writers were left to express
themselves in their own way with their own words. They were, however,
so guided that they were kept from theological errors.
a. Some of those theories
we just do not like.
(1) natural inspiration
(2) universal Christian
b. Some we like in part
c. Plenary is accepted.
God did appear to state words at certain times. Lev. 4:1ff, Lev.
6:1ff, Jer. 1:9, I Cor. 2:13. At other times great doctrines were
stated in their own words. Sometimes they had dreams and saw visions and
described them in their own words. At other times, they reviewed
what everyone already knew. Sometimes took pages from history.
Plenary inspiration allows for all of these and yet the writers were so
guided in their selection of words and phrases that they were kept from
error. Apparently, they had the approval of the Spirit on their finished
work. Manual, Church of the Nazarene, p. 26.
I. Proofs of divine inspiration.
If an intelligent God made an intelligent man, it is natural to suppose
that that God would speak to that man.
1. Miracles — Pharaoh accepted
the miracles of Moses and Aaron as proof that God was with them.
Nicodemus accepted the miracles of Jesus as proof God was with him.
True miracles are proofs of God.
2. Prophesying — telling
events before they occur.
3. Prophesy concerning Jesus
a. to be born of a virgin.
Fulfillment — Matt. 1:18-23
b. to be born in Bethlehem.
Fulfillment — Matt. 2:1
c. to be born, a member
of the house of David. Ps. 132:11, Jer. 23:5-6.
Fulfillment — Acts 13:22-23.
d. Jesus was to be crucified.
Fulfillment — Matt. 27:35.
e. His death to be for others.
Fulfillment — I Peter 2:21-22.
f. He was to be buried.
Fulfillment — John 19:38-42.
g. His flesh was to see
no corruption. Ps. 16:10.
Fulfillment — Acts 2:27-31.
h. He was to rise again.
Fulfillment — Acts 2:30-33.
i. He was to ascend to heaven.
Fulfillment — Acts 1:9.
4. The Person of Christ.
Prophecy drew a picture of Christ. Christ by his advent, his life,
his miracles, his teachings, and his death and resurrection constitutes
the greatest miracle of all time. He is the best-authenticated fact
in history. The Christian church, as a whole, points back to the
fact of Christ. Western civilization could not be, as we know it,
were it not for Christ. He then, is the greatest proof of the inspiration
of the Bible. The operations of the Holy Spirit within the church,
upon the sinner, and in the hearts of believers are powerful evidential
factors that the Bible is to God, and that the church, as a whole, is a
sampling of God’s own planning and care.
VII. The Canonization of
the Scriptures. Canon actually means “a straight rod or measuring
reed.” It came to be applied to that list of books approved to be
read in the church as inspired of God.
A. We are told that Moses
wrote a book of the law, which he commanded the Levites to put in the side
of the ark. Deut. 31:24. It was commanded to be read by those
in authority. Deut. 17:18-19. This would place a special value on
B. Later Joshua made a covenant
with the people and wrote in the book of the law of God his book.
Josh. 24:26. This too, would be highly valued.
C. Samuel also wrote in a
book and laid it up before the Lord. I Sam. 10:25. This is
D. Under the reforms of King
Jehosphaphat, the people were taught out of the book of the law.
II Chron. 17:9. Thus, the idea of a sacred book is already well underway.
E. During the religious reform
by King Josiah, II Kings 22:8-10, in 621 BC. The high priest Hilkiah discovered
the book of the law in temple. After it had been read to the king,
he had it read to the people and a general reform followed.
F. During the 5th century
BC. on a return from Babylonian exile, the reformers were led by Ezra and
Nehemiah. The law of the Lord was read and the people reformed themselves
accordingly. Neh. 9:38, 10:1ff.
G. The “prophets” were closed
not later than 200 BC. and the Psalms were closed not later than 100 BC.
These two may have been closed much earlier.
H. Jesus believed the Old
Testament substantially, as we have it. He believed the so-called
stories. Lot’s wife —Luke 17:32; Brazen. Serpent’s story —
John 3:14-16, Jonah and whale — Matt. 12:40. He also referred to
the whole of the Old Testament, Law – Prophets – Psalms, and said the leaders
of his day made the word of God of none effect by their traditions.
I. Paul and Peter were strong
on the inspiration of the Old Testament. Paul held that all scripture
(O.T.) was to be given by inspiration of God. II Tim. 3:16, I Thess.
2:13. Peter held the same as Paul. II Peter 1:19-21, Acts 1:16.
The other apostles were apparently in agreement. “Thus saith the
Lord,” or similar expressions occur 1,960 times in the Old Testament.
J. Jesus inferred that the
New Testament, when written, would be similarly inspired by the Holy Spirit.
K. At an early date, there
were collections of Paul’s letters, passed from church to church by command
of Paul. Col. 4:16. Peter places his approval upon the Pauline
writings as inspired. II Peter 3:16.
L. Some of the books did
not make the canon at once, largely because of disputed authorship.
However, by the time of the Synod of Carthage, they had all made it.
AD 397-419 the canon as it now stands, was ratified. In fact, the
Synod of Carthage was the first to do so.
M. The common Christian body
of believers, pastors and people, had made the selection of books to be
regarded with special veneration and the councils merely ratified the selection.
The selection was made on the following grounds.
1. The honor paid by our
Lord for the scriptures.
2. The wonderful unity apparent
in sacred books.
3. The grandeur and sublimity
of their contents.
4. The absolute veracity
of their teachings no matter who was involved.
5. The moral and spiritual
influence which the Scriptures exert wherever they are truly believed.
Chapter II - God
I. God is a spirit, a personal
spirit. John 4:24. From that personal spirit, flow Life, Light,
and Love. Nowhere does the Bible turn aside to prove the existence
of God. The Bible regards the existence of God as a self-evident
fact. We know God’s existence by intuition, by scripture, by a personal
visit, and by the Holy Spirit.
II. Names of God.
A. El or Elohim indicates
God is strong and mighty. It is a plural word with regard to person,
singular with regard to nature. Its plural form indicates plurality
B. Yahweh – indicates the
self-existent, the Being, the “I AM”. This name is used only with
regard to the divine Being. Ex. 3:14.
C. El Shaddai – the strong,
the mighty one, the Almighty or the self-sufficient.
D. Elyom – points to His
exalted nature as “The Most High”, the object of reverence and worship.
E. Elyeh – I Am.
F. Adonai – Lord, supporter
or judge or master.
G. A group of names belong
1. Jehovah – Jirah — The
Lord will provide. Gen. 22:13-14.
2. Jehovah – Rapha — The
Lord hath healed. Exodus 15:26.
3. Jehovah – Nissi — The
Lord our banner. Exodus 17:8-15.
4. Jehovah – Shalom — The
Lord our peace. Judges 6:24.
5. Jehovah – Ra-ah — The
Lord our shepherd. Ps. 23:1.
6. Jehovah-Tsidkenu — The
Lord our righteousness. Jer. 23:60.
7. Jehovah – Shammah — The
Lord is present.
There are many more names
in the Old and New Testaments referring to God. They set forth in
God personality and are an ever fuller and gradual revelation of His nature.
III. Proofs of God.
Self-creation of the cosmos is a contradiction. Creation by chance
is absurd. A watch did not create itself, nor develop by chance.
A personal intuition, universal belief, and history are all proofs of God,
after a fashion. There are also many more. There are, however,
four major proofs used by all, whether Catholic or Protestant.
A. Cosmological Argument
— This argument may be stated as follows: Every effect must have an adequate
cause. The world is an effect. Therefore, the world must have
had a cause, outside of itself and adequate to account for its existence.
Heb. 1:10, Ps. 90:2, John 1:3.
B. Teleological Argument
— This argument may be stated as follows: Design supposes a designer.
The world everywhere, exhibits marks of design. Therefore, the world
owes its existence to an intelligent designer. Gen. 1:14-18 and Ps.
C. Ontological Argument (strongest
in intellectual field) — This argument is an attempt to establish the fact
of real existence as distinguished from created or apparent existence.
This argument appears in the writings of Plato, Aristotle, St. Augustine,
Athanasius, Amselm, and Descartes. Amselm was the first to state
D. Anthropological Argument
(moral) — All men have a conviction of right and wrong and a consciousness
that they are accountable to a superior being who is their over-Lord and
who knows their thoughts and acts and will reward them and punish accordingly.
IV. Atheistic and Erroneous
Theories Regarding God.
A. Classical atheism — denial
of God or of the gods by those that do not believe that way.
B. Philosophic atheism —
does not deny the first cause, but do doubt much in between.
C. Practical atheism — This
type operates more in the realm of ethics than in thought. Ps. 14
we have “the fool has said in his heart, there is no God.” “no God
D. Dogmatic atheism — It
is blatant and belligerent and denies God or Christ.
E. Agnosticism — closely
related to atheism proper. It just declares that we do not and cannot
know God if there is a God.
F. Deism — declares there
is a God who created all and wound everything up, went away, and it runs
down by itself.
G. Polytheism — belief in
many gods. It takes various forms such as:
1. Fetishism — stones, reptiles,
etc. are believed animated by supernatural influence.
a. Hynotheism —- a belief
in many gods, but worship one at a time.
2. Animism — believes that
the inanimate objects of nature and other phenomena of nature are endowed
with personal souls.
3. Sabianism — consists
in worship of heavenly bodies – sun, moon, stars, etc.
a. dualism – belief that
there are two antagonistic and eternal deities, one good and one evil.
H. Pantheism — holds that
God is all and all is God.
I. Materialism — holds that
matter constitutes the fundamental reality of all things. It holds
to nothing but matter.
Monotheism holds that God
is one and God is personal. The monotheistic religions are:
V. The Attributes of God.
A. Attributes of the absolute
1. Spirituality – “God is
spirit” John 4:24. “Of what pure spirit is, we have no notion.”
Pope Vol. I, p. 292.
2. Infinity – God is unlimited
in all of His perfections. This quality belongs to God, alone.
3. Immensity – God is uncontainable
by anything that has been or can be created. II Chron. 6:18.
4. Eternity – His eternity
goes backward as well as forward. Ex. 3:14.
5. Self-sufficiency – He
is absolute and unconditioned. All things have their beginnings and
end in Him. He has neither beginning nor end. Is. 44:6.
6. Immutability – This excludes
change or development in God, personally. Heb. 1:10-12. It would
not exclude change in God’s creation or His methods of dealing with any
part of that creation.
7. Perfection – His supreme
perfection, the perfection of all perfections Matt. 5:48.
B. Attributes related to
the creatures or to the created universe.
1. Freedom – God has willed
and is free to will as He pleases without violating His essential nature.
Eph. 1:11. That is He must use His will in harmony with His own nature.
2. Omnipotence – (absolute
power) – God can do all that He wills to do. He wills to do what
He does and He does it. Jer. 32:17.
3. Omnipresence – Deity
is present in every part of creation. Jer. 23:24.
4. Omniscience – (all wisdom)
– God has perfect knowledge of Himself and all else. Is. 46:9-10.
C. Attributes related to
1. Holiness – may be regarded
as another attribute or it may be regarded as the sum total of all attributes.
Applied to nature of God of which attributes are an expression. Ex.
15:11, Rev. 15:4.
2. Love – the moving cause
of God manward. His love is Holy love. I John 4:16. The
cause of creation was benevolence or disinterested goodness. Moving
cause in redemption is love.
3. Righteousness or justice
– is holiness applied to moral government and to the domain of love.
4. Truth or faithfulness
– God is a promise keeping God. As God, He cannot lie. Psalms
5. Grace and its related
attributes – In the Old Testament God was full of compassion and graciousness.
Grace refers to the unmerited favor of God. The New Testament says Christ
is full of grace. II Thes. 1:12.
Chapter III – The Trinity
The Scriptures teach but one God. “Hear, O Israel, the Lord our God
is one Lord.”
Deut. 6:4. Other Scriptures with regard to one God are: Is.
44:6-8, Is. 45:5, I Tim. 2:5 and I Cor. 8:4. The Bible is replete
with positive declarations that there is but one God.
A. Hills gives the following
diagram of Trinity and unity:
B. There is but one essence
though there are different modes of subsisting in it.
Those modes are called persons,
and each one of those persons possesses the whole essence undivided.
II. God is not only one but
He contains a plurality of persons.
A. This plurality is brought
out in the original use of the word Elohim. Elohim is both used with
singular and plural adjuncts. “And Elohim said, ‘Let us make man
in our image after our likeness.’” Gen. 1:26. “Behold the man
is become as one of us.” Gen. 3:22. “Who will go for us?” Is.
6:8. “So Elohim created man in His own image.” Gen. 1:27.
B. The word Trinity or tri-unity
is not a biblical one, but that for which it stands is Biblically stated.
If we drop the word, we would have to coin another with exactly the same
meaning. Hence, we may as well keep it.
1. The trinity (in its Latin
form is trinitaus).
a. The plural Elohim teaches
a plurality of persons.
b. The trisagion of Isaiah
6:3 reveals one name and suggests three persons.
c. The priestly benediction
in Numbers 6:24-26 reveals one name with three benefits. In the New
Testament its counterpart is in II Cor. 13:14.
d. Father, Son, and Spirit
direct the Israelites in the wilderness. Ex. 23:20-22, and I Cor.
e. The Messiah’s commission
in Isaiah 48:16 – two persons send one person and that one is Christ.
f. Many passages refer to
the Son and/or spirit as well as the Father. Son – Ps. 2:7, 12, Prov.
30:4 Spirit – Gen. 1:2, Gen. 6:3, Ps. 143:10, Joel 2:28, and Zachariah
The Trinity in the New Testament
a. At the Savior’s baptism
(Matt. 3:13-17) the Father speaks. The Son is physically present.
Spirit appears in dove-like form.
b. The Christian baptism
formula. Matt. 28:19.
c. In the apostolic formula
of baptism. II Cor. 13:4. The three persons are addressed in
prayer as the united fountain in prayer and love.
d. In Trinitarian chapter
of New Testament. John 16.
e. In the prayers, etc.
of New Testament writers we have it often. Eph. 2:18, Rev. 1:4-5.
f. Many passages refer to
different members of the Trinity. Father – Rom. 1:7. Son – Heb. 1:8.
Spirit – Acts 5:3-4.
C. There is no analogy known
to illustrate this tri-unity of persons in the Trinity. The four
following are used as illustrations merely:
1. Man has a body, soul
2. Sun is an orb and produces
light and heat – yet the sun is one.
3. Light, a ray strikes
a prism and we have a chemical ray, a heat ray and a color ray.
4. Water – ice, liquid or
III. To each of three persons
is ascribed the attributes of deity.
A. The attribute of eternity
1. God the Father is eternal.
2. God the Son is eternal.
3. God the Spirit is eternal.
1. The Father is omnipotent.
Gen. 17:1, Jer. 32:17.
2. The Son is omnipotent.
Rev. 1:8, Heb. 1:3.
3. The Spirit is omnipotent.
Rom. 15:19, Luke 1:35.
1. The Father is omnipresent.
2. The Son is omnipresent.
3. The Spirit is omnipresent.
1. The Father is omniscient.
2. The Son is omniscient.
3. The spirit is omniscient.
I Cor. 2:10-11.
E. Holiness — absolute
1. The Father is holy.
2. The Son is holy.
3. The Spirit is holy.
I John 2:20
F. Truth or faithfulness
1. The Father is faithful
or true. John 17:3.
2. The Son is faithful or
true. Rev. 3:7.
3. The Spirit is faithful
or true. I John 5:6.
Thus, the attributes of deity are ascribed to all three persons.
IV. To each of three persons
may be ascribed the same names, works, and honors.
A. All three are called God.
The term Father is ascribed to Jesus in Isaiah 9:6. And most of the
divine names can be ascribed to any one of the three.
B. Creation is ascribed to
all three. Gen. 1:1-2, Psalm 33:6, John 1:3-4, Col. 1:13-17, Job
33:4 and Job 26:13.
C. Together the three work.
“My Father worketh hither to and I work.” The Spirit was sent to
play a part in redemption also. God raised the dead. Christ
raised the dead. The Spirit raised the dead. All three played
a part in resurrection of Christ, but Christ himself was the active agent.
He raised himself. Thus and only thus could the power of death be
broken. He went under death’s power and under that power He arose.
Hence all three are equally God and all three are responsible for each
D. All three exercise the
prerogatives of deity in that all three play a part in redemption and everything
else. Jude 1, Hebrews 13:12, Rom. 15:16. All three are entitled to
and all three accept worship. God and the Holy Spirit do, of course,
but so does Jesus. Matt. 13:43, Heb. 1:6, John 5:23, Acts 7:59-60,
I Cor. 1:2, and Rev. 1:4-6.
E. All three are like dwellers
in human temples. Father – II Cor. 6:16 and Eph. 2:20. Son
– Eph. 3:17 and Col. 1:27. Spirit – I Cor. 6:19 and I Cor. 3:16.
V. Jesus is both human and
divine but yet He is one Theanthropic person. He is the
active divine Agent in creation
and He upholds all things in creation (Col. 1:17 and Heb. 1:3) and forgives
sins. (Mark 2:5-10 and Luke 7:43) and possesses within himself the
fullness of the Godhead body (Col. 2:9) and is the judge of all.
Gen. 18:25c and John 5:22. Christ as one person, however, had two
A. His human nature.
1. He was born of a woman
and had a physical body. John 1:14. Gal. 4:4.
2. He grew in wisdom and
stature. Luke 2:40.
3. He was called Jesus and
that name referred to his human nature in which redemption was to be brought
about. Matt. 1:21.
4. He sorrowed. Matt.
5. He hungered. Matt.
6. He was weary. John
7. He prayed in mental and
physical agony. Luke 4:1-11.
8. He wept. John 11:35.
9. He was tempted.
Matt. 4:1-11, Luke 4:1-11.
10. He spoke as though He
did not know, thus showing that He was human. Mark 13:32.
11. He died. Mark
12. He was buried. Mark
B. His divine nature or His
1. He is spoken of as God.
2. He tied himself up in
essence as identical with the Father. “He that hath seen me hath
seen the Father.” John 14:9. John 10:30-38. Mark 1:1.
John The Holy Spirit is a person with 5:18.
3. He declared that He was
God’s son in the sense of being God. John 5:18. Mark 1:1. John 5:25-26.
4. In works He claimed equality
with the Father and identity with God. John 5:21-26. John 1:4.
Hebrews 7:16. Many passages declare that Jesus exercised in His own
name the prerogatives of deity.
5. Divine attributes and
offices and prerogatives are ascribed to Him. He was conscious of
the fact that such was the case.
a. His visit at 12 to the
b. As revealed at His Jordan
c. As set forth in the calling
of the twelve.
d. As set forth in His wilderness
e. As revealed in the Sermon
on the Mount. All such passages as saying, “And when He came He saw”
refer to His humanity. Then when it says that “He knew all things,”
it refers to His deity.
IV. The Holy Spirit is a
person with Intelligence (John 14:26), with feeling (Isaiah 63:10), and
will (Acts 16:5 and I Cor.12: 11) The Greek word Spirit is in the neuter
gender. Consequently, when the Spirit is designated by the pronoun, the
pronoun must be neuter. This does not however mean that the Spirit is not
a person. For when Spirit ceases to be designated by pronouns, masculine
forms are used. Thus, in John 14:26, Jesus refers to the comforter in the
A. He is spoken of as a person
1. He can be grieved.
2. He can be resisted.
3. He can be blasphemed
against. Matt. 12:31-32.
4. He can be lied against.
5. He can be tempted.
B. Personal acts are ascribed
1. He strives. Gen.
2. He speaks. John 16:13,
Acts 10:19, Acts 8:29.
3. He guides. John
4. He intercedes. I Cor.
5. He works miracles. Rom.
6. He sanctified. I Cor.
7. He calls and sends forth
messengers. Acts 13:2-3.
8. He seals. Eph. 1:13,
9. He distributes gifts.
I Cor. 12:11.
C. Divine names are given
1. He is called God.
Acts 5:3-4, II Tim. 3:16, II Peter 1:21.
2. He is called Jehovah.
Isaiah 6:5-10, Acts 28:25, Ex. 17:7, Heb. 3:7-9, Jer. 31:31-34, Heb. 1:15-17.
D. Divine attributes are
also ascribed to Him.
1. He is regarded as omnipresent.
2. Omniscience is ascribed
to Him. Isaiah 40:13-14.
3. He is regarded as omnipotent.
I Cor. 12:11, Rom. 15:19.
4. Eternity. Heb.
E. Divine works are performed
1. Creation is ascribed
to Him. Gen. 1:2.
2. Renovation. Psalm
3. Regeneration. John
3:5-6, Titus 3:5.
4. Resurrection of the dead.
Rom. 8:11, I Peter 3:18.
F. Divine worship is also
paid to Him. Isaiah 6:3-9, Acts 28:5, Romans 9:1, Matt. 28.
1. In essence He is equal
to the Father and to the Son. He proceeds from them jointly and they
work through Him.
2. He reveals divine truth
in the written word. The Old Testament prophets and New Testament
writers wrote and spoke by His help. Micah 3:8, I Cor. 2:12-13.
3. Spirit is the source
of life in the material world. He brooded over the waters and chaos
was reduced to order. Gen. 1:2, Psalm 104:29-30.
4. Spirit empowers man and
fits them for their tasks in life. Numbers 11:17. David became
what he was because the Spirit rested upon Him. I Sam. 16:13.
G. Best passages dealing
with the Holy Spirit are:
1. Best books on the Spirit
– Joel in the Old Testament and Acts in the New Testament.
2. Best chapters on the
Spirit – John 14, John 16, Matt. 3, Acts 2, Joel 2.
3. Best passages on the
Spirit – Ezekiel 36:24-36, John 14:15-18, Joel 2:28-31, Acts 2:1-4.
4. Best examples of the
Baptism with the Spirit – Acts 2:1-40, Acts 6:8-7:55 (Steven), Acts 8:14-17,
Acts 19:1-7, II Kings 2:1-15, Judges 3:9-11 (Otheniel), Luke 2:25-35 (Simeon),
Gen. 32:24-32 (Jacob).
5. Best texts on Baptism
with the Spirit. Ezekiel 26:37, Matt. 3:11, Luke 24:49, Luke 11:13,
John 7:38, John 14:26, John 15:26, Acts 1:5, Acts 15:8-9.
A. Respecting the Trinity.
1. Tetratheism – three persons
with one essence – The essence is thus thought of as another god.
2. Tritheism – three gods
distinct in both personality and essence.
3. Sabellianism – no distinction
of persons in the divine nature. The terms Father, Son and Spirit
refer to the same person in different offices.
4. Swedenborgianism – three
essences in one person. Jesus Christ is the person. This belief
emphasizes the supreme deity in the Son at the expense of the personalities
of both the Father and the Spirit.
5. Subordinationism – the
Son is inferior to the Father and the Spirit is inferior to the Son.
The Father is thus the most important. It is easy to think that way.
6. Arianism – the Godhead
consists of one eternal person who in the beginning created the only begotten
Son, by whom He made the world. The Son created the Holy Spirit.
Tritheism, Sabellianism and Arianism are the three major areas.
B. Respecting the Son.
1. Humanitarianism – Jesus
Christ was a man and nothing more. Others may reach this perfection
and even pass it.
2. Ebionism – Like Humanitarianism
hold that Jesus was originally a mere man, but the Christ-Hood came upon
Him at His baptism.
3. Apollinarism – taught
that Jesus did not possess a human mind. It held to the Tripartite
nature of man-body, soul and spirit (mind was lacking).
4. The Monothelites taught
Jesus had but one will in His two natures (no human will).
5. Nestorianism taught the
two complete natures were not united in one person, but there were two
6. Adoptianism – very similar
to Ebionism and holds that Jesus was adopted into the Godhead by the descent
of the Spirit upon Him.
7. Eutysicm – denied the
two natures and held to a mingling of both natures in one. “God had
8. Docetism – denied that
Jesus possessed a real human body. He only seemed to have a body.
Thus, He only seemed to suffer and to die and to rise.
9. Kenotic Theory – as a
sufferer on the cross, there was too much human and not enough divine.
10. Arianism teaches Christ
was a demi-god; lower than God and higher than man, having been the first
creature God created and also a special creation by God.
11. Socinianism – closely
related to Arianism. Christ was ordinary man of miraculous birth
to whom God gave extraordinary revelation and exalted Him to Heaven as
a divinized man.
Many of those errors have
gradations. Many were originated by good men fighting the other errors.
In so doing, they went too far the other way.
C. Respecting the Spirit.
1. Spirit – only another
name for Father.
2. Spirit – merely energy
3. Spirit – means spirit
“of the group”.
ATHANASIAS CREED (Heart of)
“We worship one God in trinity
and trinity in unity, neither confounding the persons nor dividing the
substance. For there is one person of the Father, another of the
Son, and another of the Holy Ghost but the Godhead of the Father, Son and
Holy Ghost is all One. The glory equal, the majesty co-eternal.”
We have just noted that there
are three persons in the one trinity. Those persons are wholly spiritual
in natures and are in a wholly spiritual place – Heaven.
There are other wholly spiritual
beings in that wholly spiritual place. They are the angels.
We probably should give some consideration to them at this point.
1. They are spiritual, rational
intelligences, first in rank as we are created a little lower than they.
2. They also appear to have
been created first in the point of time among created beings; created before
mankind was created. Job 38:7, Psalm 8:5
3. All peoples of all ages
and nations have believed in their existence. They have not always
believed in them as revealed in the Bible, but have believed in something
of that nature.
4. Angels are known by various
names: angels, ministering spirits, sons of God, morning stars, seraphim
and cherubim. Heb. 1:7, 14, Job 38:7, Isaiah 6:2-6, Ezra 11:22.
In Daniel 4:13, 17 they are called watchers.
5. They serve God by executing
His judgments to the wicked and hence are called evil angels. Psalm
78:49, Isaiah 37:36, Acts 12:23, Rev. 15:6.
6. They serve God by doing
His bidding in Heaven and are employed by God in behalf of the righteous
on earth. Gen. 19:15-22, Dan. 6:2, Acts 12:7, Luke 16:22, Heb. 1:14.
7. They are declared to be
innumerable. Heb. 12:22, Matt. 26:53, Psalm 68:17. In fact,
all that is said of them leads us to believe that their number is great.
8. They were appointed to
declare the Messiah’s advent (Luke 2:9-14) and then they worshipped the
Messiah. Heb. 1:6. They ministered to Christ in his trials,
Matt. 4:11, Matt. 26:53, Luke 22:43. They attended His ascension
and announced His Second Coming. Acts 1:9-10.
9. They themselves are not
to be worshipped by man. Jude 13, 16. Col. 2:18, Rev. 19:10,
10. They were apparently
created on probation. Many remained true. Many fell.
The unfallen are called the Elect or Holy Angels. I Tim. 5:21.
The fallen are called sinning angels or devils and demons and evil spirits.
II Peter 2:4, Jude 6. There is an inference in Jude 6 of their fall
and why they fell. Their first estate is probably referred to in
Psalm 103:20, Matt. 6:10.
11. The fall of angels apparently
took place in heaven. They were then cast out into outer darkness
for them (tartarus). They were not destroyed nor yet incarcerated
so they could bother no one. They are at least free to tempt all
men up to a point. Beyond that point they cannot go. Job 2:6.
12. They are led by the chief
or prince of the devils. Matt. 12:24. The whole group is referred
to as the devil and his angels. Matt. 24, Rev. 12:7-9.
13. They themselves fell
from a holy state and in a holy place. Adam and Eve were tempted
in a holy state in a sinless environment. Christ himself was tempted
having a sinless heart, but He was in a sinful environment. Gen.
3:1-6, Luke 4:2ff.
14. Every fallen person is
now tempted of the devil and his angels and every Christian is also tempted
of the devil and his angels. Apparently we never reach a place in
grace or out of it where the devil no longer tempts us.
15. They are ultimately to
be incarcerated in the lake of fire forever, for their punishment was originally
meant to be. Matt. 25:41.
16. Apparently they sinned
under circumstances that it was impossible for them to be forgiven.
In any case, the death of Christ does not include them as beneficiaries.
Rev. 20:1-10, Matt. 25:41.
17. Some hold that the devil
is merely the personification of evil. This view would also remove
the persons of the trinity. Actions, attributes and passions are
attributed to the devil and his angels. So they are real, rational
selves. Luke 8:31, Luke 22:3, James 2:19, I Peter 5:8.
Chapter IV – Origins
Introduction – From whence
did the cosmos come? What are we? Whither are we going?
Theories of creation.
A. Materialistic Theory holds
to the eternity of matter. The intelligent mind is excluded.
Resident forces within matter have produced all.
B. Pantheistic Theory holds
that what is, is an extension of the divine substance. All is God;
God is all. Thus God is personal and man is not immortal as a body.
C. Natural Evolution Theory
is similar to the materialistic theory. Things just naturally evolve
from within from whatever is. It pushes the beginnings so far back
that it is out of sight.
D. Continuous Creation Theory
is held by many theistic evolutionists. God works on and guides matter,
step by step up to our present level. It is merely God-directed evolution.
E. The Bible view is that
there was a time when matter did not exist. God called it into being
by creative fiat and upholds it therein. Christ was the active agent
in creation. John 1:1-3. Col. 1:16-17.
A. “In the beginning God
created the heavens and the earth. ”From that substance without form and
void of any design, God fashioned and formed the heavens and the earth.
1. Bara (caused to be) is
used in three connections: (1) caused to be from nothing with
regard to the original substance from which everything was framed (Gen.
1:1), (2) sub-rational life (Gen. 1:27) and (3) Gen. 1:21 with regard to
the spirit of man used with God and many.
2. Yatzar (formed) used
with regard to forming something from a previously existing substance (Gen.
2:7) God or man.
3. Asah (made) with regard
to making something from previously created substance. Gen. 8:6.
B. The creation of angels
1. There are apparently
gradations of angels – archangels, cherubim, seraphim, angels. Their
duties are to wait upon God and minister to those who shall be heirs to
salvation. Heb. 1:14.
2. They were created neither
male nor female and holy and free moral agents. They were created
on probation. During probation many fell by rebellion against God.
These are to be punished eternally. Rev. 20:1-10, Redemption
is not for them. Matt. 25:41 and Jude 6.
3. The fallen angels are
headed by one called Satan or Abaddon. Devil and Apollyon angel of
the bottomless pit. Rev. 9:11. The accuser of the brethren
and of God. Rev. 12:10. Belial – II Cor. 6:15. Adversary
– I Peter 5:8. The Beast – Rev. 19:19. Beelzebub – Matt. 12:24.
The Dragon – Rev. 12:7. Serpent – Rev. 12:9. The Wicked One
– Matt. 13:19, 38. Some suppose one-third of the angels fell.
Rev. 8:7-12. No number is stated. Thus Satan hates God and
tries to damn man to spite God.
C. The six days of creative
work – There is no way to determine how long those days were. Yom-day is
used to designate all the way from our day to a long period of time in
the Bible. Jesus calls a dispensation an hour. John 4:21.
The six days may be divided into two periods:
1. The in-organic period:
First day – cosmic light; Second day – firmament, Third day – dry land
2. The organic period: Fourth
day – sun and moon, vegetation; Fifth day – fish and fowl; Sixth day –
animals and man. Man is separate creation from animals. (“In
class I remember him saying that after the Fourth day Yom is 24-hour day.
D. There are four theories
regarding the pre-six day period and the six days.
1. Creation of the substance.
Gen. 1:1 was a way back. Then after a long period God fashioned and
formed the cosmos in a six-day period.
2. Gen. 1:1 refers to a
previous creation which met with a calamity of some sort and after ages
untold, God refashioned it in a six-day period.
3. Gen. 1:1 refers to creation
of original formless substance. Then the six days refer to six geological
days of undetermined length which brought the cosmos up to what it was
when man appeared.
4. The fourth theory holds
that fossils and star rays, etc. would have to be created as such, were
all outright creations in the six-day period.
Those periods present themselves
because we know so little about them. The time element in formation
is an open question. Each of those theories is supposed to give us
all the time we need for formation of the fossils.
A. The Bible was written
to a people who believed in God. There is thus no proof given in
the Bible to prove the existence of God. It was considered unnecessary.
B. The work of creation
was a definite time and by a definite act. Therefore matter is not eternal.
Its maintenance is distinct from its original creation. Four facts
may be noted:
1. Neither the heavens nor
the earth nor matter out of which things are created are eternal.
2. Things do not come into
existence by chance nor by the fortuitous concourse of atoms.
3. Things were not created
by many gods nor by two gods but by one God.
4. The creation took place
in the beginning, that is at the commencement of time or when God began
C. The Bible at least
infers that creation as we know it was for the residence of man.
1. Things were at one time
without form and void that is in a chaotic state. How long they so
remained we are not told.
2. Things were fashioned
and formed into their present general state over a period of what is called
six days. How long that was for sure no one knows.
3. Moses states that things
seem to appear in the following order. Plants, marine life and air
life, land life or animals. The rocks can only tabulate in their
own way. Marine plants, marine animals, land plants and land animals.
Both orders are the same in procession.
4. The first day sees the
creative act spoken, (Light called for) and darkness and light were divided,
and day and night were caused to be and then we have evening and morning.
5. The second day saw the
firmament cleared, or the expanse appear as the firmament above and below.
6. The third day marked
the appearance of the mountains and valleys and channels and depressions
for the seas. Thus we have seas and earth appearing as such.
Vegetation also appeared with seed in itself.
7. On the fourth day the
sun and moon were seen in the heavens. It does not say they were
created at this time, but they did appear then. We are told that
He made the stars also. Again it does not say when. Seasons
are thus set up.
8. On the evening
of the fifth day lower life appears: creeping things, great monsters, mollusk,
fish, fowl and the sea and expanse are filled with life.
9. On the evening of the
sixth day higher life or land animals appeared and multiplied. On the evening
of this sixth day, man himself appeared and took possession.
10. On the seventh day we
are told that God rested from all his work and labor. Although Jesus declared
that God worked and still works.
11. Apparently all previous
work was for the preparation of man. Man differs from all other created
things in hat he is said to be like God. God is infinite and man
is finite. God is not physical, but spiritual, therefore, man in
his non-physical qualities is like God.
12. He was told to be fruitful
and multiply and replenish the earth and subdue it and have dominion.
Thus man’s lordship of the earth is part of his original constitution.
13. Man was created holy
and immortal, but he was also created on a high social level and capable
of holy actions. Not only this, but he apparently was created with
the gift of language. Thus he was created a going concern.
D. The creation of man.
Man was an outright separate creation:
1. His body was from the
dust, and his spirit was inbreathed by God, and he became as a result a
living soul. Gen. 2:7. He is thus body, soul and spirit.
He is a created dichotomy, and he is an experiential trichotomy.
This is Pope’s and Wiley’s position. Texts – Ecclesiastics 12:7,
Matt. 10:38, I Cor. 6:20, James 2:26. Trichotomy texts – I Thess.
5:23, Heb. 4:12 and Gen. 2:7.
2. Eve was made from that
which was taken from Adam’s side, and then presented to Adam as his wife.
From this pair the entire race descended. We thus have one creation.
3. They were created upright
in nature, and holy in heart, and deathless in body, and in possession
of positive and rewarded holiness. That is they were created actively
willing the will of God.
Note: There are four
theories in regard to origin of soul or spirit of man.
1. The social theory – not
born with spirit. Develops as child grows.
2. Tracucianism – Chip off
the old block or inherited.
3. Pre-existencism – all
souls are pre-existed.
4. Creationism – God creates
III. The fall of man.
How long they remained in possession of primitive holiness we do not know.
A. The tempter who was a
real person kept himself out of sight in the temptation using a serpent
as an agent. Job 1:6-12, Job 2:1-6, Isaiah 12:12-14, Ezekiel 28:12-15,
Rev. 12:3-10. The tempter was a spiritual being apparently once an
angel in heaven.
B. Adam and Eve were forbidden
to eat of the tree of good and evil in the midst of the garden. Thus
Satan drew Eve’s attention to it as being: (1) good for food, (2)
pleasant to look at, and (3) to be desired for sake of wisdom. Eve
listened, she looked, she took, she ate, she gave, and they fell.
They were free to continue to do the will of God. They abused that
freedom and used it to disobey God. God is neither negatively nor positively
responsible for sin. Man generated it within by the abuse of freedom
or by disobedience.
C. (1) It was an appeal
to reason. Gen. 3:6(a). (2) Gen. 3:6(b). (3) It was an
appeal to vocational utility. Gen. 3:6(c). They doubted the goodness
of God. Gen. 3:5-6. They desired forbidden knowledge.
Gen. 3:6. Their action brought shame and separation, expulsion from
Eden. They became transgressors in action, and sinful in nature.
forms of lead poisoning drop into the lifeline and produce hereditary imbecility.
Sin dropped into the lifeline as a deadly disease and passed on from generation
to generation. This disease appears in the heart as sin and breaks
out in the life as transgression. After entire sanctification, the
contaminated lifeline remains diseased and carries to the heart of the
next generation. That disease goes on to the next generation.
This is called the genetic mode, or the natural law of heredity.
Nature was also cursed as a result of man’s sin. (Romans 8:22)
D. Christ the Redeemer.
1. Christ had a perfect
human nature and a perfect divine nature, but the ego (self) was one.
While possessed of human nature, He did not cease at any point to be God.
Thus He never ceased to know who He was.
2. He was “made under the
law,” born under the law, He was circumcised as law required, and blood
was offered when He was young in the temple. He told John the Baptist
that it became him to fulfill all righteousness required by the law.
He died to meet the requirements of that law. He thus delivered us
from the law’s penalty of death and sin.
3. His humiliation started
when He took our manhood upon Himself. However, he took it in a sinless
perfection and with the natural infirmities to which sin had reduced it.
It ended fully with His session at the right hand of God. Luke 1:35-38.
John 7:39 particularly.
4. His exultation began
at the precise moment of the article of death. When He said, “It
is finished,” it continued in the decenses when His humanity passed under
the power of death. It continued still further when He arose, and
climaxed at His session.
5. In all of our Lord’s
predictions of His own resurrection, He made himself the active agent in
that resurrection. John 2:19, John 10:17-18. He voluntarily
passes under the power of death, and while under it He broke the power
of death by rising. This is what is meant by following Scriptures:
Psalm 16:10, Psalm 49:15, Acts 2:30-31, Acts 13:35. In Acts Paul
interprets “Sheol” as the grave where Jesus’ humanity laid. It was
not to see corruption.
6. At the moment of death
the price of redemption was paid. Sin brings death, and death is
followed by the corruption of the body but in Jesus’ case, death had no
more power over Him. Hence, His body could not see corruption.
“As His spirit dieth no more so His body saw no corruption. The unviolated
flesh of the Lord was till the moment He was quickened a silent declaration
of perfect victory. His divinity never left His body any more than
it forsook His spirit in its passage to the world of spirits.” Pope,
Vol. II, p. 168.
7. The power of sin and
death were broken in eternity.
8. Christ is mediator as
He represents God and man being very God and very man at one and the same
time. He is the only being in the universe who can do so. Three
offices connected to mediatorship:
a. Office of prophet.
b. Office of priest.
c. Office of king.
(1) Christ as prophet; perfect
revealer of divine truth and every aspect of it. This great prophet
spoke through the prophets, and thus made them prophets. This is
the meaning of I Peter 3:18-20. Prophets were types of Christ.
(2) Christ was both the
offering and offerer. His cross was the awful form that the altar
took, thus the altars, the offerings, and the priests were nothing but
types or aspects of Christ as priest and as offering.
(3) The royal office of
Christ refers to His activity at the right hand of God as He rules all
things in heaven and on earth for the extension of his kingdom.
Chapter V - Aspects of the
1. Christ’s perfect obedience
and perfect sacrifice effected the atonement occurs but once in the New
Testament (Rom. 5:11). The word katalaga translated atonement in
Rom. 5:11 occurs many times elsewhere, but is translated reconciliation,
that is restored to favor with God. II Cor. 5:18-19. Katalallasso
means to change or to exchange and then to reconcile. Something has
been exchanged or substituted for something else.
2. In the Old Testament the
term of atonement is kaphar, which means primarily to cover or to hide
by means of being put away. The mercy seat hid the two broken tables
of stone. Christ’s sufferings were vicarious. A vicar is one
who acts for another, so vicarious suffering is suffering for others.
The atonement in definition,
necessity, and theories.
A. Definition – the moving
or originating cause of the atonement was the love of God, but God is holy
and man has fallen into sin and is a sinner. Sin and holiness cannot
meet on common ground. Jesus prayed and said, “That they all may
be one as Thou, Father, art in me and I in Thee, that they also may be
one in us.” John 17:21. Thus, “at-one-ment” between God must
be procured. The atonement and theology means this, “The expiation
of sin made by the vicarious sacrifice of Christ.”
B. The necessity for the
1. God is a moral being,
having within His own nature, the principle of moral law which cannot be
2. Moral beings require
a moral government involving rewards and punishments.
3. Such a moral government
and moral subjects and moral laws require a moral Governor. God is
that moral Governor, and cannot dispense with those moral laws resident
4. We are a race of sinners.
God must, therefore, meet our full punishment for the violation of His
moral government or find some substitute who will pay the full price of
sin so He can justly forgive. It is one or the other, sinner or substitute.
5. If the sovereign Governor
elects to forgive sinners, He, himself, must provide a substitute.
This substitute must be infinite or a member of the trinity, as no creative
being would do.
6. The love of God prompted
God to redeem man and the goodness of God prompted Him to create man.
Love delights in sacrifice for the object loved. God is a moral being
and man is a moral being, therefore God only saves those who wish to be
7. The atonement was also
needed to promote the highest influence and glory of God in the universe.
Hills Vol. II, p. 54. The sin of man gave God an opportunity to reveal
his love, holiness, justice, and burnish hatred of sin. Sin is not
good and never can be, but God can make the wrath of man to praise Him.
8. The atonement greatly
augmented the happiness of the universe. Man is redeemed and made
happy. Angels rejoice.
9. The atonement not only
made forgiveness possible, but regenerates repentance and faith in man.
10. The atonement helps
prevent sin by showing the awful punishment that it merits. It also
should generate the fear of punishment and brings out the restraining power
11. The atonement is necessary
to confirm beings back to holiness in holiness, and to further generate
loyalty to God.
C. Theories of the
atonement. The apostolic fathers had not worked out theory.
Irenaeus seemed to regard it as a victory over Satan. Origen regarded
it as a ransom paid to Satan. Athanasiasius seemed to regard it as
the payment of a debt due to God. Anselm held that Christ being infinite
and sinless paid the debt for us. Abelard held that the atonement
was a winning exhibition of divine love. Man had to be moved and
not God. The Roman Catholic view gradually took on the idea of penance
added to atonement.
1. The Penal Satisfaction
Theory – Christ bore the sinners’ punishment as His substitute and then
the sinner is regarded as righteous in the sight of God. Calvinistic
theory is too narrow and mechanical. If Christ unconditionally met
the penalty of the elected sinner, then we have antinomianism on one hand
and universalism on the other hand.
2. The Governmental Theory
– arose against the rigorless penal substitution theory above mentioned.
Was first advanced by James Arimius and carried on by Hugo Grotius.
God is not to be regarded merely as an offended person, but as a moral
governor of the universe. Moral law must be upheld even in the act
of pardon. John Miley and A. M. Hills are two upholders in modern
times of this theory.
3. The moral Influence Theory
– Salvation comes through the appeal of divine love rather than through
satisfaction of divine justice. Atonement was made to move men to return
a. Socinianism has Christ
down pretty much as a great pattern for human conduct. Christ died
as a martyr to truth. God could have forgiven without any atonement.
b. Mysticism identifies
Christ with the race in the sense that Christ paid the penalty for racial
c. Busnel represents a moral
influence theory in which Christ is also unidentified with the race.
d. The New Theology – teaches
that Christ made a perfect concession and adequate repentance for us.
4. The Ethical theory –
Christ died to show us the horror of sin and Christ also revealed the glory
5. Dr. Curtis has his own
theory. It is this – Christ has redeemed a group of people.
That group goes right through history to the end of time. Then at
the end of time a nucleus of that group are given pre-fall Adamic bodies.
(Bodies like Adam had before the fall, sinless, deathless and immortal).
That group repeoples the earth with sinless bodies.
The benefits and extent
of the atonement.
A. The unconditional benefits.
1. The continued existence
of the race. The statement was “in the day thou eatest thereof, thou
shalt surely die.” Grace suspended the sentence.
2. The bringing of all men
within the reach of salvation or placing salvation within the reach of
3. The striving of the Holy
Spirit with the souls of all men after they have been brought within the
reach of salvation.
4. The restraining grace
of God on the hearts of the unsaved to keep them out of lower levels of
sin. (Conditional and unconditional) Matt. 18:3 and 18:14.
5. The salvation of those
who die in infancy. Not only children by the calendar but those who
never leave infancy mentally.
6. Faults and errors and
mistakes such as are inseparable from human nature are prevented from becoming
7. The general goodness
of God to all in that He sends rain and sunshine and health and friends
B. The conditional benefits.
1. Regeneration and witness
of spirit to regeneration which is placed in the heart of believer.
2. Justification and adoption,
which take place in heaven.
3. Entire sanctification
of believers as a second definite work of grace.
4. The keeping power of
God must also be considered as a conditional benefit as it depends on our
walking in the light, in faith and in obeying God.
C. The limited extent of
the atonement considered.
1. Calvinism assumes three
a. Supralapsarianism – According
to this view, the decree of election takes precedence of the decree of
creation. Out of the mass of creatables, God elects some and reprobates
others for His own glory. To bring this about God created man and
God brought about the fall. Thus men are damned without regard to
b. Sublapsarianism – The
decree of election considers man as fallen and then out of the mass of
humanity considered fallen, God predestined some to eternal life and the
others to eternal damnation.
c. Infralapsarianism – The
decree of election considers man as created and fallen and redeemed.
Salvation was provided for all, but only granted to an elect few.
The only difference is in
definition. There is none in fact or in experience.
2. Calvinism denies that
there is any difference between foreknowledge and fore-ordination.
What God foresees, He decrees. He knows everything in the future,
therefore, He decrees everything.
a. Election is simply part
of God’s eternal purpose in which He determines “the free acts of free
men” and by which He foreordains the wicked acts of wicked men.
b. God foreordains the means
to the end as well as the end, thus if God decrees the salvation of a soul,
He decrees that that soul shall hear, shall heed, and shall believe the
gospel, likewise if God decrees the damnation of a soul, He decrees that
he shall refuse to hear, to heed, and believe the gospel.
3. Calvinism rests on tests
setting forth the absolute sovereignty of God, but it ignores texts setting
forth moral freedom and responsibility of man.
Moral Freedom and Responsibility
Phil. 1:6 Matt. 23:27 II Chron 24:20
John 6:39, 40
I Pet. 1:4-5 I Tim. 2:4 I Peter 1:17
John 10:28 John 5:40 I Chron. 9:27
John 11:25-26 II Chron. 15:2 I Cor. 9:27
II Peter 3:14
Responsibility of Both
II Peter 1:10 I Chron. 28:9
4. God has chosen or elected
from the foundation of the world all who meet certain conditions are to
be born again and sanctified and kept and later glorified but He has not
decreed that we meet those conditions. Ephes. 1:4-5 and 11-13, Rom.
8:28-38. Calvinism has faith and repentance coming after regeneration.
God grants these after He elects. The text they use is Ephes. 2:8
but faith is not the gift of God there spoken of; it is the plan of salvation
there spoken of. We are responsible for faith. God calls many
but only chooses or elects those who respond to His call. Matt. 22:14.
D. The unlimited extent of
1. Armenianism holds that
Christ died for all and that all may be saved if they will. This
view is sustained by the following:
a. There is not a single
passage in the Bible that says Christ did not die for all or that He died
for an elect few only.
b. Christ died for the whole
world, or not just the church or the sheep. I John 1:29, John 3;16,
John 4:42, John 6:51, II Cor. 5:18-19, and I John 4:14. The world
does not mean the sheep or the church (John 15:19 and John 17:14-16).
Christ died for those outside the fold. I John 2:2. Calvinism
says it means from the whole world.
c. Christ died for all men,
not for the elect, only. I Tim. 2:6. He is the potential savior
of all, but the actual savior of those who believe, only. II Tim.
4:10. He tasted death for every man. Heb. 2:9. The universality
of the atonement. II Cor. 5:14-15.
d. The atonement was co-extensive
with the fall. The fall embraced all and the atonement potentially
embraces all. Rom. 5:14, 18 and Is. 53:6.
e. Christ died for those
who are now saved but who may yet perish. Rom. 14:15, I Cor. 8:11.
Those who are doomed to “a sorer punishment” are declared to have been
at one time saved by the blood of the covenant. Heb. 10:29.
f. The gospel is declared
to be good tidings to all people and to every creature. It could
not be good tidings to those declared and damned by a divine decree.
It is not good news to demons and devils. Luke 2:10 and Mark 16:15-16.
g. It is the duty of all
men to repent and to believe the gospel. Men are placed under guilt
and condemnation for refusing to believe. Mark 16:16, Luke 13:3-5
and John 3:18.
h. The ambassadors of Christ
are given an unrestricted commission to preach the gospel to every creature.
Mark 16:15, Matt. 11:28 and Rev. 22:17. Were a limited atonement
correct, those texts would be meaningless granting a world-wide atonement
and those texts are meaningful and gracious.
i. The responsibility for
man’s lost estate is placed at his own door with positive certainty.
Ezek. 33:11, Ezek. 18:31, Matt. 22:3, John 5:40 and Is. 55:6-7.
IV. There are three different
types of election granted by all. They are:
A. There is an election
of groups or bodies of people or nations for a specific, God-given historic
purpose. Abraham’s descendants through Isaac and Jacob were to become
Israel and to produce the prophets and later Christ and then the founders
of the church. This election does not guarantee salvation to individuals
within the group. Israel was the people of God in this national sense
when they were vile sinners personally. Ex. 4:1, 23 and II Chron.
7:14. They were only God’s people in a national sense with regard
to His national purpose.
B. The election of certain
persons to perform some specific kind of service in a special way – Saul
to be first king of Israel. David to succeed him. Cyrus to perform
a special service in a special way. Such election or elections did
not affect their spiritual standing at the moment. Saul was set aside
because he ceased to be a God-fearing man. Cyrus’ election did not
call for personal salvation at all.
C. The election of individuals
to be regenerated believers. This election takes place after the
penitent has voluntarily met all conditions for that experience.
They are not elected, being unsaved and unsanctified, but are elected being
saved and being sanctified. “Elect through the sanctification of
the spirit.” I Peter 1:2. That is by means of regeneration
and entire sanctification, they were elected to the glories of heaven.
1. In II Thes. 2:13-14 the
elect ones are said to have been chosen from the very beginning, that is
from the first reception of the gospel in Thessalonica “through sanctification
of the spirit and belief of the truth.” That is by the act of sanctification
they were pre-destined to eternal glory.
2. They were to give diligence
to make their calling and election sure and as a result make sure their
pre-destined state of glory. II Peter 1:10.
3. In Romans 9:13 we have
this “Jacob have I loved, but Esau have I hated.” It is Jacob’s descendents
and Esau’s descendents who are spoken of by God. God chose Jacob’s descendents
to fulfill his divine purpose. This election had nothing to do with
4. Pharaoh, king of Egypt
rejected ten solemn warnings and went on in his heart rebellion.
Elicott says that Pharaoh’s heart is in the nominative case and is the
actor, thus, his heart hardened itself; this is in harmony with the entire
Bible. (The term ‘hate’ means to hold in less favor or to give a
secondary place) Matt. 10:37, Luke 14:26. The Bible itself
says that Pharaoh hardened his heart. Exodus 8:15, 32, 9:34, 10:20.
V. The possibility of final
apostasy. Calvinism says there is none. Armenianism holds that
there are people who are people now regenerated or even sanctified wholly
who may fall and remain fallen. This is presented by the following
A. Cited cases of people
who have fallen away.
1. Satan and other fallen
angels. For them, there is no hope. Job 4:18, II Peter 2:4,
and Jude v. 6.
2. Adam and Eve fell to
the extent that blood had to be shed to redeem them as well as their posterity.
A substitute had to bear the penalty for them. Gen. 1;27, 31, Gen.
3:6-10, Ecles. 7:29 and Gen. 3;15, 21
3. The Jews were right with
God when they left Egypt and yet backslid and fell into sin and the vast
majority of them perished in the wilderness. I Cor. 10:1-12, Heb.
3:17-19, and Jude v. 5..
4. Saul, first king of Israel
was changed in heart, yet he lost out and we have no record that he ever
got back. Under the circumstances, it is impossible to believe he
ever got back. I Sam. 10:9-10, I Sam. 15:23-24 and I Sam. 16:14.
5. Judas fell by transgression.
Ps. 41:9, John 13:18, Matt. 26:24-25, John 17:12 and Acts 1:25.
6. Demas once ranked high
in the apostolic church. Paul placed him under inspiration with the
spiritually great of all time, but he forsook all having loved this present
world. Col. 4:14, II Tim. 4:10. It is however, up to a certain
point, possible to get back. David did get back in the Old Testament
and Peter did get back in the New Testament. Saul did not get back
in the Old Testament and Judas did not get back in the New Testament.
B. Solemn warnings are given
against possible apostasy from God with the fearful consequences.
This would be unnecessary if it were not possible. Ezek. 18:24-26,
Matt. 5:13, John 15:2-6, Rom. 11:19-22, Heb. 10:38, Rev. 3:11 and I Cor.
C. Solemn injunctions are
given in the Bible for final perseverance. This too would be unnecessary
if there were no possibility. Matt. 34:11, 26:41, John 15:4, I Cor.
9:24, I Cor. 10:13, Col. 1:22-23, Heb. 3:14, 4:1, I Peter 5:8-9, II Peter
1:1-11 and Rev. 2:10.
VI. Imputation and Prevenient
A. Imputation does not mean
the transference of Christ’s righteousness to man regardless of man’s heart
state. It refers to legal or governmental regulation of an existing
heart state. Man is made righteous in heart and then that righteousness
is legally recognized in heaven.
B. Prevenient grace is that
grace which goes before preparing the soul for its entrance into the state
of saving and sanctifying grace. That there was and is racial prevenient
grace. Christ died for the ungodly. Rom. 5:6. Thus no
man until he has sinned away his day of grace and perhaps later as long
as he is alive is utterly devoid of the grace of God. One could
say that it was that grace prepared before for the fall of man which God
saw would take place.
(In class Dr. King said
that prevenient grace was the grace that kept Adam and Eve from falling
to a totally depraved state like that to which the devil and his angels
and Redemptive Experiences of Grace
was a progressive revelation of the Father and of the Son, and of the Spirit
up to the coming of Jesus and of Pentecost. This was particularly
true of the Spirit.
A. The Spirit brooded over
the oceans and brought order and beauty from chaos. Gen. 1:2.
The creation of the spirit of man is due to His activity. Job 33:4.
Gen. 2:7. And the Spirit wrestled with wicked man. Gen. 6:3. Is.
63:10. He inspired Holy men to write the Bible. II Peter 1:21.
B. The Spirit was present
at the incarnation of the Son. Luke 1:35.
C. Jesus the Christ was also
anointed with the Holy Spirit without measure. Thus Jesus’ body was the
temple of the Holy Spirit. John 3:34.
D. The Holy Spirit was personally
present at Pentecost and was given in response to the promise of the son.
And at the same time, Jesus was reclothed with glory. John 7:39.
II. Redemptive experiences
in relation to the first work of grace.
A. Repentance means a change
of mind, of heart attitude, of life purpose. Then God changes the
heart. Thus we must repent, and then God grants us heart repentance.
It is repentance toward God.
B. Saving faith naturally
follows repentance. It is the condition and immediate instrument
of salvation. A sinner has a faith in God, but this is faith-appropriated
salvation to ourselves.
C. Conversion in a strict
sense describes the human part of that change called regeneration.
It refers to that change in the thoughts, desires, dispositions and in
the life of a sinner which is brought about when he is made alive spiritually.,
D. Justification or pardon
refers to the acceptance of the repentant sinner by God. The sinner
repents and exercises saving faith and is at the same moment reckoned just
at the bar of justice on high.
E. Regeneration is that work
of the Holy Spirit by which we experience a change of heart. We are
made alive within spiritually.
F. Adoption is that act by
which one takes another into his family, owns him as his child and appoints
him an heir. Theologically – is that act of God’s free will by which
He adopts the repentant sinner into His spiritual family.
G. The witness of the Spirit.
It is a privilege and right of every adopted child of God to have a sure
knowledge of his new relationship to God. The Holy Spirit witnesses
to the human spirit and human spirit has that innate consciousness that
all is well. John Wesley describes witness of the Spirit as:
an inward impression on
the soul whereby the Spirit of God directly witnesses to my spirit that
I am a child of God, that Jesus Christ hath loved me and given himself
for me, and that all my sins are blotted out, and I, even I, am reconciled
to God.” Cullbertson p. 293.
III. Redemptive experiences
in relation to the second work.
A. In regeneration, one is
made alive spiritually. He is saved back to the innocency of childhood
and is cleansed from the pollution relative to his acts of transgression.
John 15:3, 13:10c. Thus he is partially sanctified. He who
has no use for sanctification has no use for regeneration for regeneration
is partial sanctification.
B. All of the religious groups
for the most part, agree that we must be holy in heart or that we must
be entirely sanctified in heart before we can enter into heaven.
They differ as to how and when we get it.
1. The Roman Catholics have
their purgatory after death to cleanse away the remaining pollution.
This doctrine comes from Plato’s Republic – Book 10.
2. Calvinism holds generally
that we get rid of it in the article of death. God looks at us through
Christ while we are on this earth and we appear as holy as is Christ.
3. In the Oberlan theory,
sin consists solely in an act of the will. Thus, carnality is supposedly
taken care of in regeneration. Sanctification consists in consecration
– establishment that prevents any further alienation of the will
4. The Plymouth brethren
hold to the extreme imputation theory of the Calvinists. Sin has
been nailed to the cross of Christ and as such done away, past, present
and future. Men are no longer responsible for their acts of sin.
Holiness and righteousness are imputed, but never imparted. One’s
standing in Christ is not impaired by his personal heart state.
5. The Keswick movement
was founded in 1874 for the promotion of ethical holiness with the denial
of heart holiness. The baptism with the Spirit was for service only.
The carnal nature must be suppressed until death. Their standing
in Christ differed from their heart state.
6. The Moravians directed
by Count Zinzendorff held that entire sanctification takes place at the
moment of regeneration, as one work or grace. On this issue John
Wesley broke with them.
C. Armenianism and Wesleyanism
hold that by means of a second definite work of grace as definite and as
instantaneous as the first work, the old carnal nature may be removed totally
from the soul. Two perfect halves make a perfect whole. The
first is partial sanctification. The second is entire sanctification.
The time element between the two works is determined by the person himself.
The first calls for surrender in faith. The second for a total consecration
of the whole man and the new life received in consecration.
1. The First Cause of our
entire sanctification is the Holy Father “to them that are sanctified by
God the Father.” And preserved in Jesus Christ. Jude v. 1.
2. The Procuring Cause is
the Holy Son. “Husbands love your wives, even as Christ loved the
church and gave himself for it that He might sanctify and cleanse it.”
3. The Efficient Cause is
the Holy Spirit. “Elect according to the foreknowledge of God, the
Father through sanctification of the Spirit.” I Peter 1:2.
4. The Determining Cause
is the Divine will. “By the which will we are sanctified through
the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all.” Heb. 10:10.
5. The Meritorious cause
is the sacrifice of Jesus. “Wherefore Jesus also that He might sanctify
the people with His own blood suffered without the gate.” Heb. 13:12.
6. The Instrumental Cause
is the truth of God. “Sanctify them through thy truth. Thy
Word is truth.” John 17:17.
7. The Conditional Cause
is faith in Christ. “To open their eyes and to turn them from the
power of Satan unto God that they may receive forgiveness of sin and inheritance
among them that are now sanctified by faith that is in me.” Acts
D. The determining differences
between the two works of grace.
1. In the first work we
are regenerated in heart, reformed in life and our names are written in
the redemptive book in heaven. In the second work we are further and completely
cleansed in heart from the old carnal nature. The first is instantaneous,
as is the second.
2. In the first, transgressions
and acts of sin are all forgiven and we are taken out of the sinning business.
“He that is borne of God doth not commit sin.” In the second work,
the root of sin from which acts of sin flow is removed totally.
3. In the first work we
were adopted into family of God and we are given heirship with Christ.
We are thus taken out of the world or out of Egypt. “They are not
of the world even as I am not of the world.” The second work takes
the world or Egypt out of the heart and we are given heart meekness or
fitness for heaven above.
4. The first work is instantaneous.
It is perfect and is complete in its own field. Those who are justified
are fully and completely justified. Justification has no degrees.
Sanctification has degrees. In first work we are partially cleansed.
In second work we are completely cleansed. Each work is perfect and
complete in its own field, but there are two degrees in sanctification.
E. There are only two works
of grace with regard to redemption.
1. In Peter’s first sermon,
he presents two works of grace. With regard to home of Cornelius,
Peter shows two works of grace. Acts 2:38 and Acts 15:8-9.
2. Paul’s commission from
God to the Gentile world was given in two works of grace. Acts 26:18.
IV. Things that entire sanctification
does not do for us in this life.
A. Make us perfect in all
attributes, as God himself is perfect.
B. Give us angelic perfection.
They are bodiless spirits living in a perfect spiritual order.
C. Give us resurrection and
glorified perfection as Moses and Elijah were perfect
when they appeared on the
D. Vest us with Adamic perfection
or the perfection that Adam had in unfallen state.
E. Does not include the cessation
of spiritual warfare. In many respects spiritual warfare is intensified.
F. Does not include deliverance
from physical infirmities. Such are neither good nor bad in themselves.
G. It is not deliverance
from wandering thoughts while praying. A perfect heart is one thing
and a perfect mind is quite another. (Heart is the moral quality
of man, is his center, divided for purposes of analysis.)
H. It is not deliverance
from scary, unpleasant or improper dreams. Daniel Steele in Love
and Enthrone pp. 86-88 deals with this matter.
I. It is not a state of constant
ecstasy and joy. This is neither possible nor desirable.
J. It is not the removal
or possibility of further sinning. This is neither implied nor stated.
K. Does not enable us to
serve God perfectly as Adam did before the fall.
L. Is not deliverance from
physical death nor yet deliverance from evils and pain relative to the
approach of death.
V. Various uses of the term
sanctification in the Bible. It has basically a four-fold meaning.
The first is to separate, second is to dedicate, third is to consecrate,
and fourth is to make pure. However, the first three are merely steps
leading up to the fourth (purity) which is the real meaning. Hagios
meaning pure, righteous, holy in Greek. In Latin is sanctus.
Facatio (to make) sanctification. Thus we have our word.
A. The people were sanctified
by their leaders. Ex. 19:2.
B. The people sanctified
themselves. Ex. 11:14.
C. Jesus sanctified himself
to death. John 17:19.
D. An unbelieving husband
or wife was sanctified by a Christian spouse. I Cor. 7:14.
E. The regenerated people
are said to be sanctified initially, but not sanctified wholly. I
Cor. 1:2, 12-13.
F. Then the cleansed in heart
are said to be sanctified wholly. Ex. 31:13, Lev. 20:8, I Thes. 5:23,
Jude v. 1, Heb. 13:12 and Acts 15:8-10.
Thus sanctification refers
to ceremonial cleansing, to separation, dedication, consecration and heart
cleansing by the baptism with the Spirit.
For a good presentation of
a sinning Christianity for preverted presentation of Holiness, see Bercofy,
Louis, Summary of Christian Doctrine, p. 144ff. Patton, Francis.
A Summary of Christianity.
VI. The Old Testament teaches
heart purity and New Testament teaches heart purity by the Baptism of the
A. Man was created holy and
was called back to that heart state. The general standard of purity
is raised for all in Ps. 23:4, Ps. 73:1, 24 tells us where they went.
Same standard was raised Is. 1:18, Ez. 36:25. Examples: Gen.
6:9, 17:1, John 1:8, I Kings 15:14.
B. In the New Testament the
same standard of heart purity is raised. Matt. 5:8, 5:48, Acts 15:8-9,
I Thes. 5:23, 4:3, Heb. 6:1, 12:13, II Cor. 7:1, Phil. 3:15, Mark 12:30,
I Pet. 1:16, James 1:4 and Matt. 3:11-12.
C. The early church fathers
preached both regeneration and entire sanctification. The early church
seemed to lose both about the same time. There were always a few
isolated monks who taught both.
D. Shortly after Luther resurrected
regeneration as a doctrine, heart holiness was also resurrected but in
an unclear manner. Thus the holiness movement began.
VII. Symbols and Aspects
of Entire Sanctification.
A. Symbols of the Holy Spirit.
1. The Dove – Noah released
a dove to guide or direct his actions. Then Jesus at his baptism
was anointed and directed or guided by the Spirit who came upon Him in
the form of a dove. Gen. 8:11 and Matt. 3:16.
2. Rain moistens and soaks
the earth and causes it to bud and bring forth. Rain is a type of
3. Water is used to cleanse
the human body and garments worn by human beings.
4. Wind or air is used by
Jesus while talking to Nicodemus and Jesus declares the air there is a
type of Holy Spirit. John 3:8.
5. The oil was poured on
the priests and on kings and on prophets when they were inducted to office.
Oil is referred to by Jesus in the parable of the Good Samaritan as having
healing and purifying qualities. Oil also lubricates and empowers
and makes things run more smoothly.
6. Fire purifies by removing
the dross. It also warms and illuminates and energizes.
B. Symbols of the Carnal
1. Enmity – In definition
the carnal mind is “Enmity against God” for it is not subject to the law
of God, neither can it be. “So then, they that are in the flesh (in
possession of enmity) cannot please God.” Rom. 8:7a-8.
2. Disease – in the physical
that is destroying the body. The dying state of the physical body
templifies the dying state of the soul caused by enmity against God.
3. Leprosy in Bible times
was the classic type of the principle of sin in the heart.
4. The Root of the evil
tree that shot up a sapling that had to be constantly cut down is a type
of the carnal nature. Matt. 3:10.
5. Ishmael and Hagar in
the home of Abraham constituted a disturbing factor and is a type of the
carnal nature in the soul of the regenerated heart. Gen. 21.
6. Goliath in directing
the enemies of Israel against God’s people is a type of the old carnal
7. Agag in leading the Philistines
against Israel II Sam. 15:20, 33 is a type of carnal nature.
8. Mixed seed was not to
be sown. Deut. 27.
9. Mixed material in clothes
was forbidden. Deut. 22.
10. Could not plow or harrow
with mixed animals. Deut. 22.
11. The dross in gold or
other metals was a type of the carnal nature. Malachi 3:3.
VIII. Types or symbols of
the Two Works of Grace.
A. The Levites and Priests,
two positions in service. Num. 3, Ex. 28:29
B. The Leper, when healed,
underwent two washings and two anointings with a certain time interval
between. Lev. 14.
C. The Holy Place and the
Holy of Holies. Ex. 26:31-33.
D. The two crossings — (1)
of the sea out of Egypt, (2) of the River Jordan into Canaan. Ex. 14 and
E. The slave and the love
slave. Lev. and Deut.
F. The two covenants, (1)
works (2) grace - (1) Moses (2) Christ.
G. The two cleansings of
the temple. John 3:12-14, Luke 19.
H. The two rests (1) Matt.
11:28-30 (2) Heb. 5:6.
I. The treasure and the pearl.
J. The resurrection of Lazarus
(1) Lazarus alive (2) Lazarus unbound. John 11:43-44.
K. The two touches on eyes.
L. The two baptisms (1) John
with water, (2) by Jesus with Holy Ghost and fire. Matt. 3:11.
IX. The time element between
two works of grace. God presumably could save and sanctify a person
in one work of grace. However, man is a free, moral agent and he
cannot be in two places at once or meet both conditions at once.
Man, himself, therefore necessitates a time element.
A. The length of time is
not set by the Bible, but by man himself. Some have more light, and
some take longer to grasp new truths.
B. The Israelites could have
made the journey from the sea to the Jordan in 11 days. Fear necessitated
two years, then disobedience stretched the two years to 40 years.
Eleven days or two years could represent the time span.
C. The leper was first sprinkled
and then resprinkled 8 days later and declared fully cleansed. Ceremonialism
necessitated this 8-day period.
D. The disciples of Jesus
took from 1-1/2 to 3 years to understand and grasp the truth.
E. In Peter’s thinking after
Pentecost, the time could be very brief. Acts 2:37-39.
F. The Jerusalem church through
that the time could be quite short. Acts 8:5-8; Acts 8:14-17.
G. Ananias thought Paul could
be sanctified at once. Acts 9:17-19.
H. Paul, himself, urged the
Thessalonians to get sanctified inside six months after being saved. I
Thess. 4:3; I Thess. 5:23-24.
I. Paul, at Ephasus, also
urged immediate action. Acts 19:1-7.
J. There is a danger in both
directions, urging action before they are ready or waiting until they have
lost their first love. Jessop, Foundation of Christian Doctrines,
pp. 74-78. J. A. Wood, Perfect Love, pp. 30-33.
X The apostles
were regenerated before Pentecost. Several of them were disciples
of John the Baptist before they met Jesus.
A. Evidences of salvation.
1. They were not of this
world. John 1:2; John 17:14.
2. They were not lost.
3. Their names were written
in Heaven. Luke 10:20.
4. They belonged to God
and to Christ. John 17:9-10.
5. They were empowered to
cast out devils. Luke 10:1 and 20; Luke 9:1.
6. They were ordained and
commissioned by Christ. Mark 3:14-15; Matt. 28:19.
7. They (excepting Judas)
spent 10 days praising and blessing God and waited for the Holy Spirit
to come. Luke 24:53; Acts 1:14.
B. Evidences of need.
1. They were in possession
of a man-fearing spirit “and they all forsook Him and fled.” Mark
2. They were carnally selfish.
Matt. 19:27; Mark 10:28.
3. They were carnally sectarian.
4. They were vindictive
in spirit. Luke 9:15 and 55.
C. Changes after Pentecost.
1. Their hearts were purified
by the Baptism of the Spirit. Acts 15:8, 9; Acts 11:18.
2. Their hearts were indwelt
by the Holy Ghost. John 14:17.
3. Their hearts were filled
with perfect love. I John 4:17.
4. They were possessed of
a oneness of heart. John 17:21.
XI. Holiness as Experienced
and Evidenced and Retained.
A. Holiness as Experienced.
1. We have a conviction
of want or need. We know we are saved, but we have a soul need.
“Blessed are they who hunger and thirst after righteousness for they shall
2. A perfect repentance
or mourning of spirit for being carnal in heart. “Blessed are they
3. We feel that it is important,
so much so, in fact, that we feel it will be spiritual death if we are
not sanctified. “Who shall deliver me from the body of this death.”
4. We believe that the promise
is for us.
a. Jesus prayed for it for
us. John 17:17.
b. Jesus died for it for
us. Eph. 5:15-26; Heb. 13:12.
c. God wills it for us.
I Thess. 4:3.
d. God promises it to us.
I Thess. 5;24.
e. God commands it of us.
I Peter 1:15.
5. There is a hunger and
thirst for it in heart. “Blessed are they who hunger and thirst after
righteousness for they shall be filled.”
6. We must obey God for
He gives “the Holy Spirit to them that obey Him.” Acts 5:23.
7. We must fully consecrate
ourselves to God, — body, soul and spirit – past, present and future.
In short, we must say an eternal “Yes” to all the will of God. Romans
8. We must believe for it.
a. We must believe that
God has promised it to us in the Holy scriptures.
b. We must believe that
what God has promised, He is able to perform.
c. We must believe that
He is able and willing to do it now.
d. We must believe that
He does do it now.
Questions one must ask oneself
and be able to answer “Yes”.
1. Do I clearly realize
my inbred sin and my consequent need of holiness?
2. Am I willing and anxious
and resolved to obtain it?
3. Am I willing to give
up all to God — self, family, property, reputation, time, talents, everything
to be His, to be used for Him, to be intrusted to Him, and to be never
in Hell or taken from Him?
4. Do I believe that He
is able to sanctify me?
5. Do I believe that He
is willing to sanctify me?
6. Do I believe that having
promised, He is able and willing to do it now?
7. Do I then seeing all
this, believe that he now will do it now at this moment?
8. Am I now committing my
all to Him and trusting in Christ; if I am, then it is done.
B. Holiness is evidenced.
1. In Christian holiness
or Christian perfection or evangelical perfection, the carnal nature is
cleansed from, is burned out of, or is eradicated from the soul, heart,
or from the seat and center of the affectionate nature of man.
2. The sanctified believer
is made pure in heart. (Matt. 5:8) and he is cleansed from all unrighteousness
(I John 1:19) and he is without spot or wrinkle or any such thing in heart
(Eph. 5:27) and he is sanctified holy (I Thes. 5:23). He is cleansed
from all filthiness of the flesh and spirit (II Cor. 6:1) and he is perfected
in holiness in the fear of God (II Cor. 7:1).
3. The heart is filled with
perfect love. This perfect love is:
a. perfect in quality
b. perfect in quantity as
it fills the heart
e. casts out fear
f. It enables the soul to
be more conscious of God than it was before.
g. It spurns the carnal
and worldly things and hungers for God and holy things.
4. The Comforter witnesses
within that all is well.
5. Thus, entire sanctification
is evidenced by cleansing, purity, perfect love, and the witness of the
Spirit. As expressed by Job, it’s minimum is this:
a. He was going the direction
that God told Him to go the last time they met.
b. God was pointing to nothing
in his life that was wrong.
c. He had not violated any
standards of conduct.
d. There was no condemnation
on his heart. In short, he had that negative witness of no condemnation.
C. Holiness is retained.
1. We must attend to the
various means of grace, as it is reasonably possible so to do.
2. Our consecration must
be kept complete and lived out actively in life.
3. We must testify in some
manner to the fact that we are children of God and that we are sanctified.
4. We must read the Bible
and pray daily.
5. We must deny ourselves
somehow and be ever watchful of our conduct and expressions.
6. We must cultivate the
presence of God and constantly seek the will of God.
7. Under pressure and temptations,
we must see that no root of bitterness has a chance to spring up in our
8. We must be in the service
of Christ and refuse to surrender faith under any form of temptation short
XII. The Holy Spirit
A. The Holy Spirit or Comforter
is of identical essence with the Father and the Son but is a distinct person.
Thus, as a person, he is a wholly other.
B. In the Old Testament even,
He is distinct as a person from the Father and Son, but is connected with
both in operation. Isaiah 41:16 “And now the Lord God and His Spirit
hath sent me”. He is also referred to as His Spirit. He is
also called “My Spirit” and “The Spirit of God”. In the New Testament
He has stepped out alone. It is His dispensation. “Separate me Barnabas,
and Saul for the work whereunto I have called them”. Acts 13:2-4.
C. He magnified the person
of the Christ, brings His words to men’s minds and He empowers those words.
He convicts the sinner and regenerates the sinner. He convicts the
regenerated and then sanctifies him wholly. He guides and directs
him to Heaven.
D. The 16th chapter of St.
John is the Trinity chapter in the New Testament. The Holy Spirit
there is a distinct person, executing redemption effected by Jesus and
determined by the absolute Father.
XIII. The Witness of the
A. The matter of witness
is vital. There are witnesses to the sinner that he is a sinner.
There are witnesses to the saved and the sanctified. There are witnesses
to those who are on dangerous ground.
B. We here quote Wesley’s
definition of the witness of the Spirit as quoted by William McDonald.
“Question – How then would you define the witness of the Spirit?
Answer – An imminent Wesleyan minister once defined this witness as being
“A satisfactory and joyful persuasion produced by the Holy Ghost in the
mind of a believer that he is now a child of God.”
It is doubtful that anyone
has given a definition of the Spirit clearer than Wesley. “By the
witness of the Spirit I mean an inward impression for the soul whereby
the spirit of God immediately and directly witnesses to my spirit that
I am a child of God. That Jesus Christ hath loved me and given himself
for me and that all my sins are blotted out and I, even I, am reconciled
to God.” Wesley, Vol. I, p. 94.
Speaking of this definition
20 years later, he said: “I see no cause to retract any part of it,
neither do I see how any of these expressions can be altered to make them
The witness of the Spirit
according to this definition is an inward impression or witness to the
soul made by the spirit of God, announcing to me:
1. That I am a child of God.
2. That Jesus Christ hath
loved me and given himself for me.
3. That all my sins are
4. That I am reconciled
We would search in vain for
a clearer, scriptural or satisfactory definition than this.
But can you explain the manner
of the Spirit’s witness? As the scriptures are silent on this point
we cannot explain the operation of the Spirit upon the human heart.
The definition we have given
assumes that it is by the Spirit’s direct and immediate influence exerted
upon the mind, and when we have said this that is all we know.
XIV. Christian ethics and
A. Ethics – to get saved
and get sanctified is one thing – and to live a Christian life, grow in
grace and act correctly is quite another. He who gets sanctified
does not go very far until he sees that sanctification doesn’t settle every
problem in life. It does settle some, but also raises others.
1. We have duties to God.
We owe Him reverence, adoration, worship. The unknown bundle creates
problems as it constantly unfolds, that is cause for cultivation for a
“yes” attitude to God.
2. We have duties to ourselves.
We must be good to ourselves in the sense that we cannot defy our minds
or our consciences or our souls or our spirits. We must love ourselves
as we love others. Our bodies are the temples of the Holy Spirit.
3. We have duties to others.
We are all one in Jesus Christ and we cannot take advantage of this close
union of love and fellowship without hurting ourselves. Our dress,
our places of recreation, speech, etc. must be in harmony with our principles
a. Family life is ordained
of God. Marriage consists of one man and one woman. Death dissolves
the union. Jesus regarded adultery as sufficient cause for divorce.
Matt. 5:32. Protestantism generally interprets St. Paul to teach
that desertion was sufficient cause for divorce. (Desertion as Paul dealt
with it meant adultery) I Cor. 7:15.
b. Children are to be trained
in the fear of God. Together the family is to be a God-fearing unit.
c. The Christian owes duties
to the state. The state is ordained of God to assist man to be what
God intends him to be. Thus, the state should not interfere with
man’s proper and legitimate worship of God. On the other hand, man should
support the state.
B. The Sabbath
It was first instituted
by God in Eden. God rested His seventh day, which was man’s first
day. The Jews were to rest the day after six days of labor, which
was the seventh day. On certain special occasions, they also rested
the eighth day, which was the 50th day. These were days of Holy rejoicing.
Ex. 12:16-17; Ex. 16:22-30. According to Ex. 12 their Sabbath would
fall on different days of the week. There is no mention of the patriarchs
keeping any day. It is supposed they did from the following considerations.
1. The scriptural statement
of the historic fact. Gen. 2:1-3.
2. It is reasonable to suppose
that the historic fact was at once observed.
3. By the division of time
into weeks during the times of the patriarchs Gen. 8:10, 12; Gen. 29:27.
4. There are supposed traces
of the seventh day before the Pentateuch was given. (There are traces
of it afterwards but it is very questionable if there were any traces of
5. By the terms with which
the Sabbath was introduced in Exodus 16 (The terms do not hint that it
was a new ordinance, neither that it was an old one.)
6. By the terms in which
the reason for the ordinance in Ex. 20:11 is assigned.
7. By the terms used in
the fourth commandment. Ex. 20:8-11.
The only really noticeable
thing about those seven reasons for believing that the Sabbath was observed
by man between Eden and Exodus 12 is their painful weakness.
If one reckons from Eden
it is impossible to tell which is the seventh day, as time has been upset
many times. The Hebrews had many Sabbaths and many Holy days and
many new moon days. Pentecost in the Old Testament was a first day,
and was prophetic of the New Testament Pentecost. Pentecost in the
New Testament was on the first day. It was a first day and the birthday
of the Christian church. Jesus arose on the first day and possibly
all of His post-resurrection appearances were on the first day. That first
day is called “Lord’s Day”. Rev. 1:10. The New Testament Christians
kept the first day. Acts. 20:7; I Cor. 16:1-2; Rev. 1:10. Jesus
said that He was Lord of the Sabbath, meaning He would change it.
This, he probably did after His resurrection.
C. The church (ecclesia)
refers to the body of believers in Christ who are also referred to as the
body of Christ with Christ himself as the head.
1. The Church had prophets,
apostles, evangelists, pastors and teachers for the perfecting of the saints.
Eph. 4:12-13. Thus the Church is like a great temple in which He
operates Eph. 2:21-22.
2. The Church was prepared
for by the Old Testament and also by the apostles and then by the descent
of the Holy Spirit. Thus the Church gathers up the old and continues
3. The Church is both militant
and triumphant. It is militant here below and the church triumphant
is in Heaven above. Thus there are two aspects or two halves.
4. In the church (militant)
the Old Testament priesthood is done away as the altar and sacrifices are
done away. Each believer is now his own priest and approaches God
for himself. However, there are bishops, elders, who ministered to
the Church and deacons (officers under the bishops) who cared for members
of groups within the Church.
D. The Organization of the
1. The Church had definite
meeting times. Acts. 20:7
2. A recognized ministry.
Phil. 1:1; Acts 20:17, 28
3. They had a formal system
of elections. Acts 1:23-26
4. They had financial support
for the ministry. I Cor. 16:1-2
5. Discipline for Church
members and ministers. I Tim. 5:15; I Peter 5:2; Matt. 18:17; I Cor.
5:4, 5, 13
6. A system of customs and
ordinances. I Cor. 11:16; Acts 2:41-42; I Cor. 11:23-26
7. Qualification for membership
in the church. Matt. 28:19; Acts 2:47
8. A list of widows that
they claimed as their responsibility. I Tim. 5:9
9. A system of recommendations.
Acts 18:27; II Cor. 3:1
10. Stated type of common
work with regard to all churches. That common work was “the work
of Christ.” Phil. 2:30
E. Sacraments of the church.
1. Romanism holds to seven.
a. Confirmation (no Biblical
grounds for it)
b. Penance (substituted
c. Orders (ordination -
no sacrament at all)
d. Matrimony (a solemn undertaking
state, but not a sacrament at all)
e. Extreme unction.
f. The Lord’s Supper, or
the Eucharist, or the Mass
2. Protestantism has two,
but not sacraments.
b. Lord’s supper
F. Theories of Baptism.
By baptism is meant the application of water to a person. The word
Bapto or Bapteiso signifies either sprinkling, pouring or immersion.
If it is determined which, the context must do so – the word cannot do
1. There are those who hold
that baptism with water is obsolete as is animal sacrifices; having been
fulfilled by Christ. “Suffer it to be so now for thus it becometh
us to fulfill all righteousness.” Matt. 3:50. They also refer
to that classic statement, “He must increase, but I must decrease.”
John 3:30. That is both John and his baptism was on the way out,
and Jesus and His baptism was on the way in. Furthermore, John’s
baptism was in the Old Testament and the Old Testament was on its way out.
Jesus was to take over and the New Testament was to take over and Jesus’
baptism was to take over.
Peter and the Judaizers did
appear to continue baptism as a right or an ordinance, but Paul and the
Gentiles appeared to hold it very lightly. Paul baptized a very few.
He said this “For Christ sent me not to baptize but to preach the faith.”
“One faith, one Lord, one Baptism” Eph. 4:5. This baptism cannot
refer to water unchallenged. It must refer to the baptism with the
spirit. See I Cor. 1:14, 15 and 17.
2. There are those that
hold that immersion is the only form of water baptism taught in the Bible.
Such generally hold that:
a. Only immersion is baptism
b. Only immersion is Christian
c. Only adults may receive
d. Baptism is a type of
the death and resurrection of Christ.
e. Baptism of infants is
a modern innovation.
A. M. Hills, p. 516 says
four of those are scripturally wrong and one is historically wrong.
1. Within this group, there
are those who hold that one immersion face up in the name of the Father,
Son and Spirit is correct. Some hold three immersions in this group.
Also some hold three immersions in rapid succession, face down.
2. In strictly immersion
churches generally there is a laxity with regard to preaching regeneration
and entire sanctification. They regard immersion as conversion.
Some hold it more important than conversion. Immersion is almost
universally the tongue’s evidences churches mode of baptism and substituted
3. There are those who hold
to sprinkling or pouring, which is really one and the same method.
Such generally hold that baptism is a sign to the world of regeneration
and a seal with regard to children.
a. In the Old Testament
circumcision was a sign of their right to the privileges of redemption.
Any family who refused to circumcise their children was cut off from rights
of redemption. In the New Testament baptism took place of circumcision.
b. Sprinkling or pouring
was used much in the Old Testament. Num. 8:7; Num. 19:13; Isaiah
52:15; Ezekiel 36:25 This pouring or sprinkling was a type of the
outpouring spirit of Pentecost. Baptism in the New Testament was
given as a type of the outpouring of the spirit.
c. Paul says that the Israelites
were baptized unto Moses in the cloud and the sea. They were sprayed
by the wind crossing the dry ocean bed. They were under the cloud but not
in it at all. I Cor. 10:2.
d. The word baptism is used
when no water is involved at all. Jesus said, “I have a baptism to
be baptized with and how am I strengthened until it be accomplished.”
John 17:19 This was after his baptism with water and referred to
a complete consecration to the will of God with regard to the Cross.
Paul uses baptism meaning a complete consecration. Col. 2:11, 12;
Gal. 3:27; I Cor. 10:2; Rom. 6:2
Death to sin is to be a permanent
state and buried with Christ is to be a permanent state also. Thus
sprinkling and pouring refer directly to Pentecost and Baptism with the
Spirit. Immersion can never therefore be fully at home in a strictly
holiness movement. As Nazarenes, we are strictly sprinklers in theology
and according to our manual we grant any form the recipient desires.
Chapter VIII – Eschatology (Last Things)
I. The Second Coming
A. At the end of the church
age Jesus Christ shall actually appear in the clouds of Heaven to catch
away His waiting bride. (The holy people are thus to be raptured.
Acts. 1:10-11; I Thes. 4:16-17; I Thes. 5:23).
1. The Man of Sin (the Anti-Christ)
will then appear who will rule the world for a period of seven years.
II Thes. 2:3; Dan. 12:2, 7:25b, 12:7, Rev. 12:14).
2. The Battle of Armageddon
takes place at the close of the tribulation period. It is the Anti-Christ
world against the Jews who returned to Palestine during the first half
of the tribulation period. Dan. 9:27; Is. 28:15, 18; John 5:43; Dan.
3. Two-thirds of all (Jew
and Gentile) shall be slain during the tribulation period. Zeh. 13:8,
B. At the termination of
the Battle of Armageddon Christ actually sets His feet on earth again.
This is His Second Coming proper. Is. 53:3-5 All nations (living
peoples) are gathered before Him to judgment. Matt. 25:31-46.
The good are set to one side and the evil are cast away. The good
form a nucleus of the millennial population on earth.
C. The Millennial consists
of 1,000 years during which time Christ reigns on earth and rules all nations
with a rod of iron.
1. Israel shall then be
God’s witnessing body. Is. 60:1-3.
2. Israel (nation) shall
be restored to temporal and spiritual favor. Joel 2:19ff; Is. 53:1
3. The earth shall be filled
with the knowledge of the Lord as the waters cover the sea. Heb.
2:14; Is. 11:9
4. Wars shall cease.
Is. 2:4; Micah 4:3-4; Hosea 2:18
5. The Lord shall reign
personally at and from Jerusalem. Micah 4:7; Is. 24:23; Zeh. 8:2,3;
Is. 66:23; Ps. 2:6
At the close of 1,000 years,
Satan is to be loosed from his prison and shall go out and gather all the
heart rebels against God to himself. Then he shall encompass the
Holy City. God shall then pour out fire and brimstone from heaven
upon them and defeat them. This is to be the last organized act of
rebellion against God.
D. We then have the last
1. At the first judgment
not a dead person is resurrected. Matt. 25:32 At the last judgment,
all the dead are resurrected. Rev. 20:11-12a.
2. At the first judgment,
not a book is opened. At the last judgment, all the books are opened.
Rev. 20:1ab; Matt. 25:31-36
3. At the first judgment,
all were surprised at the results of judgment. Matt. 25:27b-44b.
At the last judgment there were no surprises.
4. At the first judgment
the saved pass into the “kingdom prepared for them: (millennial) and the
unsaved pass on to the dead. At the last judgment the saved pass
into Heaven – the lost into the Lake of Fire – Matt. 25:34; Rev. 20;15
5. At the first judgment,
the throne is a throne of glory upon which the Savior sits. At the
second judgment, the throne is a great white throne upon which the judge
sits. Matt. 25:31; Rev. 20:11
6. At the first judgment
the issue of judgment is how they abused “my brethren,” (Jews or
Israel). At the second judgment, the issue is how they abused Christ.
Then we have eternity proper, as we use the term.
II. Death – Physical death
is the extinction of bodily life. It is the separation of the spirit
from the body. That separation leaves the physical body dead or asleep.
The original cause of physical death is sin. Gen. 3:19; Rom. 5:12.
A. As far as time is concerned
we find but two exceptions to this rule. I Kings 2:11; Heb. 11:5
Jesus statements with regard to the prodigal son verifies this.
B. Spiritual death is also
the separation of the spirit from God. This is called the second
death. This second death is a final and eternal separation.
Physical death is a type of the spiritual one. The putrefying disillusion
of the body is also a type of the moral breakdown that will take place
on the final separation of the soul from God.
III. Intermediate State
A. At death the spirit of
man goes directly to God who made him. Apparently, for some kind
of initial accounting. Ecl. 3:21; Ecl. 7:12. Sometimes soul
and spirit are used interchangeably.
B. The spirits of the
righteous go directly to Abraham’s bosom. (God’s bosom) Also directly
to Paradise (God’s presence). They also go directly to the right hand of
God (Heaven) and also directly to Heaven. These are all synonymous
terms and refer to the same general place. Paradise is a New Testament
word as well as an Old Testament one. The New Testament word occurs
in Luke 23:43; II Cor. 12:2-4. Heaven is a big place. The city
John saw coming down was a big city. The place is the same but the
state within that place is changed. At present the redeemed spirits
are disembodied and all are not as yet in Heaven. That is the only
intermediate state there is.
C. All we have said about
Heaven goes for Hell or the Lake of Fire as well. The spirits of
the lost go directly to Hell at death. There they wait the second
judgment and the second resurrection, after which they shall be cast into
the Lake of Fire. Hell is fire. Luke 16:22-28 and the Lake of Fire
is fire. Rev. 20:10-15. Internally there is no difference.
The Lake of Fire is merely Hell enlarged as Hell is dumped into it.
The only intermediate state there is that the general judgment is not passed
and the general resurrection is not passed and all are not as yet in Hell.
All wicked persons, men and fallen angels and all wickedness will be dumped
into the Lake of Fire. Instead of Hell, it is then called the Lake of Fire.
D. Various words are
used to describe our concept of Hell.
1. Sheol, Hell – originally
refer to the abode of the death, thus it could refer to grave or the abode
of the spirit. The New Testament use is restricted to the abode of
the lost. The setting determines which term is meant. When
referring to either the grave or the abode of the spirit is usually in
the Old Testament.
2. Tartarus – refers
to being cast down into total moral or spiritual darkness. In the
Bible, it is found only in II Peter 2:4. The fallen angels were cast
down to Tartarus and chained in darkness unto the judgment.
3. Gehenne – refers
to the place of punishment. The word is taken over from the valley of Gehenna
where the rubble from Jerusalem was constantly burning. Jesus used
it as a type of hell-fire. Gehenna occurs twelve times in the New
Testament – eleven times by Jesus and once by James. James 3:6.
All are going to the grave, hence Mark 18:9 cannot mean the grave and Mark
9:43 cannot mean the grave. Both are called by Jesus, the Gehenna
4. Lake of Fire – differs
in quantity but not in quality from hell-fire. It differs only with
regard to time as it is called hell before the general judgment and the
Lake of Fire after. Thus, the state within the place changes but
the place does not change.
E. Eternal status of the
1. Punishment is eternal
for the lost.
a. Those who die in their
sins are separated from God forever and are placed in a place of punishment.
They are also fully conscious.
b. This is not contrary to
the goodness nor yet to the love of God. God to be good to and to
love His own must separate sin and sinners from them.
c. An aspect of eternal punishment
is the second death. This is an eternal state and it is not annihilation.
Rev. 21:8; 20:14-15.
d. Jesus associated this
lost estate with weeping and wailing and gnashing of teeth. Matt.
8:12; 22:13; 25:13.
e. This eternal punishment
is what theologians call privative. That is they are deprived of
Heaven. Also positive, they are in torment John 13:42.
f. This punishment is eternal
and is everlasting. The same adjectives are used with regard to both
heaven and hell. Matt. 12:32; Mark 10:30; Luke 18:30 and Matt. 25:31-46.
2. Blessedness is eternal
for the saved.
a. The saved soul enters
Heaven at death and waits there until the resurrection of the body.
Body and soul are then reunited in heaven in everlasting union.
b. Jesus sustained this truth
in John 14:1-2. Stephen sustained it in Acts 7:55. Paul sustained
it also while writing the II Cor. letter at 5:8.
c. The New Jerusalem that
John saw coming from Heaven appears to be the church triumphant.
Hence probably it is the church triumphant.
d. A. M. Hills has the following
closing comments with regard to Heaven.
1. Root and branch of sin
2. Our mental powers will
come into their own.
3. Heaven is moral and spiritual
4. Heaven will be social
5. Heaven has limitless
development and progress.
6. Heaven for the Christian
* * *